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Full text of "History, gazetteer and directory of Norfolk, and the city and county of the city of Norwich : comprising a general survey of the county of Norfolk and the Diocese of Norwich; and separate historical, statistical, & topographical descriptions of all the hundreds, liberties, unions, boroughs, towns ..."

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942.6101 ^* 

W58h 

1267361, 



GENEAl-OGY CO UUECTlOI^ 



Q>e^ 




ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



833 01795 7892 



HTSTOKY. "^ 

GAZETTEER AND DIRECTORY 

AND THE 

CITY AND COUNTY OF THE CITY OF NORWICH; 

COMPKISING 

9 (general ^urbep of tfte Countg of ^orfolfe, 

AND THE DIOCESE OF NORWICH; 

AND SEPABATE 

HISTOEICAL, STATISTICAL, & TOPOGEAPHICAL DESCRIPTIONS 



OF ALL THE 



HUNDEEDS, LIBEETIES, UNIONS, BOKOUGHS, TOWNS, POETS, 
PAEISHES, VILLAGES, HAMLETS, AND MANOES; 

SHEWING 

Their Extent and Population ; Manufactures ; Fisheries ; ]\Iarkets and 
Fairs ; Charities and Public Institutions ; Churches and Chapels ; the 
Nature, Value, Patrons and Incumbents of the Benefices; the Lords of 
THE IVIanors and Owners of the Soil and Tithes ; the Addresses of the 
Inhabitants ; Public Conveyances ; 

%r^% of ilolrilitg m^ #^ttttg ; 

MAGISTRATES AND PUBLIC OP'FICERS : 

AND A great variety OF 

archaeological, architectural, agricultural, biographical, botanical, 
conchological, geological, and ornithological information. 



©tttiJ iBiJttfon. 



BY WILLIAM WHITE. 

(Member of the British Archmological Association ; and of the Archceological Institute 

of Great Britain and Ireland.) 

author of similar works for many other counties. 



PRICE THIRTY SHILLINGS. 

-^ 

SHEFFIELD : 

WILLIAM WHITE, FULWOOD PARSONAGE. 

LONDON : SIMPKIN, MARSHALL AND Co. 

1864. 

[Entered at Stationers' Hall.] 



LEADER AND SONS, PBINTEES, 

INDEPENDENT OFFICE, BANK STEEET, 

SHEFFIELD. 



PREFACE. 



In issuing a new and enlarged edition of the '^History, Gazetteer, and Direc- 
tory of Norfolk," the Author has for the third time to tender his grateful ac- 
knowledgments to many of the literary and official Gentlemen of the county, 
as well as to most of the resident Clergy, for their promptitude in replying to 
his enquiries, and the uniform courtesy with which they have received and in- 
structed his agents. Where the contributors of valuable information are so 
numerous, it may seem invidious to particularize any ; but there are some whose 
names cannot be passed over in silence. In a coimty so celebrated for its farming, 
the Essays on '' Agriculture'' SLud '' Arterial Drainage," hj Clai'e Sewell Bead, 
Esq., of Plumstead House, will be read with great interest; nor will the elabo- 
rate ^^ List of Botanical Productions," so carefully compiled by the Eev. George 
Munford, M.B.S.L., of East Winch, be less acceptable. The Sketch of the 
" Geology of Norfolk," from the able pen of the Eev. John Gunn, M.A., F.G.S., 
of Irstead, and the valuable catalogue of " Shells of the Newer Pleiocene," drawn 
up by S. P. Woodward, Esq., F.G.S., of the British Museum, will be hailed with 
pleasure by scientific readers ; whilst the ^^ List of Birds," furnished by Henry 
Stevenson, Esq., of Norwich, will doubtless be a useful acquisition to naturalists. 
The three articles on the " Sanitary Condition," ^^ Elevations," and "Names of 
Places," contributed by the Eev. Edward Gillett, of Eunham, also afford much 
useful information. The Hst of subscribers contains not only the names of 
His Eoyal Highness the Prince of Wales, the Hon. and Eight Eev. the Lord 
Bishop of Norwich, and nearly all the Nobility, Gentrj^ and Clergy of the 
county ; but also those of a large majority of the Professional Gentlemen, Mer- 
chants, Tradesmen, and Farmers ; to all of whom thanks are due, as without 
theu' support the work could not have been successfully carried out. 

The first edition of the " History, Gazetteer, and Directory of Norfolk," was 
published in 1836, and was so well received, that a second edition was printed 
in 1845, and met with an equal share of patronage. The success which attended 
this and similar pubHcations for other counties, excited the cupidity of certain 
illiterate individuals, who in 1854, under the name of " Francis White and Co.," 
published a pirated and spurious edition of this work, in which most of the in- 
formation was copied verbatim, whilst the form and general arrangement were 
identical. A natural dislike to the entanglements of the law prevented any legal 
proceedings being taken to punish the perpetrators of this literary imposture ; 
and, encouraged by this mistaken leniency, other parties commenced the like 
practices elsewhere, and ultimately compelled the Author, both for his own pro- 
tection and that of the public, to apply to the Court of Chancery for redress. 
An account of the proceedings in the action " White v. Drake," will be found 
on the next page ; and the Author takes this opportunity of expressing his de- 
termination to apply for an Injunction against anyone who infringes the copy- 
right of this or any of his publications ; which, having been compiled with 
great labour and at considerable expense, he will not quietly permit to be pur- 
loined by unprincipled persons for their own emolument. 

As the Author hopes at some future time to re-publish this work in a still 
larger and more complete form, he will be happy to receive from time to time 
any suggestions which may occm* to those who peruse it ; and as every possible 
care has been taken to avoid errors, he trusts that the volume will be found as 
free from inaccm-acies as is compatible with the vast body of information, and 
the great variety of subjects compressed within its pages. 



WILLIAJM WHITE. 



Fulwood Parsonage, 

Sheffield, 1st August, 1864. 



ACTION FOR INFRINGEMENT OF COPYRIGHT. 

From the " Sheffield and Rofherham Independent,'' Aug. 16, 1862. 
WHITE V. DRAI^. 

This ease came on for hearing at the Warwick Assizes, on Wednesday, the 
13th inst., before Lord Chief Justice Erie; Mr. Macaulay, Q.C.,and Mr. Beasley 
appearing for the plaintiff, and Mr. Field, Mr. Wills, and Mr. Stephens for the 
defendant. 

The plaintiff, Mr. William White, of Sheffield, is the well-known publisher of 
county and other directories, rendered extremely popular by the superiority of 
their topographical and historical contents ; and he has, during the last 45 years, 
brought out Directories of Yorkshire, Durham, Northumberland, Cumberland, 
Westmoreland, Staffordshire, Lincolnshire, Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, Leicester- 
shire, Rutlandshire, and many other counties. The defendant had been en- 
gaged collecting information and obtaining orders for plaintiff for four years, but 
had left Mr. White's employ in December, 1860. At that time, Mr. White was 
preparing to publish a second edition of his Leicestershire Directory of 1846, 
with certain emendations and alterations. Defendant was aware of the intended 
publication, and in the meantime proceeded into Leicestershire, and issued a 
prospectus of a similar directory, on which prospectus the words " Deake and 
Co." were printed, in large tyise, "formerly with" in very small iy^Q, and 
" William White" in letters of the same size as those in defendant's name. 
Defendant published his directory in January, 1861, and in the same month 
plaintiff appHed to the Com-t of Chancery for an injunction to restrain its pub- 
lication. It was contended that defendant's directory was copied from the 
plaintiff's, which had been duly registered under the Copyright Act. Many of 
the paragraphs in the work were almost copied verbatim. Vice-Chancellor 
Stuart, having considered the affidavits on both sides, ordered the cause to be 
tried in a coui-t where witnesses could be examined. From the opening of 
the pleadings, it appeared that John Kershaw, of Leeds, was a defendant in the 
cause, as printer of defendant's directory. The first count of the declaration 
stated that plaintiff was and is the proprietor of the "Historical Gazetteer of 
Leicestershire and Eutland ;" and the breach was that defendant, without con- 
sent in writing, printed divers copies of it ; the second count reciting that de- 
fendant, without consent of plaintiff, disposed of the same. Mr. Macaulay gave 
an outline of the case, and mentioned that the plan of the plaintiff's work was 
to give compilations of the ecclesiastical history of the places in reference to 
which directories were published, together -^dth topogi-aphical descriptions, lists 
of names, streets, &c., and special particulars of the local charities ; and as an 
instance of the way in which Mr. White's work had been copied by defendant, 
he would mention that the whole of the matter as to the local charities pub- 
lished in 1846, had been pirated by Drake, although the state of those charities 
had become entirely changed. In this way, also, names of streets, which were 
quite erroneous, had been imported into the piracy. (Mr. Macaulay compared 
the two directories, and called attention to various instances in which either the 

arrangement or the text of plaintiff's work had been copied) Mr. Field said 

Mr. Macaulay was relying on the scheme and plan of his work being copied, 
but he should show that the plan and scheme of a directory were no copyright, 
for the whole plan and arrangement of a gazetteer was very old. The essence 
of a directory, he submitted, was the names and addresses of persons in any 
particular city, town, or village, and these parts of Drake's directory were sub- 
stantially new .... His Lordship remarked that all errors copied in defendant's 
work must be put down to the debit side of Drake's account .... Mr. Macaulay pro- 
ceeded to point out numerous instances of undoubted pu-acy. He then called 
Mr. William White, Jun., who explained the manner in which the information 
for the directory was obtained. Information was collected from various stand- 
ard authorities and parliamentary documents. This information was placed in 
the hands of agents, who visited every part of the county to test its accm-acy 
and obtain new information. The alphabetical arrangement of the hundreds 
was peculiar to Wliite's directory. — At this stage of the case Mr. Field admitted 
that the debit side of defendant's account, as the learned Judge called it, had 
become too heavy for for him, and agreed, without going into further evidence, 
to a Verdict for the Plaintiff ; and undertook to consent to an Injunction in the 
Court of Chancery. 



INDEX OF PLACES. 



Aele, 443 
Alburgh, 522 
Alby, 662 
Aldborough, 639 
Aldeby, 446 
Alderford, 690 
Althorpe, 972 
Alpington, 481 
Alvington, 675 
Amner, 774 
Antingham, 639 
Appleton, 774 
Armingball, 496 
Ashby, 481 
Asbby-cmn-Oby, 420 
AshiU, 898 
Asbmanhaugh, 614 
Asbvrelltborpe, 554 
Ashwicken, 774 
Aslacton, 555 
Attleborough, 886 
Attlebridge, 599 
Austin Bridge, 624 
Aylmerton, 640 
Aylsbam, 662 
Babingley, 775 
Baeonstborpe, 667 
Bacton, 614 
Bagtborpe, 972 
Bale, 1038 
Banham, 876 
Banningbam, 668 
Barford, 571 
Banner, 972 
Barney, 1016 
Barnliam Broom, 571 
Barningbam (Little), 669 
Bamingbam Nortbwood, 

640 
Barningbam Town, 640 
Barret-Kingstead, 1002 
Barrow, 947 
Barsbam (East), 972 
Barsbam (Nortb), 973 
Barsbam (West), 973 
Barton-Bendisb, 825 
Barton-Turf, 615 
Barwick-in-Brakes, 991 
Bastwick, 425 
Bawburgb, 572 
Bawdeswell, 691 
Bawsey, 775 
Bayfield, 1038 
Beaupre Hall, 839 
Beck HaU, 692 
Beck Hytb, 653 " 
Beckbam (East), 641 



Beckbam (West), 669 
Bedingbam, 482 
Beecbamwell, 826 
Beeston St. Andi-ew, 599 
Beeston St. Lawi-ence,616 
Beeston - next - Mileham, 

952 
Beeston Eegis, 641 
Beetley, 953 
Beigbton, 444 
Belaugb, 669 
Bellemont House, 791 
Bengate, 635 
Bergh Apton, 469 
Bemey, 1016 
Berney-Arms, 448 
Ben-y-HaU, 615 
Bessingbam, 641 
Bestborpe, 889 
Bexwell, 827 
Biekerston, 572 
Billingford near Diss, 522 
Billingford, 691 
BiUockby, 421 
Bilney (East), 953 
Bilney (West), 775 
Binbam, 1017 
Bintree, 692 
Bircbam (Great), 991 
Bircbam Newton, 992 
Bii-cbam Tofts, 992 
Bittering Magna, 954 
Bittering Parva, 954 
Bixley, 497 

Blackborougb End, 793 
Blakeney, 1038 
BlicMing, 670 
Blofield, 454 
Blofield Hundred, 453 
Blo-Norton, 877 
Blue Bell Common, 628 
Bodbam, 1039 
Bodney, 910 
Booton, 672 
Bougbton, 827 
Bowtborpe, 573 
Boyland HaU, 562 
Bracon-Asb, 510 
Bracondale, 243 
Bradenbam (East), 910 
Bradenliam (West), 911 
Bradestone, 455 
Bradfield, 617 
Bramerton, 497 
Brampton, 672 
Braneaster, 992 
Brandiston, 692 



Brandon Creek, 837 
Brandon Parva, 573 
BrantbiU, 1024 
Breckles, 899 
Bressingbam, 536 
Brettenham, 889 
Bridge-gate, 635 
Bridgbam, 889 
Brimstone Hill, 847 
Briningbam, 1040 
Brinton, 1040 
Brisley, 954 
Briston, 1041 
Brockdisb, 523 
Brockley, 635 
Brombolm Priory, 615 
Brooke, 467 
Broome, 483 
Broombill, 864 
Broomstborpe, 973 
Brotbercross Hundred, 

1008 
Brumstead, 429 
Brundall, 455 
Buckenbam Ferry, 456 
Buckenham (New), 890 
Buckenbam (Old), 891 
Buckenham-Tofts, 855 
BunweU, 556 
Burgb-Apton, 469 
Burgb-next- Aylsbam, 672 
Bui'gb St. Margaret and 

St. Maiy, 421 
Burgh Parva, 1041 
Burgli St. Peter, 470 
Buriingbam (Nortb), 456 
Burlingbam (Soutb), 457 
Bmnliam Deepdale, 1008 
Bui-nham Market, 1012 
Burnbam Norton, 1009 
Bumbam Overy, 1009 
Bumliam Tboi-pe, 1010 
Burnbam Ulpb, 1011 
Burnbam Sutton, 1011 
Bumbam Westgate, 1012 
Bm-ston, 536 
Bustard's Green, 559 
Buxton, 673 
Bylaugb, 693 
Caister-next-Norwicb,498 
Caister - next - Yarmouth, 

412 
Caldecot, 912 
Caltofts, 530 
Calthorpe, 674 
CalveUy HaU, 945 
Cantley, 457 



6 



INDEX OP PLACES. 



Carbrooke, 899 
Carleton St. Peter, 483 
Carleton-Forelioe, 574 
Carleton-Eode, 557 
Carlton (East), 510 
Carrow, 243 
Castle-Acre, 776 
Castle-Eising, 779 
Caston, 900 
Catfield, 429 
Catton, 599 
Cavick House, 589 
Cawston, 674 
Cess, 423 
Chedgrave, 483 
Choseley, 994 
Clackclose Hundred, 824 
Clavering Hundred, 465 
Claxton, 484 
Clenchwarton, 806 
Cley-next-the-Sea, 1042 
Clippesby, 422 
Clipstone House, 979 
Cockley-Cley, 912 
Cockthorpe, 1019 
Colby, 676 
Colne House, 643 
Colkirk, 955 
Colney, 511 
Coltishall, 676 
Colton, 574 
Colveston, 855 
Congliam, 783 

Corpusty, 677 

Costessey, 575 

Coston, 577 

Coxford Priory, 984 

Crabgate, 708 

Crabbouse Nunnery, 823 

Crabbe's Castle, 1036 

Cranwicb, 855 

Cranwortli, 932 

Creake (North, 1013 

Creake (South), 1014 

Cressingham (Great), 913 

Cressingham (Little), 913 

Crimplesham, 827 

Cringleford, 511 

Cromer, 642 

Cross Keys' Wash, 803 

Crostwick, 601 

Crostwight, 617 

Crownthorpe, 577 

Croxton near Thetford, 
856 

Croxton, 978 

Denton, 524 

Denver, 828 

Deopham, 578 

Depwade Hundred, 553 

Dereham (East), 933 

Dereham (West), 829 

Dersingham, 783 



Dickleburgh, 537 

Didlington, 914 

Dighton, 599 

Dilham, 618 

Dillington, 934 

Diss, 538 ; Hundred, 535 

Ditchingham, 484 

Docking, 994 

Doughton, 974 

Downham Hamlet, 589 

Downham Market, 830 

Downham Union, 825 

Drabblegate, 663 

Drayton, 601 

Dudwick House, 673 

Dumpling Green, 934 

Dmiham (Great), 955 

Dunham (Little), 956 

Dunkirk, 663 

Dunston, 512 

Dunton and Doughton, 
974 

Eade's Mill, 707 

Earlham, 216, 242, 328 

Earsham, 525 

Earsham Hundred, 521 

Easthaugh, 699 

Eastgate, 674 

Eastmore, 825 

Easton, 579 

Eaton, 216, 242, 328 

Eau-Brink-Cut, 803 

Eccles-by-the-Sea, 430 

Eccles near Harling, 892 

Edgefield, 1043 

Edingthorpe, 618 

Egmere, 1019 

EUingham near Bungay, 
470 

EUingham (Great), 893 

EUingham (Little), 901 

Elmham (North, 957 

Elmundale, 681 

Elsing, 693 

Emneth, 806 

Erpingham, 678 

Erpingham (North) Hun- 
dred, 637 

Erpingham (South) Hun- 
dred, 661 

Etling Green, 934 

Eynesford Hmidred, 690 

Fair Green, 793 

Faith's (Saint), 605 

Fakenham, 974 

Felbrigg, 646 

Felmingham, 618 

Felthorpe, 602 

FeltweU, 856 

Fen-end, 812, 814 

Fersfield, 546 

Field DaUiug, 1019 

Filby, 414 



Fincham, 835 

Fishley, 445 

Flegg (East and West), 

411 
Flitcham - cum-Appleton, 

784 
Flordon, 512 
Fodderston, 842 
Foldholme, 445 
Fordham, 836 
Forehoe Hundred, 570 
Forncett St. Mary, 558 
Forncett St. Peter, 558 
Foulden, 914 
Foulsham, 694 
Foxley, 696 

Framingham Earl, 500 
Framingham Pigot, 500 
Fransham (Great), 959 
Fransham (Little), 959 
Freebridge Lynn, 772 
Freebridge Marshland, 

802 
Freethorpe, 458 
Frenze, 547 
Frettenham, 603 
Fring, 996 
Fritton, 559 
Fulmodeston, 978 
FundenhaU, 560 

Gallow Hundred, 971 

Garboldisham, 878 

Garvestone, 941 

Gasthorpe, 879 

Gateley, 959 

Gatesend, 989 

Gayton, 785 

Gayton Thorpe, 786 

Gawdy HaU, 529 

Gay^vood, 786 

Geldeston, 471 

Gillingham, 472 

Gimingham, 647 

Gissing, 548 

Glandford, 1044 

Godwick, 968 

Gooderstone 915 

Gorleston, 365 

Gowthorpe, 520 

Greenhoe (North), 1015 

Greenhoe (South), 910 

Gresham, 647 

Gressenhall, 960 

Grimshoe Hundi'ed, 854 

Grimston, 787 

Gristou, 902 

Guestwick, 696 

Guiltcross Hundi'ed, 875 

Guist, 697 

Gunshaw, 526 

Gunthorpe, 1044 

Gunton, 648 

Guton, 692 



INDEX OF PLACES. 



Hackford near Hingliam, 

579 
Hackford inEeepham,701 
Haddiscoe, 473 
Haggard Street, 607 
Hainford, 604 
Hales, 474 
Halvergate, 446 
Hamond Lodge, 810 
Hanwoi-th, 649 
Happing Hundred, 428 
Happisburgh, 431 
Hapten, 560 
Hardingham, 941 
Hardley, 486 
Hardwick, 561 
Hargham, 893 
Harleston, 529 
Harling (East), 879 
Harling (West), 880 
Hai-pley, 789 
Hassingham, 458 
Hautboys (Great), 678 
Hautboys (Little), 679 
Haveringland, 697 
Haynford, 604 
Heacham, 996 
Heckingbam, 475 
Hedeniiam, 486 
Heigham, 217, 242, 328 
HeUesden, 217, 243, 328, 

604 
Hellington, 487 
Helboughton, 979 
Hemblington, 446 
HempnaU, 561 
Hempstead, 432, 1044 
Hempton, 979 
Hemsby, 422 
Henstead Hundred, 495 
Herringby, 419 
Hetbel, 513 
Hethersett, 513 
Hevingham, 679 
Heydon, 680 
Heywood, 538 
Hickling, 432 
Higbgate, 786 
Higb green, 537 
Hilborougb, 916 
Hilgay, 836 
Hillington, 790 
Hindolveston, 698 
Hindringbam, 1020 
Hingbam, 580 
Hockeringbam, 942 
Hockbam, 893 
Hockwold, 858 
Hoe or Hoo, 961 
Holkbam, 1020 
Holm St. Bennet's, 620 
Holme-Hale, 916 
nolme-next-Burictou, 8^8 



Holme-next-Sea, 997 
Holt, 1045 

Holt Hundred, 1037 
Holverstone, 501 
Honing, 619 
Honingbam, 583 
Horning, 620 
Homingtoft, 961 
Horsey-next-Sea, 433 
Horsford, 605 
Horsbam St. Faith, 605 
Horstead, 607 
Houghton, (New), 980 
Houghton-in-Dale, 1025 
Houghton-on-Hill, 917 
Holverstone, 501 
Hoveton St. John, 621 
Hoveton St. Peter, 621 
Howe, 475 

Humbleyard Hund. 509 
Hunstanton, 998 
Hun worth, 1049 
Ickburgh, 859 
Illington, 894 
Ligham, 434 
Ingoldisthorpe, 1001 
Ingworth, 681 
Litwood, 515 
Lrmingland, 681 
Irstead, 622 
Islington, 807 
Itteringham, 681 
Kelling, 1049 
Kempstone, 961 
Kenninghall, 881 
Kenningham, 518 
Kerdiston, 700 
Keswick, 515 
Ketteringbam, 515 
Kettlestone, 982 
Kilverstone, 895 
Kimberley, 584 
Kirby Bedon, 501 
Kirby Cane, 475 
Kirstead, 488 
Knapton, 649 
Lakenham, 243 
Lakesend, 847 
Lammas, 682 
Langford, 917 
Langhale, 488 
Langbam, 1049 
Langley, 488 
Langmere, 537 
Larling, 895 

Launditch Hundred, 961 
Leicester Square, 1014 
Lenwade and Bridge, 706 
Lessingham, 435 
Letheringsett, 1050 
Letton, 942 
Lexham (East), 961 
Lexham (West), 962 



Leziate, 791 
Limpenhoe, 459 
Lingwood, 459 
Litcbam, 962 
Loddon, 489 
Loddon Hundred, 481 
Loddon Union, 466 
London (Little), 811 
Longham, 963 
Long Stratton, 564 
Lopham (Noi-tb), 882 
Lopbam (South), 883 
Lovell's HaU, 810 
Ludham, 436 
Lynford, 859 
Lyng, 699 
Lyngate, 635 
Lynn (King's), 709 
Lynn (North), 808 
Lynn (South), 711 
Lynn (West), 808 
Mannington, 682 
Marham, 838 
Market Dereham, 933 
Marlingford, 585 
Marsham, 682 
Marshland, 802 
Martham, 423 
Massingham (Great), 791 
Massingham (Little), 793 
Matlask, 650 
Mattishall, 943 
Mattishall Burgh, 944 
Mattishall Heath, 518 
Mautby, 415 

Meeting House HUl, 635 
Melton Constable, 1050 
Melton (Great), 517 
Melton (Little), 517 
Mendham, 526 
Merkshall, 518 
Merton, 902 
Methwold, 860 
Metton, 650 
Middleton, 793 
Milebam, 964 
Mintlyn, 795 
Mitford Hundred, 931 
Morley St. Botolph, 585 
Morley St. Peter, 585 
Momingthorpe, 562 
Morston, 1052 
Morton-on-Hill, 699 
Moulton-near-Acle, 447 
Moulton-near-Diss, 563 
Mount Ameha, 1001 
Mount Ida, 972 
Mousehold Heath, 462 
Muckleton, 1011 
Mulbai-ton, 518 
Mundesley, 650 
Mundford, 861 
Mundham, 492 



8 



INDEX OF PLACES. 



Narborough, 917 
Narford, 918 
Nayland, 521 
Neatishead, 622 
Necton, 919 
Needham, 526 
Newton-by-Castleacre 920 
Newton St. Faith, 605 
Newton Flotman, 519 
Newton (West), 795 
Northall Greeu, 934 
North Delph, 848 
Northrepps, 652 
Northwold, 862 
North Walsham, 627 
Norton Subcourse, 476 
Norwich, 139 
Notley, 794 
Oby and Ashby, 420 
Orange Farm, 811 
Ormesby (Great), 415 
Ormesby (Little), 417 
Osmondiston, 549 
Oulton, 684 
OutweU, 839 
Overstrand, 653 
Ovington, 903 
Oxborough, 920 
Oxnead, 684 
Oxwick-cum-Pattesley, 

965 
Palgrave, 923 
PalHng, 437 
Panxworth, 447 
Paston, 623 
Pattesley, 965 
Pedam, 447 
Pensthorpe, 982 
Pentney, 795 
Peterstone, 1010 
Pickenham (North), 922 
Pickenham (South), 923 
Pinkney Hall, 989 
Pimhow, 485 
Plumstead, 653 
Plumstead (Great), 460 
Plumstead (Little), 460 
Pockthorpe, 243 
Poringlaud (Great), 502 
Poringland (Little), 503 
Postwick, 461 
Pott Row, 788 
Potter Heigham, 438 
Puddmg Norton, 982 
Pulham Virgin, 527 
Pulham Magdalen, 528 
Pyrleston, 522 
Quarks, 1025 
Quebec House, 935 
Quiddenham, 884 
Bacldieath, 607 
Rainham (East), 982 
Rftiuham (South), 983 



Rainham (West), 984 
Rainthorpe Hall, 512 
Ranworth, 447 
Raveningham, 477 
Raynham Hall, 983 
Redenhall-with-Harles- 

ton, 529 
Reedham, 448 
Reepham, 700 
Reffly Spring, 787 
Repps-Cuni-Bastwick,425 
Repps (North), 652 
Repps (South), 657 
Reymer stone, 944 
Riddlesworth, 884 
Ridlington, 624 
Ringland, 703 
Ringstead (Great), 1002 
Ringstead (Parva), 1002 
Rippon Hall, 679 
Rise Green, 566 
Rockland All Saints and 

St. Andi-ew, 895 
Rockland St. Mary, 503 
Rockland St. Peter, 903 
Rokeles, 907 
Rollesby, 425 
Roudham, 896 
Rougham, 965 
Roughton, 654 
Roxham, 841 
Roydon near Diss, 548 
Roydon near Lynn, 796 
Rudham (East), 984 

Rudliam (West), 985 

Runcton (North), 796 

Runcton (South), 841 

Runhall, 586 

Runham, 417 

Ruuton, 654 

RushaU, 534 

Rushford, 885 

Ruston (East), 438 

Ruston (South), 624 

Ryburgh Magna, 985 

Ryburgh Parva, 986 

Ryston, 841 

Saddlebow, 822 

Saham Toney, 904 

St. Edmimd's Point, 999 

St.raith's,605; Union,599 

Salhouse, 608 

Sail, 703 

Salter's Lode, 828 

Salthouse, 1052 

Sandringham, 797 

Santon, 863 

Saxlingham, 1052 

Saxlingham Nethergate, 
503 

Saxlingham Thorpe, 506 

Saxthorpe, 685 

Seaming, 968 



Sco-Ruston, 624 
Scole, 549 
Scottow, 685 
Scoulton, 905 
Scratby, 415 
Sculthorpe, 986 
Sedgeford, 1002 
Seeche, 711, 740 
Seething, 492 
Sennowe Lodge, 986 
Setch or Setchey, 798 
Setchy Pai-va, 711, 740 
Shadwell Court, 885 
Sharrington, 1053 
Shelfanger, 550 
Shelton, 564 
Shereford, 987 
Shernbourne, 1003 
Sheringham, 655 
Shimpling, 551 
Shingham, 841 
Shipden, 642 
Shipdham, 945 
Shottesham (High), 505 
Shottesham (Low), 505 
Shotford Bridge, 526 
Shouldham, 841 

Shouldham Thorpe, 842 

Shropham, 896 

Shropham Hundred, 885 

Sidestrand, 656 

Silfield, 589 

Sisland, 493 

Skeetholme, 445 

Skeyton, 686 

Sloley 624 

Smallbm-gh, 625 

Smeeth and Fen, 804 

Smithdon Hmidred, 990 

Snarehill, 885 

Snetterton, 896 

Snettisham, 1004 

Snitterley, 1038 

Snoring (Great), 1025 

Snoring (Little), 987 

Somerton (East), 426 

Somerton (West), 426 

Southacre, 923 

Southburgh, 947 

Southery, 843 

Southgate - in - Cawston, 
674 

SouthgatB-in-Snettisham, 
1004 

South Green, 934 

Southmere, 994 

Southrepps, 657 

Southtown, 366 

Southwood, 461 

Spa Common, 628 

Spout Common, 1045 

Sparham, 704 

Spixworth, 609 



INDEX OF PLACES. 



Sporle-with-Palgrave, 923 
Sprowston, 610 
Stalham, 439 
Stanfield, 967 
Stanfield Hall, 589 
Stanford, 864 
Stanhoe, 1006 
Stanninghall, 607 
Starston, 534 
Stibbard, 988 
Stiffkey, 1026 
Stockton, 478 
Stody, 1053 
Stoke Ferry, 844 
Stoke Holy Cross, 506 
Stokesby, 418 
Stone Bridge, 897 
Stow Bardolph, 845 
Stow Bedon, 906 
Stow Hill, 623 
Stradsett, 846 
Stratton St. Mary, 564 
Stratton St. Michael, 566 
Stratton Strawless, 686 
Strumpshaw, 441 
Sturston, 864 
Suffield, 657 
Siunmerfield, 994 
Surlingham, 507 
Sustead, 658 
Suton, 589 
Sutton, 441 
Sutton Bridge, 803 
Swaffbam, 924 
Swafield, 626 
Swainsthorpe, 520 
Swannington, 704 
Swantou Abbott, 687 
S wanton Morley, 967 
Swanton-N overs, 1053 
Swardeston, 520 
Swathing, 332 
Syder stone, 988 
Tacolnestone, 566 
Tasburgh, 567 
Tatterford, 989 
Tattersett, 989 
Taverbam, 611 
TaYerham Hundred, 598 
Ten mile bank, 837 
Terrington St. Clement, 

809 
Terrington St. John, 812 
Testerton, 989 
Tharston, 567 
Tbelveton, 551 
Themelthorpe, 705 
Thetford, 865 
Thicktborn House, 514 
Thompson 906 
Thornage, 1054 
Thornes Great & Little, 

925 



Thomham, 1006 
Thorpe Abbotts, 534 
Thorpe Hamlet, 243 
Thorpe Market, 658 
Thorpe-next-Haddiscoe, 

478 
Thorpe-next-Norwich,462 
Thorpe Parva, 551 
Thorpland, 849 
Thorpland HaU, 977 
Threxton, 907 
Thrigby, 419 
Thurgarton, 659 
Thurlton, 479 . 
Thiu-ne, 420 
Thm-ning, 705 
Thursford, 1027 
Thui'ton, 493 
Thuxton, 947 
Thwaite-near-Loddon, 

494 
Thwaite-near-Aylsham, 

688 
Tibbenham, 568 
Tilney AU Saints, 813 
Tilney St. Lawrence, 814 
Tilney-cum-Islington, 807 
Titchwell, 1007 
Tipsend, 847 
Tittleshall-cum-Godwick, 

968 
Tivetshall St. Margaret, 

551 
TivetshaU St. Mary, 552 
Toftrees, 990 
Toft Monks, 480 
Tofts (West), 864 
Toftwood, 935 
Topcroft, 494 
Tottenhill, 846 
Tottington, 907 
Town Green, 589 
Tower-end, 793 
Trimingham, 659 
Trowse Millgate, 243 
Trowse Newton, 507 
Trimch, 660 
Tuddenham (East), 948 
Tuddenham (North), 949 
TunstaU, 449 
Tunstead, 626 
Tunstead Hundred, 613 
Tuttington, 688 
Twyford, 705 
Upton, 450 
UpweU, 847 
Wacton, 569 
Walcot, 441 
Walcot Green, 539 
WaUington, 849 
Walpole St. Andrew, 814 
Walpole St. Peter, 815 
Walsham Hundred, 442 



Walsham (North), 627 

Walsham (South), 450 

Walsingham (Great) 1027 

Walsingham (Little) 1028 

Walsingham Union, 1016 

Walsoken, 817 

Walton (East), 798 

Walton (West), 819 

Warborough Hill, 1026 

Warham, 1031 

Waterden, 1015 

Watlington, 849 

Wattlefield, 589 

Watton, 907 

Waxham, 442 

Wayborne, 1054 

Wayford Bridge, 625 

Wayland Hundred, 897 

Wayland Wood, 902 

Weasenham (Lower), 969 

Weasenham (Upper), 968 

Weeting-with-Broomiiill, 
864 

Welborne, 586 

WeUingham, 969 

Wells, 1032 

Welney, 850 

Wendling, 969 

Wereham, 851 

Westacre, 799 

Westbrook Green, 539 

Westfield, 949 

Weston, 706 

Westwick, 633 

Weybourn, 1054 

Weybridge Priory, 443 

Wheatacre All Saints, 480 

Wheatacre-Burgh, 470 

Whinburgh, 949 

Whissonsett, 970 

White HorseCommon,628 

Whitlingham, 508 

Whittington, 862 

WhitweU, 701 

Wickhampton, 452 

Wicklewood, 587 

Wickmere, 689 

Wiggenhall St. German, 
821 

Y/iggenhall St. Mary the 
Virgin, 822 

Wiggenhall St. Mary Mag- 
dalen, 823 

Wiggenhall St. Peter, 824 

Wighton, 1036 

Wnby, 897 

Wilton, 858 

Wimbotsham, 852 

Winch (East), 799 

Winch (West), 800 

Winfarthing, 552 

Winston, 472 

Winterton, 427 



10 



INDEX OF PLACES. 



Winwall House, 851 
Wisbech Union, 805 
Witchingliam (Great), 706 
Witchingham (Little), 707 
Withergate, 635 
Wilton-near-Norwich, 465 
Wilton-near-Nortli Wal- 

sham, 634 
Wiveton, 1055 
Wolferton, 801 
Wolterton, 689 
Wood Balling, 708 



Wood Norton, 708 
Wood Green, 564 
Woodbastwick, 452 
Woodrising, 950 
Woodrow, 674 
Woodton, 494 
Wootton (North), 801 
Wootton (South), 802 
Wootton Gap, 787 
Wormegay, 853 
Worstead, 635 
Worthing, 371 



Wortwell, 533 
Wramplingham, 587 
Wreningham, 521 
Wretham E. & W., 897 
Wretton, 854 
Wroxham, 612 
Wymondham, 588 
Wyndell, 472 
Yarmouth, 329 
Yarrow House, 692 
Yaxham, 950 
Yelverton, 508 



GENEEAL INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



Admiral (Vice), 37 
Agriculture, 69 
Albini Family, 35, 891 
Alfred the Great, 146 
Ancient Britons, 22 
Ancient History, 22 
Antiquities, 39 
Arch8eologicalSociety,187 
Archdeaconries, 44 
Arterial drainage, 65 
Area of the County, 17 
Assizes, 22, 180 
Astley Family, 1051 
Bacon Family, 478 
Baronets, 39 
Bathing Places, 329, 642, 

650, 998 
Bedford Level, 824 
Benefit of Clergy, 453 
Beauchamp-Proctor Fa- 
mily, 489 
Bigod Hugh, 35 
Bigod Eoger, 148 
Birds of Norfolk, 131 
Bishop Blaize, 162 
Bishopric, 41 
Bishops of Norwich, 42 
Bishop's Palace, 198 
Blomefield, Eev. F. 546 
Boileau Family, 516 
Boleyn Anne, 670 
Bonner Bishop, 936 
Botany, 67 to 101 
Boulder Clay, 124 
British Tools, 557 
Bulwer Family, 680 
Buxton Family, 652 
Browne, Eev. Wm., 527 
Browne, Sir Thomas, 161 
Castles, 40, 177, 412, 648, 

776, 780, 891 
Cathedral, 191 
Cattle, 62 
Chad Family, 1027 
Chalk, 111 



Cholmondeley, Marquis, 

980 
Churches, 46 
Civil Government, 36 
Civil, Political, & Hono- 

rial History, 36 
Civil Wars, 36, 155, 342, 

717 
Clergy Charity, 232 
Cliffs, 58, 416, 642, 651, 

999 
Climate, 57 
Coast, 57 

Colenso Bishop, 558 
Cooper Sir Astley, 468 
Coke Sir Edward, 964 
Coke Family, 1023 
Commerce, 162, 345, 726 
Constabulary, 21 
Coroners, 37, 1056 
Corporations, 172, 351, 

731, 868 
County Courts, 21 
County Debt, 20 
Cowper Wm., Esq., 936 
Cranworth, Lord, 932 
Cretaceous Formation, 

110 
Cromwell Oliver, 342, 788 
Cropping (Eotation of), 61 
Dairy Farms, 62 
Dalrymple Family, 186 
Danes, 27, 147, 333 
Dean and Chapter, 45 
Deaneries, 44 
Deans of Norwich, 46 
Deans (Eural), 52 
De Grey Family, 902 
Devil's Ditch, 40 
Dignitaries of Diocese, 51 
Diocese, 44 
Diocesan Society, 225 
Dissenters, 49 
Domesday Book, 31 
Druids, 22 



Dutch and Walloons, 218 
East Anglia, 26 ■ 
Earls and Dukes, 37 
Eau Brink Cut, 719 
Ecclesiastical History, 40 
Elevations of Places, 102 
Eminent Men, 37, 185, 

363, 743, &c. 
Eugene Aram, 742 
Fastolff, Sir John, 412 
Fenn Lady, 936 
Feudal System, 32 
First fruits and tenths, 49 
Fisheries, 345, 727 
Flint implements, 127 
Floods, 151,154, 157,344, 

428, 717 
Floating Lights, 428, 432, 

727 
Flowering Plants, 70 
Flowerless Plants, 90 
Forest Bed, 121 
Freemasons, 188 
Frere Family, 549 
Game, 63 
Gault (The), 111 
Geology, 107 
Giant Hales, 427 
Giant Hickifric, 804 
Glacial Series, 124 
Godwin William, 697 
Gresham Sir Thomas,941 
Grimes Grave, 40 
Harbord Family, 648 
Hastings Lord, 1051 
Headley Henry, 622 
Herring Fishery, 346 
Honors and Liberties, 37 
Hospitals, 229, 361, 744 
Howard Family, 38 
Hundi-eds, 18, 20 
Jerningham Family, 576 
Keppel Family, 884 
Rett's EebeUion, 36, 152 
King's Books, 60 



GENEEAIi INDEX OP SUBJECTS. 



11 



Laminated Beds, 123 
Leicester Earl of, 1021 
Lee Warner Henry 
Le Strange Family, 998 
Liberties, 37 
Lighthouses, 428,431,642, 

999 
Life Boat Stations, 413, 

416, 428, 438, 614, 644, 

651 
Litester's Rebellion, 36, 

150 
London Clay, 114 
Lothian Marquis of, 670 
Lunatic Asylums, 144, 

231, 335, 463, 600 
Mackerel Fishery, 345 
Magistrates, 14 
Manufactures, 162, 166 
Martineau Family, 186 
Members of Parlmt. 1055 
Methodism, 343 
Militia, 157, 1056 
Monastic Institutions, 46, 

47, 200, 352, 443, 489, 

590, 606, 615, 620, 734, 

970,980,994,997,1017, 

1019, 1028, 1055 
Museums, 186, 742 
Names of Places, 101 
Nelson,Lord, 174,343,363 
Newspapers, 188,407, 743 
Nonconformists, 48 



Norfolk Duke of, 37 
Norman Conquest, 30 
Norwich Crag, 115 
Oak of Eeformation, 152, 

514 
Oolitic Formation, 109 
Orford Earl of, 682, 689 
Ornithology, 131 
Paine Thomas, 872 
Parliamentary Divisions, 

20 
Paston Family, 365, 680 
Pedder's Way, 40 
Peers and Baronets, 39 
Pilgrimage of Grace, 47 
Police Divisions, 21 
Polling Places, 20 
Poor Law Unions, 18 
Population, 17 
Porson Professor, 439 
Prisons (Borough),22,177, 

351, 733 
Prisons (County), 22, 179, 

594, 927 
Public Eoads, 59 
PubHc Officers, 1056 
Queen Anne's Bounty, 49 
Ealph Guader, 35 
Railways, 59, 169, 329,727 
Reformation, 47 
Riots, 149, 157, 159, 732 
Rivers, 58, 167 
Roman Roads, 40 



Romans, 23 
Rural Deans, 52 
Rush Jas. Blomfield, 589 
Sanitary Condition, 104 
Saxons and Danes, 25 
Sea, Incm-sions of,58, 130, 
344, 637, 642, 651, 999 
Sessions and Assizes, 180 
Shells of Noi-wich Crag, 
Shipwrecks, 340 [116 
Shire HaU, 179 
Shovel SirCloudesly,1019 
StampOffices, 181,352,728 
Stewart Rev. John, 688 
Suffield Lord, 648 
Tax Offices, 181 
Taylor Family, 186 
Tithes, 49 

Townshend Family, 683 
Turnpikes, 59 
Turner Dawson, Esq. 365 
Uniformity Act of, 48 
Unions, 18 
Volunteers, 1056 
Walpole Family, 689 
Walsingham Lord, 902 
Whitaker Rev. Dr. 984 
Windham Family, 646 
Winter Rev. John, 936 
Witchcraft, 716 
Wodehouse Family, 584 
Yarmouth Earl of, 365 
Yonge, Chancellor, 924 



INDEX TO THE HISTORY OF NORWICH. 



Abinger, Lord, 161 
Agricultural Association, 

189 
Almshouses, 235 
Ancient History, 145 
Anglers' Society, 189 
Apprentice Fees, 235 
Arch8eologicalSociety,187 
Archdeaconries, 44 
Arms of the City, 172 
Asiatic Cholera, 150 
Assessments, 143 
Assizes and Sessions, 171, 

180 
Attorneys' Society, 233 
Bacon Family, 186 
Balderstone's School, 226 
Ball and Concert Rooms, 

190 
Banks, 157, 158, 167 
Barnham Broom Estate, 

235 
Bazaar (Royal) 190 
Barracks, 181 



Benevolent Association, 

232 
Bethel Hospital, 231 
Bigod Roger, 148 
Bishop Blaize, 158, 161, 

162 
Bishop Spencer, 150 
Bishops, 42 
Bishop's Palace & Chapel, 

198 
Black Friars, 201 
Blind Hospital & School, 

228 
Board of Health, 181 
Boom Towers, 181 
Borough, 142 
Boys' and Girls' Homes, 

144 
Boys' and Girls' Hospital, 

226 
Bridges, 168, 243 
Bridewell (Old), 177 
Browne Sir Thomas, 161 
Castle, 177 



Cathedral, 191, Precincts, 

199 
Cattle Market, 183 
Cemeteries, 161, 222 
Census, 141 
Chamber of Commerce, 

198 
Chapels, 220 
Charnel House, 198 
Charities, 228, 240 
Charitable Listitutions, 

232 
Charity Trustees, 229 
Charity Schools, 225 
Charters, 156, 170 
Chartists, 161 
Choral Society, 190 
Cholera, 150 
Churches, 202 to 219 
City Gaol, 177 
City Police, 175 
Civil Wars, 155 
Clergy Charity, 232 
Cloisters,, 193 



12 



NORWICH INDEX OP SUBJECTS. 



Close and Precincts, 199 
Cooke's Hospital, 235 
Commercial School, 225 
Corn Exchange, 183 
Corporation, 172 ; Income 

171 
County of City, 142 
Comity Gaol, 179 
Comity Court, 180 
Cucking Stool, 154 
Dalrymple Family, 186 
Danes, 147 

Dean and Chapter, 45 
D. and C. Library, 187 
Deanery, 198 
Dental Infirmary, 230 
Dignitaries of the Dio- 
cese, 51 
Diocese, 44 
Diocesan School, 225 
Directory, 246 
Dispensary, 230 
Dissenting Chapels, 220 
District Schools, 225 
Doughty's Hospital, 234 
Duke's Palace, 184 
Dungeon Tower, 181 
Dutch Church, 218 
Dutch and Flemish Arti- 
zans, 149 [164 

Dutch and Walloons, 154, 
East Angles, 145 
EcclesiasticalHistory,191 
Earthquakes, 153 
Eminent Men, 185 
Erpingham Gate, 199 
Excise Office, 181 
Eye Infirmary, 230 
Fairs, 183 

Fastolff's Palace, 184 
Female Home, 232 
Fire and Life Offices, 190 
Fish Market, 183 
Floods, 151, 154, 157 
Freemen, 172 
Free Library, 182 
Freemasons, 188 
French Church, 218 
Gas Works, 182 
Gates, 166, 199 
Governor's Tower, 181 
Grammar School, 223 
Guildhall, 174 
Great Hospital, 233 
Guardians' Office, 144 
Hailstorm, 161 
Hamlets, 141, 143 242, 
Harford Bridges, 243 
Harvey John, Esq., 160 



Homceopathie Hospital, 

230 
Horticultural Society, 189 
Hospitals, &c., 230 
Improvements, 182 
Infirmaries, 230 
Inland EevenueOffice,181 
Insurance Offices, 190 
JennyLind Infirmary,230 
Kett's KebeUion, 152 
Insurance Offices, 190 
Lancasterian School, 226 
Lazar Houses, 201 
Levellers, 150, 152 
Libraries, 186, 187 
Literary Institutions, 186 
Litester's KebeUion, 150 
Loan Charities, 236 
Longevity, 139 
Lunatic Asylums, 144, 

231, 463 
Lying-in-Charity, 232 
Madi-igal Society, 190 
Magdalen Institution,232 
Magistrates, 173 
Mancroft Gt. Ward, 143 
Manufacturers, 162, 166 
Market Place, 183 
Markets and Fairs, 183 
Martineau Family, 186 
Martyrs, 151, 152 
Medical Society, 186, 233 
Microscopical Society, 189 
Militia, &c., 157 
Mint, 156 
Monasteries, 200 
Municipal Government, 

169 
Museum, 186 
Musical Festival, 189 
Musical Societies, 199 
National Schools, 225 
Navigation, 158, 167 
Nelson, Lord, 158 
Newspapers, 156, 188 
Norfolk and Norwich 

Hospital, 229 
Norman's Charity School, 

227 
Norwich Gates, 166 
Old Street Architecture, 

184 
Orphans' Home, 231 
Parishes, 141 
Parochial Charities, 240 
Philharmonic Soc. 190 
Plagues, 151 
Police (City,) 175 
Police (County,) 21 



Population, 141 
Post Office, 324 
Preachers' Money, 202 
Printing, 154 
Presbyterian School, 226 
Public Library, 186 
Pye's Almshouses, 235 
Kailways, 169 
Eegalia, 175 

Eegistration Districts, 144 
Eeligious Soocieties, 222 
Eiots, 149, 150, 152, 156, 

157 
Eivers, 158, 167 
EomanGatholics,219, 226 
Eosary Cemetery, 222 
Eoyal Visits, 150, 151, 

154, 156 
Savings' Banks, 190, 324 
School of Art, 187 
Schools (Charity, &c.) 223 
Silk MUls, 167 
Soup Charity, 232 
St. Andrew's HaU, 175 
St. Ethelbert's Gate, 199 
St. George's Co. 176 
St. Giles' Hospital, 234 
Shire Hall, 179 
Stamp Office, 181 
Stanley Home, 231 
Stevenson family, 186 
Storms, 158, 161, 192 
Strangers' Hall, 185 
Streets, (List of) 243 
Surrey House, 184 
Tax Office, 181 
Taylor Family, 186 
Temperance Society, 189 
Theatre, 190 
Tonnage Act, 161, 181 
Town Close, 142 
Town Council, 172 
Trees Eemarkable, 140, 

141 
Trustees (Charity,) 229 
Union, 143 
Volunteers, 158, 159 
VolunteerAssociation,189 
Voters, 172 
Walls and Gates, 180 
Wards, 143 

Water Works, 156, 182 
Weavers' Hiall, 156 
Wellington Statue, 161 
White Friars, 201 
Woolcombing, 162 
Workhouse, 144 
Worthies, 185 
5foungMen'sSocieties,187 



For Members of Parliament, see page 1055, and for Public Officers of the County 
Militia and Volunteers, page 1056. 



13 



INDEX TO THE HISTORY OP YARMOUTH. 



Admiralty Jurisdiction, 

332 
Aldermen, 351 
Almshouses, 362 
Ancient History, 332 
Armomy (Koyal,) 335 
Assembly Kooms, 360 
Barracks, 335 
Barrow Carts, 330 
Baths, 360 
Batteries, 335 
Benevolent Society, 361 
Benefactions, 361 
Black Friary, 353 
Bonding Warehouses, 345 
Borough, 332 
Borough Court, 348 
Board of Health, 349 
Bradshaw Judge, 342 
Bridewell, 351 
Bridge Accident, 331 
Bridges, 330, 331 
Castle, 335 
Cemetery, 357 
Chapels, 356 
Charities, 357, 361 
Charity School, 358 
Charity Trustees, 352 
Charters, 348 
Children's Hospital, 357 
Churches, 353 to 356 
Civil Wars, 342 
Coaches, 330 
Coast Guard Station, 336 
Commerce, 345 
Corn Exchange, 330 
Corporation, 351 
County Com-t, 352 
Courts, 348 
Cromwell, Oliver, 342 
Custom House, 345 
Denes (The,) 331 
Devil's Seat, 355 



Dutch Chapel, 350 
Dispensary, 361 
Earls of Yarmouth, 365 
ElocutionSociety,330, 359 
Eminent Men, 364 
Executions, 341, 348 
Fisheries, 345 
Fishermens' Hospital,361 
Floating Lights, 341 
Fishmarket, 331 
Freemen, 349 
Freemasons, 360 
Gas Works, 350 
Friaries, Black, Grey, and 

White, 353 
Gaol, 351 

Gates and Walls, 335 
Gorleston, 365 
Grammar School,341, 358 
Greek Fire, 340 
Harbour Tax, 339 
Haven, 337 
Herring Fishery, 346 
Hospitals, 357, '361 
Inland KevenueOffice,352 
Jetty, 329, 338 
Leper Houses, 353 
Life Boats, 341 
Literary Institutions, 359 
Longevity, 332 
Mackerel Fishery, 345 
Manby Captain, 341 
Market Place, 330 
Markets & Fairs, 330, 331 
Marine Drive, 329 
Methodism, 343 
Militia Barracks, 335 
Monasteries, 352 [348 
Municipal Government, 
Naval Asylum, 335 
Naval Column, 343 
Nelson Lord, 343, 363 
Observatory Tower, 336 



Petty Sessions, 349 
Piers, 329, 338 
Plague, 335 
Police Force, 350 
Population, 329 
Post Office, 410 
Protestant Kefugees, 342 
PubHc Offices, 354 
Public Libraiy, 359 
Quays, 331 
Eaces, 331 
Eailway, 329 
Eecord Eoom, 350 
Eegalia, 343 
Eomans, 333 
Eows, 330 
Eoyal Hospital, 361 
Eoyal Life Fund, 362 
Eoyal Visits, 344, 341, 345 
Sailors' Home, 347 
Savings' Banks, 348, 362 
Schools, 357, 358, 359 
School of Art, 359 
School of Navigation, 359 
Shipping, 345 
Shipwrecks, 340 
Shipwrecked MarinersSo- 

ciety, 361 
Snk Mills, 345 
Southtown, 330, 366 
Suspension Bridge, 331 
Streets, 330 ; List of 367 ; 
Tax Office, 352 
Theatre, 360 
Town Council, 351 
Town Hall, 350 
Trade and Commerce, 345 
Turner Dawson, Esq., 365 
Walls & Gates, 330, 335 
Water FroUc, 332 
Water Works, 350 
White Friary, 353 
Workhouse, 362 



INDEX TO THE HISTOEY OF LYNN. 



Acts for Paving, 710 
Almshouses, 746 
Ancient History, 713 
Athenaeum, 742 
Benefactions, 747 
Bonding Warehouses, 728 
Borough, 711 ; Gaol, 733 
Bridges, 710 
Cemetery, 741 
Chapels, 740 
Charities, 747 
Charters, 714 
Churches, 735 



Civil Wars, 717 
Commerce, 726 
Corn Exchange, 729 
Corporation, 731 
County Court, 730 
Custom House, 727 
Earthquakes, 716 
Eau Brink Cut, 719 
Eminent Men, 743 
Estuary of the Wash, 721 
Executions 717 
Excise Office, 728 
Fairs and Markets, 728 



Fleets, 709 
Floods, 717, 720 
Freemasons, 743 
Gas Works, 730 
Grammar School, 741 
Guild Hall, 732 
Harbour, 718 
High Tides, 717 
Horticultural Society, 743 
Hospitals, 744 
Improvements, 71 
InlandEevenue Office,728 
King John's Cup, 714 



14 



LYNN INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



Lady Chapel, 709, 734 
Legal Quays, 728 
Literary Institutions, 742 
Loan Funds, 747 
Markets and Fairs, 728 
Meters' Office, 728 
Monastic Institutions,734 
Museum, 742 
New Bridge, 719 
New Cut, 720 
Newspapers, 743 
Paving Act, 710 
Philharmonic Society,743 
Pilots, 727 
Plague, 716 



Police, 732 
Population, 711 
Port, 726 
Post Office, 771 
Eailways, 727, 771 
Eed Mount, 709, 734 
Eemarkable Events, 716 
Eiot, 732 
Eiver Ouse, 718 
Eoyal Visists, 716 
Savings' Bank, 744 
Seven Sisters, 710 
Schools, 742 
Shipping, 726 
Stamp Office, 728 



Sticklebacks, 727 
Streets, 748 
Tax Office, 728 
Theatre, 743 
Town Council, 731 
Turnpikes' 710 
Union, 711 
Volunteers, 743 
Walls and Gates, 734 
Walks, 710 
Wash, 709 
Wards, 733 
Water Works, 729 
Witchcraft, 716 
Workhouse, 712 



MAGISTKATES OF THE COUNTY OF NOEFOLK. 

(Those marked * are also Deputy Lieutenants.) 



Adair Sir Eobert, Flixton Hall, Suffolk 
Adlington H. Smith, Esq., Holme Hale 
*Albemarle Earl of, Quiddenham 
*Amhui-st Wm. A. T., Esq., Didlington 
*Angerstein Major-General, Weeting 
Applewhaite E. A., Esq., Pickenham - 
Ashburton Lord, Buckenham Tofts 
*Astley F. L'Estrange, Esq., Herts 
Astley Hon. and Eev. D. L., Barsham 
Back Henry, Esq., Hethersett 
*Bagge William, Esq., Stradsett 
*Bagge Eichard, Esq., Gaywood, Lynn 
Bagge Ed. Salisbury, Esq., Gaywood 
Baring W. W., Esq., Cromer 
Baring Hon. A. H., Buckenham Tofts 
Barnwell Eev. C. B., Mileham 
Barton T. E. W., Esq., Threxton 
Bayly Eev. C. H., Long Stratton 
Bayning Eev. Lord, Honingham 
*Beauchamp Sir T., Bart., Langley 
Bedingfeld J. L., Esq., Ditchingham 
*Bedingfeld Sir H. P., Bart., Oxburgh 
*Beevor Sir Thos. B.,Bart., Yarmouth 
Beevor Thomas, Esq., Hingham 
Bentinck G. W. P., Esq., M.P. 
Berney T. Trench, Esq., Morton 
*Berney Sir H. Bart., Leicestershire , 
*Berney G. D., Esq., Morton 
BernersLord,Keythorpe,Leicestershire 
Bidwell L. S., Esq., Thetford 
*Bignold Sir Samuel, Knight, Norwich 
Bignold Eev. S. F., Tivetshall 
Birch Wyrley, Esq., Wretham 
Birch Thomas Jacob, Esq, Wretham 
Birkbeck H., Esq., Stoke Holy Cross 
Blake Thomas Jex, Esq., London 
Blake Thomas, Esq., LL.D., Horstead 
Blake Wm. L. Esq., Swanton Abbott 
*Blofeld Eev. T. J., Hoveton 
*Blomefield G., Esq., Swaffham 
Blyth H. E., Esq., Burnham Westgate 



*Boileau Sir J. P., Bart., Ketteringham 
*Boileau F. G. M., Esq., Tacolnestone 
Bouverie Ven. Archdeacon, Denton 
*Bradfield J. B. S., Esq., Stoke Ferry 
Bradshaw Fras. Green, Esq., Drayton 
Bramhall Eev. John, Terrington 
Branford Wm. W., Esq., Caister 
*Brightwen Thomas, Esq., Yarmouth 
Brown Thomas, Esq., Thrigby 
Browne J. B. G., Esq., Morley 
Browne W. J. Utten, Esq., Norwich 
Browne Eichard Charles, Esq., Elsing 
Buckworth T. E., Esq., Cockley Cley 
*Bulwer W. E. L., Esq., Heydon 
Bulwer W. E. G. L., Esq., Dereham 
Bury Viscount, Quiddenham 
*Burroughes H. N., Esq., Burlingham 
*Burroughes W., Esq., Coltishall 
Burroughes Eev. J., Lingwood 
Burroughes Eev. E., Long Stratton 
Burroughes E.E. Esq., Stratton St. Mary 
Buxton Charles, Esq., Northrepps 
*Buxton Sir E. J., Bart., Shadwell 
*Buxton Sir T. F., Bart., Cromer 
Cabbell B. B., Esq., Cromer 
Calthorpe Lord, Ampton, Suffolk 
*Calthrop John, Esq., Stanhoe 
Caldecott Barnes, Esq., Yarmouth 
Caldwell H. B., Esq., Hilborough 
Campbell W. H. C. J., Esq., Snettisham 
*Cann W. E., Esq., WjTuondham 
*Cator Albemarle, Esq., Woodbastwick 
Cator A., jim., Esq., Colkirk 
Chad Joseph S. Scott, Esq., Thui'sford 
*Cliamberlin Eobert, Esq., Norwich 
Chester Lieut. -Colonel, Castle Eising 
Cholmondeley Marquis, Houghton 
*Cholmondeley LordW. H., Houghton 
* Chute W.L.W., Esq., The Vyne, Hants 
Clarke Thomas T., Esq., Binham 
Cleveland Duke of, Santon Downham 



NORFOLK MAGISTRATES. 



15 



Cockell Arthm-, Esq., Attleborougli 
*Coke Hon. Edward. Longford, Derby 
*Coldliam H. W., Esq., Anmer 
Coldham H., James, Esq., Anmer 
Collyer John, Esq., Hackford 
Collyer Kev. Canon, Warliam 
Copeman G. E., Esq., Hemsby 
Copeman, E., Esq., Hemsby 
Cooper Eev. C. B., Morley, St. Botolph 
*Cowper Hon. Chas. Spencer, London 
Crabbe Eev. George, Merton 
Cubitt Edward George, Esq., Honing 
Cubitt Henry Archibald, Esq., Catfield 
Cubitt Eev. F., Fritton, near Yarmouth 
Currie Eev. Charles, Tilney All Saints 
Curteis Wm. C, Esq., LL.D., Scole 
*Custance H. F., Esq., "Weston 
*Dalling Captain J. W., E.N. 
Dahytnple D., M.D., Thorpe, Norwich 
Davy John, Esq., Ingoldesthorpe 
Davy John William, Esq., Kilverstone 
*De Grey Hon. B. N. 0., Watton 
De Grey Hon. George, Merton 
*De Grey Hon. Thomas 
* Dewing Eichard, Esq., Carbrooke 
Dolphin Eev. John, Antingham 
Dolphin Thomas, Esq., Swafield 
*Donne W. B., Esq., London 
*Dowson Benjamin, Esq., Yarmouth 
Dugmore John, Esq., Swaffham 
Eden Vice-Admiral, Gillingham 
Edwards Eev. Bartholomew, Ashill 
♦Edwards H.W. B.,Esq., Hardingham 
*Elwes Eobert, Esq., Congham 
Elwin Hastings, Esq., Horstead 
Ensor Charles P., Esq., Eollesby 
Ewen Thomas L'Estrange, Esq., Ded- 

ham, Essex 
*Fellowes Eobert, Esq., Shottesham 
Fellowes Ebt., jun., Esq., Leicestershire 
Fellowes Eev. Charles, Shottesham 
♦Fellowes E., Esq., M.P., Haveringland 
Fitz Eoy W. S. H., Esq. 
*Fitz Eoy H., Esq., Stratton Strawless 
♦Foster Sir William, Knight, Norwich 
*Fountaine Andrew, Esq., Narford 
France Eev. George, Brockdish 
Freeman Eev. John, Ashwicken 
Frere George E., Esq., Eoydon 
Frere Eev. H. Temple, Burston 
Fryer J. E., Esq., Crowe Hall 
Fryer F. D., Esq., Elm, Cambridgeshire 
*Gay James, Esq.. Thm-ning 
*Gay John, Esq., Thurning 
Gay James, Esq., Aldborough 
Gilbert W. A., Esq., Cantley 
Gilbert Eobert, Esq., Ashby 
♦Girling Barry, Esq., East Dereham 
Goodricke Sir Francis L. H., Bart., 

Studeley, Warwick 
Gordon J., Esq., Saxlingham 
Gosford Earl of, Worlingham 
Grafton Duke of, Euston, Suffolk 



♦Gunn Eev. John, L-stead Eectory 
♦Gurdon Brampton, Esq., M.P., Letton 
Gurdon Eev. Philip, Cranworth 
♦Gurdon E. T., Esq., Letton 
Gm-ney Hudson, Esq., Keswick 
♦Gm-ney Daniel, Esq., North Euncton 
♦Gumey Francis Hay, Esq., Thorpe 
Gumey J. H., Esq., M.P., Catton 
Gwyn William, Esq., Tasbm-gh 
♦Haggard W. M. E., Esq., Bradenham 
♦Hamond Anthony, Esq., Westacre 
Hamond Anthony, jun., Esq., do. 
Hardy W. H. C, Letheringsett 
♦Hare Sir Thomas, Bart., Stow-hall 
Hare J. H., Esq., Docking 
♦Harvey E. K., Esq. 
♦Harvey E. J. H., Esq., Brundall 
♦Hastings Lord, Melton Constable 
Heitland Arthur A., Esq., Colkirk 
Hemsworth Eev. Addison, Bacton 
Henniker Lord, M.P., Thornham, Sffk. 
Hicks Eev. William H., Watton 
Hill J. D. H., Esq., Gressenhall 
♦Holmes Eev. John, Brooke Hall 
Holmes Eev. E., St. Margaret's, Suffolk 
Holmes Gervas, Esq., Brockdish 
Holley J. H., Esq., Okehampton 
♦HoUway James, Esq., Stanhoe 
Hopper Eev. Augustus M., Starston 
Hoste Sir Wm., Bart., Garboldisham 
Howman Eev. Edward J., Bexwell 
♦Howes E., Esq., M.P., Morningthorpe 
Hume W. B., Esq., Somerton 
♦Humfrey Eobert B., Esq., Wroxham 
Hyde George, Esq., East Dereham 
♦Ives Ferdinand, Esq., Norwich 
♦L-by F. W., Esq., Boyland HaU 
Jary Wm. Heath, Esq., Burlingham 
Jodi-ell Eev. Sir E. E., Bart., SaU 
♦Jones Sir Willoughby, Bart., Cranmer 
♦Kemp Sir Wm. E., Bart., Gissing 
Kemp E. P. Esq., ColtishaU 
KepnelHon. andEev.E.S. Quiddenham 
Keppel Eev. W. A. W., Hainford 
Keppel Fred. C. Esq., Lexham 
♦Kerslake Thomas, Esq., Barmer 
Kerrison Sir E. C, Bart., M.P., Broome 
♦Kerrison Eoger, Esq., Noi-wich 
♦Kerrich John, Esq., Geldestone 
♦Kett G. S. Esq., Brooke 
Knight G. B. L. Esq., Framingham 
♦Lacon Sir E. Bart., M.P., Ormesby 
Lacon E. B. K., Esq., Ormesby 
♦Lee Warner H. J. Esq., Walsingham 
♦Le Strange H. S. Esq., Hunstanton 
Leicester Earl of (LordLieut.)Holkham 
Loftus Charles, Esq., Noi-wich 
Lombe Eev. Henry, Bylaugh 
Lome Eev. Henry, jun. 
♦Longe John, Esq., Spixworth 
Long E. K. Esq., Dunston 
♦Lothian Marquis of, BlickHng 
Lucas Eev. E. Gay, Mulbarton 



16 



NORFOLK MAGISTRATES. 



Lucas Eev. Charles, Filby 
Lyon E. H. Esq. 
Manning Eev. Charles R., Diss 
Marcon John, Esq., Wallington 
Marryat F. S. Esq. 
Marsham Eev. H. P., Hevingham 
Marsham G. A., Esq., Haynford 
Marsham Eev. T. J. G., Saxlingham 
*Mason William, Esq., Necton 
Methold Eev. J. W., Wighton 
Micklethwait Eev. John N., Taverham 
*Middleton George Esq., Norwich 
*Milles Hon. George Watson 
Morse Charles, Esq. 
*Mott John Thos., Esq., Barningham 
Moore Eev. William, D.D., Spalding 
*Newcombe E. C. Esq., Feltwell 
*Norris W., Esq., Wood Norton 
♦North F., Esq., M.P., Eougham 
North Charles, Esq., Eougham 
Nugent Sir Geo. E., Bart., Harling 
*Nugent Edmund Charles, Esq. 
Onley Savill Onley, Esq., Stisted 
*Orford Earl of, Mamiington 
Ormerod Ven. Archd., Eedenhall 
Owen Eev. Henry, Heveningham 
*Palmer C. J. Esq., Yarmouth 
Palmer G. D., Esq., Yarmouth 
Park Eev. James A., Methwold 
Parker Eev. W. H., SahamToney 
Partridge Eev. W. J., Caston 
♦Patteson H. S. Esq., Norwich 
Pellew Hon. and Very Eev. Dean 
Pemberton W. H., Esq., Holt 
*Penrice J. Esq., Yarmouth 
Peto Sir Samuel, M., Bart., M.P. 
*Petre J. Burney, Esq., Westwick 
Phayre Eev. Eichard, West Eainham 
Porcher C, Esq. 
Postle Eev. Edward, Yelverton 
*Postle William, Esq., Smallburgh 
Pratt Eev. Jermyn, Campsey Ash, Suff. 
Press G. Latham, Esq., Eeymerstone 
*Preston Sir J. H. Bart., Beeston 
♦Preston Isaac, Esq., Yarmouth 
Proctor Eev. T. B. 
Eanelagh Viscount, London 
Eising Eobert, Esq., Horsey 
Eising WilHam, Esq., Martham House 
*Eobinson Sir H. Knapton 
Eolfe C. F. N., Esq., Heacham 
♦Eosebery Earl of, London 
*Eous Hon. W. Eufus, Worstead 
♦Eowley Sir Charles, Bart. 



Say Eichard Hall, Esq., Swaffham 

* Scott Joseph Esq., Colney 

* Scott Thomas E., Esq., Carbrooke 
Seel Thomas Molyneux, Esq. 
Seymour Eear Admiral, Barwick 
Smith Hem-y, Esq., Ellingham 
Smith Eev. J. J., Loddon 

Smijth Sir Wm. B., Bart., Essex 

♦Sondes Lord, Elmham 

Sparke Eev. J. H., Gunthorpe 

Sparke Edward B. Esq., Gunthorpe 

Spurgeon A. Cooper, Esq., Gressenhall 

♦Stafford Lord, Costessy 

Steward Charles, Esq., Blundeston 

♦ Stracey Sir H. J., Bart., Eackheath 
Stracey Edward John, Esq., Sprowston 
Stokes Eev. W. H., Denver 
Stoughton Clarke, Esq., Bawdeswell 

♦ Suffield Lord, Gunton 

Sutton Eev. Augustus, West Tofts 
♦Taylor John 0., Esq., Norwich 
Taylor Thomas L., Esq., Starston 
Thornhill T. Esq., Eiddlesworth 
Thornhill T. jmi., Esq., Eiddlesworth 
Tompson H. K. Esq., Brooke 
Townshend Marquis, Eainham 
Townley Charles Watson, Esq. 
Trafford E. W. Esq., Wroxham 
Trafford W. H., Esq., do. 
♦Tuck J. J. Esq., London 
Tyrwhitt Sir Henry, Bart., Shropshire 
Tyssen Charles, Esq. 
♦Villebois Henry, Esq., Marham 
♦Unthank C. W., Esq., Intwood 
♦Upcher H. E. Esq., Sherringham 
Upwood Eev. T. T., Terrington 
Walpole Hon. Frederick, Eainthorpe 
♦Walsingham Lord, Merton 
Wellington Duke of, Apsley House 
♦Wej'land Eichd. Hy., Wood Eising 
Whitbread Eev. E. S., Strumpshaw 
Wilkins Eev. Edward, Hempstead 
Wilson Major-General Sir Archdale, 

Bart., Ashwellthorpe 
Windham John H., Esq., Cromer 
♦Wodehouse Lord, Kimberley 
♦Wodeliouse Hon. Berkeley 
♦WodehoxTse Hon. Edward, Witton 
Wodehouse Hon. and Eev. W. London 
♦Wodehonse P. E. Esq., Thorpe 
♦Wodehouse Eev. C. N., Norwich 
♦Worship Fras. Esq., Yarmouth 
Wright John, Esq., Buxton 
Yates Eev. E. Telfer, Burgh 



Third Edition. 

PREPARINa FOR PUBLICATION, UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME, 
A NEW AND ENLARGED 

HISTORY, GAZETTEER, AND DIRECTORY OF SUFFOLK, 

BY 

WILLIAM WHITE, FULWOOD PARSONAGE, SHEFFIELD. 



GENERAL HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION 



OF THE 



COUNTY OE NOEFOLK. 



NORFOLK, wliich is ecclesiastically situated in the Province of Can- 
terbuiy, and in the Diocese of Norwich, is an extensive maritime county in 
the most eastern division of England. Judicially it is in the Northern 
Circuit, and its Assizes and Quarter Sessions are held at Norwich. It com- 
prises about 435,000 inhabitants, and 1,800,000 acres of land, divided into 
thirty-three Hundreds, and about 740 Parishes — including the City of 
Norwich, which forms, with its precincts, a County of itself. Compared 
with the other counties of England, Norfolk ranks the fourth in terri- 
torial extent, and the fourteenth in population. It is celebrated for the 
diversity and high cultivation of its soil ; for the abundance and excellence 
of its agricultural productions ; for its extensive manufactures of silk and 
worsted ; for its herring and mackerel fisheries ; and for its numerous an- 
tiquities and historical associations. It lies between 52 deg. 17 min. and 
62 deg. 56 min. North Latitude, and 1 min. and 1 deg. 45 min. East Longi- 
tude from the meridian of Greenmch ; — being of an oval figure, extending 
about 70 miles from east to west, and 42 miles in the broadest parts from 
north to south. It is about 180 miles hi circumference, and the northern 
half of it is bounded by the German Ocean and the Great Estuary, called 
The Wash ; whilst its southern side is divided horn Suffolk by the Waveney 
and Little Ouse rivers ; and from Cambridgeshire, chiefly by the Great 
Ouse, Welney, and Nene — the latter of which, as well as the Great Ouse, 
falls into i\\QMetaris jEstaarium, or The Wash, which divides Norfolk from 
Lincolnsliire. Thus surrounded by marine and river boundaries, Nor- 
folk may be considered almost an ' island. Though it is generally con- 
sidered a champaign district, the surface in many places rises in bold 
undulations, and sinks into picturesque vales, especially in the centre of 
the county, and on the coast, which is nearly 90 miles in extent froni Yar- 
mouth to Lynn, and has near Cromer and Hunstanton lofty perpendicular 
cliff's. A large portion of the southern side of the county is in flat but well 
cultivated marshes ; and in the western and some other parts are extensive 
tracts of light sandy land, rising boldly fi-om the marshes and fens, which 
are now well drained, and many of them highly productive. Though more 
than 200,000 acres of commons and sandy heaths have been enclosed during 
the last 90 years, there are still in diff'erent pai'ts of the county extensive 
open sheep walks and rabbit warrens, in some places much improved by 
1 thriving plantations. 

The Population of Norfolk in 1801 amounted to 273,479 ; in 1811 to 
1291,947; in 1821 to 344,368; in 1831 to 390,054; in 1841 to 412,664; in 
1 1851 to 442,714 ; and in 1861 to 434,791, consisting of 209,005 males, and 
\ 225,793 females. There was consequently a decrease of 7916 persons during 
\ the ten years preceding 1861 ; and as during that period there were regis- 
ttered in Norfolk 32,709 marriages, and 137,594 hirths, but only 91,632 
[ deaths, it is apparent that more than 60,000 of the inhabitants must have 
left the county to seek employment elsewhere. The decrease appears to 

B 



18 



HISTORY OF NORFOLK. 



be chiefly owing to the emigration of agricultural labourers to America and 
the colonies, the migration of young persons to the manufacturing districts, 
the depression of the shipping trade owing to the transit of coals and goods 
])y railway, the gi\^ng up of hand-loom hemp-cloth weaving, the introduc- 
tion of machinery for agi'icultural purposes, and the removal of a lai'ge 
number of labourers who were employed on railway works at the time of 
taking the census in 1851. Norwich and Yai-mouth are the only places in 
which there has been any considerable increase, the former in consequence 
of its manufactures, and the latter on account of its popularity as a watering 
place and the extension of its fishing trade. The following enumeration of 
the Hundreds and Boroughs in Norfolk shews the annual value of theii- 
lands and buildings as assessed to the County Rates in 1843, and their 
population in 1861. Those Hundreds, &c., mai-ked =:= are in the Eastern 
Division of the County, and all the others are in the Western Division. 



Hundreds 



*Blofield. .. 

Brothercross . , , , 

*Clavenng •• . . . 

Clackclose 

*Depwade 

"^Diss 

*Earsham 

*£rpingham North..., 
*Erpingham South.... 

*EynesforcI 

*FlegREast 

*FIegg West 

*Forehoe 

Freebridge-Lynn , 

Freehridge-Mai'shland . 

Gnllow 

Greenhoe North 

Greenhoe South. ....... 

Giimshoe 

Guiltcross 

*Happing 



Assessed 
Rental 
in 184;}. 



£39,1-04 
2.5,876 
47,6.54 

127,184 
55 526 
44.142 
44,266 
40,016 
76,644 
60,082 
25,822 
29,128 
71,C6i 
77,656 
106,2.52 
61,282 
46,548 
C,2fi0i 
40,772 
33,356 
43,558 



Population 
in 1861, 



6,280 

4,614 

6 674 

21,420 

y,617 

9,851 

8.484 

11,101 

14,322 

10,748 

4,060 

4, .571 

13,146 

14.4.50 

14,435 

10,021 

10,268 

10,7.56 

7,554 

6.748 

fi,987 



Hundreds. 



Assessed 
Rental 
in 1813. 



*HeDstead.. . . 

Holt 

*Humbleyard 

Launditch 

Loddon 

Mitford 

Shvopham . . . , 
Smithdon . . . . 
*Taverham . . . 

*Tunstead 

*Walsham.. . . 
Wayland 



36,484 
50,920 
37,388 
79,660 
46,340 
62,241 
49,2.56 
48 028 
41,084 
62,870 
44 156 
43,406 



Total I 1.778,422 

♦Norwich? I 1 48,.560 

Yarmouth-I- Part of. 60,000 

Lvnnt I 28,000 

Thetfordt Part of ! 7,000 



Grand Total 12.021,982 



Population 
in 1R61, 



5,720 
9,942 
5,620 

13,177 
7,509 

11,4.52 
8,906 
0,680 
8 343 

10,425 
.5,241 
7,783 



310,016 

74,891 

30,338 

16,170 

3,383 



434,798 



* In 1861 the Eastern Parliamentary Divisio?i contained 254,027, and the Western Division, 
180,771 souls, 

i The gioss rental of the city parishes .and hamlets of Norwich is according to the assessment 
made to the Borough Hates in 1862. 

+ The rental of Yarmouth is according to the assessment made to the District Rates in 1862. 
The whole borough contains 34,810 souls. 

t The rental of J.ynn an.i Tliotford is an approximate valuation. The Jt'/iO?e borough of Thetford 
contains 4208 souls. 

Poor-Law Unions, &c. — As Judge Blackstone says, the Poor-Laws are 
founded on the very principles of civilised society, and when the lands 
became propert}% they carried with them tlie charge of providing for the 
destitute. Under the feudal system, the proprietors of land provided for 
the poor ; and after Christianity was introduced the indigent were relieved 
out of the tithes and estates of the churches and monastic institutions. Man)'- 
of the latter were richly endowed for religious, superstitious, educational, 
and benevolent purposes. When Henry VIII. suppressed the monasteries 
and ronfiscated their property, the poor were deprived of their ancient 
rights and left in a state of destitution, which compelled Queen Elizabeth 
to impose poors' rates on all occupiers of land, houses, and otlier projierty. 
Before the passing of the Poor Law Amendment Act in 18.S4, tlie long con- 
tinued mal-administration of the old poor-law liad become an evil of the 
greatest magnitude, which was eating like a canker into the heart of the 
nation — pauperising the labourers of whole counties — reducing them to 
deep degradation — taking away tlie motive and the reward of industry, and 
oppressing that capital which was to employ and remunerate labour. lu 



POOR LAW UNIONS. 



19 



some counties the regular employment of labourers had nearly ceased, many 
farmers paying their workmen only half wages, and sending them to the over- 
seers for what more was necessary for the bare subsistence of their families. 
This S3' stem cut the very sinews of industry, took away its reward, and 
levelled all distinctions of skill and awkwardness, and virtue and vice. It 
made the labourer a pauper, left liim witliout any encouragement for good 
conduct, and gave him a positive interest in marrying early, however im- 
prudently, as his allowance from the x^arish was so much per head, and it 
was so calculated that he was more comfortable with a large than a small 
family. In like manner, women having illegitimate children were actually 
gainers by their shame, in consequence of the parish allowance. The 
New Poor Lav: amended both the lav\- and the practice ; it benefited both 
the employers and the employed, and raised the labourers of whole counties 
from the condition of paupers to that of independent workmen, by diverting 
immense sums of money fuom the degrading channel oi parish pay into the 
honoiu'able channel of wages of labour. 

The following enumeration of the Poor Law Unions and Incorporated 
Hundreds into which Norfolk is divided, shows the number of parishes in 
each, their territorial extent, their pojmlation, and number ofhouses in 1861; 
ih.Q number of paupers their workhouses have room for, and the number of 
inmates when the census was taken. 



UNIONS, and Superinten- 
dent Eegistrai's' Districts. 

Aylsham 

Blofield 

Depwade 

Docking 

Downham 

Erpingham 

Faith's (Saint) 

*Flegg East and West 

*Forehoe 

Ereebridge-Lyun 

Guiltcross ....*... 

Ilenstead 

Hoxne (part o/)t 

King's Lynn 

Loddon and Clavering 

Mitford and Launditch 

Norwich 

SwaflFham 

Thetford {^part of)^ 

*Tiinstead and Happing . . . . 

Walsingham 

Wayland 

Wisbech {part of)+ 

Yarmouth Great 

Total % 



! No. of 
! Parishes 



46 
32 
43 
36 
34 
49 
30 
20 
23 
32 
21 
37 
1 
4 
42 
60 
43 
33 
20 
41 
50 
2-5 
13 
1 



735 



Population 
in 1861. 


Niunber of 
Aci*es. 


Houses in 
1861. 


Workhouses. 
Boom Inmates 
for, in 1861. 


19,0.52 


08,123 


4511 


500 


133 


11,521 


44,178 


2368 


250 


146 


25,248 


72,681 


6548 


400 


244 


17,-596 


101,136 


3843 


500 


127 


20,264 


83.687 


4569 


250 


215 


20,874 


72,513 


4981 


300 


164 


11,749 


48 304 


2529 


300 


112 


8631 


29,087 


1877 


400 


80 


12,818 


37,8.34 


3011 


400 


141 


13,486 


78,775 


2759 


250 


138 


11,641 


44,585 


- S734 


350 


194 


11,290 


43,358 


2441 


250 


91 


221 


1000 


59 


, . . . 


■ * • • 


16,701 


• 5499 


4231 


300 


249 


14,242 


59,401 


3233 


400 


162 


2S,020 


105,233 


6445 


700 


267 


74,440 


6630 


15431 


730 


635 


13,747 


81,200 


2946 


400 


85 


11,181 


84,100 


24C0 


300 


133 


14,516 


62,607 


3527 


600 


93 


21,118 


87,342 


4835 


300 


130 


11,562 


51,063 


2625 


300 


68 


15,119 


70,000 


3200 


400 


473 


30,338 


1510 


6435 


500 


332 


434 798 


1,300,311 


100,120 


8980 


4412 



t Wisbech Union includes seven pai'ishes in Cambridgeshire. Thetford Union has also 14 
parishes in Suffolk. Hoxne Union is all in Suffolk, except the Norlblk part of Mendham parish. 

t Of the 100,120 iffoj^ses, 4844 were uninhabited, and 355 were building, when the Census was 
taken in 1861. 

* East and West Flegg, Forehoe, and Tunstead and Happing ai-e Incorporations , under local 
acts. _ St. Faith's, Loddon and Clavering, Nonvich, and Mitlbrd and Launditch were old Incor- 
porations, but are now Unions, under the Poor Law Act. There were several other Incorporations 
in the county, but they have been joined to Unions, and thdr Houses of Industry have been 
adopted as the Union Workhouses, as at Gimingham, Sherringham, St. Faith's, Buxton, Oulton, 
&c., but the parishes of Mellon-Constable and Brinton are still united under Gilbert's act, and are 
not connected with any Union. In addition to the 10 or 12 old Houses of Industry, there were 
buUt, in various parts of the county, in the years 1835 and '6, about fourteen large UxiON Work 
HOUSES, each at a cost of fi-om £5000 to £9000; and at the same time, most of the old Houses 
underwent considerable alteration, so as to adapt them to the new system of classification, inspec- 
tion, and control. It has been seen in the foregoing table, that the Union and Incorporated Work 
houses of Norfolk have room for about 9000 paupers; but they have seldom more ihan 6000, and in 
summer only about 3500 inmates. The statistics and officers of each Union and Incorporation 
will be given with the general descriptions of the Hundreds, at subsequent pages. 

B 2 



20 HISTORY OF NOEFOLK. 

Parliamentary Divisions. — Before the passing of the Reform Bill, in 
1832, Norfolk sent twelve representatives to parliament, viz. : — Two for the 
county, and tv/o each for the City ofNomncli, and the Boroughs of Yarmouth, 
Lynn, Thetford, and Castle-Rising; but by that great public act the latter 
borough was disfrancliised, and the county was separated into two divisions, 
each returning two knights of the shire to parliament. The Eastern 
Division comprises the eighteen hundreds of Blofield, Clavering, Depwade, 
Diss, Earsham, North Erpingham, South Erpingham, Eynesford, East 
Flegg, West Flegg, Forehoo, Happing, Henstead, Humbleyard, Loddon, 
Taverham, Tunstead, and Walsham; and its Polling Places are Norwich, 
Yarmouth, Reepham, North Walsham, Long Stratton, and Loddon. Nor- 
wich is the principal place of election. The Western Division comprises 
the fifteen Hundreds of Brothercross, Clackclose, Freebridge Lynn, Free- 
bridge Marshland, Gallow, North Greenhoe, South Greenhoe, Grimshoe, 
Guiltcross, Holt, Launditch, Mitford, Shropham, Smithdon, and Wayland ; 
and its Polling Places are Lynn, East Dereham, Do-wnham, Thetford, and 
Swaffham, the latter of which is the principal place of election. The 
number of County voters registered for the Eastern Division, in 1863, was 
8089; and for the Western Division, 6636, making a total of 14,725. 

Hundreds, Liberties, &c. — Alfred the Great is said to have divided Eng- 
land into Counties, Hundreds, and Tithing s, to prevent the rapine and disorder 
which then prevailed in the realm, by making the inhabitants of each district 
responsible for the damage committed by lawless mobs. This law still exists, 
so that when damage is done to property by riotous assemblies, the injured 
party or parties claim and receive compensation by rate, levied with the 
county rate, on the inhabitants of the Hundred in which the damaged pro- 
perty is situated. Tithings w^ere so called because ten freeholders, with 
their famihes, originally composed one. A number, perhaps 100, of these 
Tithings, Towns, or Fills, originally composed a superior division, cajled a 
Hundred or Wapentake, in each of which a court was annually held for the 
trial of causes. An indefinite number of these Hundreds, which now vary 
both in size and poj)ulation, form a county or shu'e. Soon after the intro- 
duction of Christianity the Kingdom was divided into Parishes, and after- 
wards into Bishoprics. Formerly each Wapentake had a Governor, Avho 
determined all matters that could not be decided in the wapentake, or 
hundred courts. Hoveden says, "When a person received the government 
of a wapentake; at the appointed time or usual place, the Ealdor sort met 
liim ; and when he had got off his horse, rode up to him ; then he held up his 
spear, and took security of all present, according to custom ; whoever came, 
touched his spear wiUi theirs, and by this touch were confirmed in one 
common interest; and thus hovci Papnu (weapons) and Tac (a touch) or 
Taecape (to confirm) they were called wapentakes." 

The Assessed Yearly Rental of the County to the Police and County 
Rates in 1862 was ^£1, 773,440, which yields to a rate of one penny in tlie 
pound, ^'7389. 6s. 8d. For the year ending at Christmas, 1862, the amount 
levied for County Rates was ^18,011. 10s., and for the Constabulary force, 
^14,136. 16s. 8d. Besides these sums, more than ^£13,500 \vere received 
from govermnent and other sources, for the expenses of prosecutions, the 
maintenance and conveyance of prisoners, the services of constables, earn- 
ings of prisoners, &c. The principal ^;ay?/j^«fs during the year, were 
^1826, for criminal prosecutions; ^'3375, for Norwich Castle; <£3139, for 
Swaft'ham Prison; iJ638, for Wymondham Bridewell; .i'538, for bridges 
and roads; i£903, for MiUtia and Militia Artillery; iJ819, for coroners; 
£'3200 for Lunatic Asylum; £-1258, to the Clerk of tlie Peace; .£6125, to- 
wards liquidation of debt, and about £16,000 for the constabulary force. 
The County Debt amounted, at Christmas, 1862, to £34,368, borrowed by 
the county magistrates, chiefly from the Economic Life Assurance Office , 
of vvhicb £23,833 were owing on account of the new buildings at the County 



HISTORY OF NORFOLK. 



21 



Lunatic Asylum ; ^7175 on account of the Militia Store Houses, at Yar- 
mouth and Norwich; and <£3360 on account of Police Station Houses. 

Norfolk County Courts form Circuit No. 32, of which Thomas J. 
Birch, Esq., ofWrethamHall, Thetford, is Judge. Jonathan Townley, Esq., 
of Lakenhara, Norwich, is Treasurer for all the Courts, except Downham 
Market, Kings' Lynn, and Swaffham, of which G. E. Foster, Esq., of 
Cambridge, is Treasurer. The following is a list of the places at which 
Courts are held, with their respective Registrars and High Baihffs : — 



Places. 


Registrars. 


High Bailiffs. 


Aylsham 


W. H. Scott, Esq. 
Thos. L. Reed, Esq. 
Geo. H. Cooper, Esq. 
Geo. Wilkinson, Esq. 
Philip Wilson, Esq. 
Geo. Watson, Esq. 
Geo. Wilkinson, Esq. 
Thos. H. Palmer, Esq. 
Thomas Palmer, Esq. 
James Feltham, Esq. 
Edmund R. Palmer, Esq. 


Thos. Kerslake 


Downham Market ... 
East Dereham 


Benj. Parrott 
Thos. Kerslake 


Holt 


Thos. Kerslake 


King's Lynn 


J. H. S. Durbin 


Little Walsingham ... 

North Walshnm 

Norwich 


Thos. Kerslake 
Thos. Kerslake 
WiUiam Wilde, Jun. 


Swaffham 


J. H. S. Durbin 


Wymondham..... 


Thos. Kerslake 


Yarmouth 


John Cox 



Courts are held monthly at each of the above places, except Downham, 
Holt, Swaffham, and WjTuondham, where they are only held every two 
months. Norfolk is in the London Banhruptcy District, except for cases un- 
der .£300, which come mthin tlie jurisdiction of tlie County Courts, under 
the provisions of the Bankruptcy Act of 1861. 

The County Constabulary Force now consists of a Chief Constable, a 
Secretary and Deputy Chief Constable, 13 Superintendents, 8 Inspectors, 
9 Sergeants, and 190 Constables. The Chief Constable has a yearly salary 
of i'400, with an allowance of £,llo for horses, &c. The Deputy Chief 
Constable has ^£170 a-year, and his expenses for office books, stationery, 
&c., amount to nearly ^6120 per annum. Five Superintendents have £100, 
four have £115, and four have £120 each per annum, and the cost of their 
horses, &c., is about £820 a-year. The Inspectors have 27s. 6d., and the 
Sergeants 23s. 6d. per week. Seventy-eight Constables have 21s. 6d., 
seventy-six have 19s. 6d., and thirty-six have 17s. 6d. each per week. The 
Superannuation Fund consists of nearly £10,000, invested in the three per 
cent, consols, and annuities to the amount of about ^600 a-year are paid to 
retired officers. The Head Quarters of the force are at Castle Meadow, 
Norwich. Lieut. -Colonel George Black, is the Chief Constable; Mr. 
Henry Atthill is Secretary and Deputy Chief Constable ; and Mr. Francis 
Palmer is Chief Clerk. The Superintendents and their Divisions are 
James Winfield, Acle; Jonathan Chambers, Aylsham; John] Amis, 
Dereham; WiUiam B.ose, Docking ; William Watson, Downham ; Ildward 
Jones, Harling; John Mobbs (Inspector), Holt; John Ward, Loddon; 
Joseph Scott, North Walsham; Henry Atthill (Dept. Chief Const.), Nor- 
wich; John Wiiheford, Pulham; George Lambley. Swaffham; Charles Sea- 
man (of Tilney AU Saint's), Terrington ; WiUiam Blomfield, Walsingham; 
and Samuel Barrett, Wymondham. The City and County of Norwich 
has 95 PoHcemen, and Mr. Robert Hitchman is the Chief Constable. The 
Borough of Yarmouth has 32 poUcemen, and Mr. George Tewsley is 
the Head Constable. The Borough of King's Lynn has 19 PoUcemen, and 
Mr. C. Reeves is the Head Constable. The Borough of Thetford has no 
separate poUce force, but pays £138 a-year for the county poUce stationed 
there. 



22 HISTORY OF NORFOLK. 

Courts, Prisons, &c. — Assizes for the County of Norfolk, and for the 
City and County of the City of NoiT\dch, are held twice and sometimes 
thrice a-year, at Norwich ; the former at the Shirehall, at the Castle, and 
the latter at the Guildhall. General Quarter Sessions are held four times 
a-year, at Norwich for the eastern, and at Swaff ham for the western divi- 
sion of the county. The County Qaol and House of Correction is at the 
Castle, at Norwich; but there are also County Bridewells at Swaff ham and 
Wymondham, and Lock-uj) Houses for the temporary confinement of 
prisoners, at Acle, Aylsham, Dereham, Docking, Downham, Fakenham, 
Grimstone, Harling, Holt, Loddon, North Walsham, Norwich, Pulham, 
Reepham, Stalham, Swaffham, Terrington, Thetford, Walsingham, Watton, 
and Wymondham. The City and County of Norwich, and the Borough of 
Yaimouth have their own gaols and separate coiu'ts of Quarter Sessions. 
The Boroughs of Thetford and Lynn have also separate Sessions, but iheir 
prisoners are kept at the County Gaol, at Norwich, by arrangement with 
the magistrates. Petty Sessions are held at each of the police stations, and 
there is a Reformatory, at Buxton, near Aylsham. 

Ancient History. — For nearly four thousand years of the world's ex- 
istence, the history of Britain is almost a blank, except so far as it may be 
read in its geological phenomena. Prior to the invasion of Julius CjBsar, 
55 years before the birth of Christ, very little is known of its inhabitants, 
though some zealous antiquarians, deceived by fabulous legends, have 
assigned dates much earlier than that period to some of its oldest cities. 
In the romantic lore of ancient time, Norwich (Nortli-wic) is said to have 
been founded by Gurguntus, the son of Belinus, the twenty-fourth Idng of 
Britain from Brutus. Historians generally agree that the Aborigines of 
Britain were a tribe of Gallic Celts, who emigrated from the Continent 
about a thousand years before the birth of Christ. Before the Boman Con- 
quest, the ancient Britons in the southern parts of the island had made 
some progress towards civilisation, but the northern tribes were as wild as 
then* native hills, and subsisted chiefly by hunting and the spontaneous 
fruits of the earth ; wearing for their clothing, when the inclemency of the 
weather compelled them to such incumbrances, the skins of annuals, and 
dwelling in habitations formed by the " pillars of the forest rooted m the 
earth, and enclosed by interwoven branches." The most powerful natious 
among the Ancient Britons were the Brigantines, who occupied Yorkshire, 
and all the northern counties ; and the Iceni, who occuxned Lincolnshire, 
and all the IVIidland and Eastern Counties ; but these nations were sub- 
divided into various tribes, bearing difierent names. Of the Iceni tribes 
the Cenimanni or Cenomes occupied the counties of Cambridge, Norfolk, 
Suffolk, and Huntingdon, and parts of Bedfordshire and Northamptonshire. 
Their name appears to have been derived from the British words Cyni-manui, 
signifying the " headmost or foremost men;" and Caistor, near Norwich, is 
supposed to have been their Venta, or first city. Tlieh religion, which 
formed part of their free monarchical government, Avas Druidical, but its 
origin is not certainly Imowii, though some affirm that the Druids accom- 
panied the Celts in early ages from the cast ; and others say that Druidism 
was introduced l)y the Plucnicians of Cadiz, who were the first merchants 
that discovered and traded to this island, and for a considerable time 
monopoUsed its commerce, by carefully concealing their traffic from other 
nations ; but their lucrative trade in tin and other metals with which Corn- 
wall, Devon, and other parts of Britain abound, was ultimately traced to 
its source, and brought the Ptomans and other merchants to our shores. 

The civil jurisdiction and rehgion of the Druids prevailed in all parts of 
Britain. They dispensed j^^sficY', not under any written code of laws, but 
on what they professed to be equitable principles ; all their verdicts being 
determined by such sense as the assembled delegates entertained of im- 
partial justice ; aud on discordance of opinion in the congress, appeal was 



HISTORY OP NORFOLK. 23 

made to the Arch-Druid, whose sentence was decisive. Their religious 
ceremonies were few, and nearly in unison with those of the ancient 
Hebrews. They worshipped on high places, and in deep groves, and were 
not addicted to idolatry, as some authors assert, but adored the God of 
Nature, and rendered him praise on the yearly succession of the seasons, 
which they kept as solemn festivals. Though they dealt largely in allegory 
and symboHcal representations, they practised but little priestcraft, and 
held not the ignorance of their votaries in the bonds of superstition ; for 
they clearly explained the mysteries and symbols used in their ceremonies 
to the initiated, but to none else. To remove from the people all possibility 
of sophistry and innovation, their maxims of justice were taught orally ; 
the sons of cliief personages were disciples in their ethic schools, where the 
rules of moral life were inculcated as the foundation of human wisdom. 
They studied medicine and the virtues of plants, of which the mistletoe was 
their chief specific ; and they held nothing so sacred as the mistletoe of the 
oak, wliich being very scarce, they gathered with great pomp and ceremony 
on a certain day appointed for then- gTeatest festival. In their civil govern- 
ment capital offenders were sentenced to death, and publicly sacrificed on 
the altars of theii' temples, in the most a^^^l and solemn manner, wliilst 
those convicted of minor crimes were excluded from public worship, and 
excommunicated from all civil and religious benefits, till they had washed 
away, with the tears of repentance, the stains with which then* guilt had 
branded tliem. Juhus Csesar, in his " Commentarii de Bello Gallico" says 
the Druids (as the Gauls call thek magicians and wisemen) inculcated the 
immortahty and transmigration of the soul, and discoursed " with youth 
much about the heavenly bodies and their motion, the size of the heaven 
and the earth, the nature of things, and the influence and power of the 
immortal gods." The British Druids exercised their utmost authority in 
bpposing tiie usui'pation of the Roman invaders, who, fired with equal re- 
sentment, determined to secure themselves by exterminating the Druidic 
Order; consequently its priests were saciificed to this inhuman x)olicy; those 
who fled to the Isle of Anglesea perished in the flames, by tiie orders of 
Suetonius Paulinus; and subsequently, great numbers of them were 
massacred in the unsuccessful revolt of the Britons under Queen Boa- 
dicea. From this period the power and splendour of the Druids rapidly 
disappeared. 

Romans. — Julius Casar, having overrun Gaul, invaded Britain, near 
Deal, in Kent, 55 years before the birth of Christ, and after a sanguinary 
struggle, renewed in the following year, succeeded in establishing a Roman 
government in the southern parts of the island, unsettled in its nature, and 
transient in its duration ; for, being distracted by domestic war, the con- 
querors were obliged to return home, in order to preserve the seat of 
empire ; consequentiy the Britons remained unmolested till A.D. 48, when 
the Emperor Claudius sent over an army under the command of Plautius, 
who was succeeded by Ostorius Scapula, who established a chain of posts 
or forti'esses from the Severn to the Nen, for the purpose of keeping in 
check the yet imsubdued tribes to the northward. The Iceni who appear 
to have early formed an alliance witii tiie Romans, which had hitherto 
continued uninterrupted, regarding this operation as a foimidable demon- 
stration against then' territory, and resenting the attempts of Ostorius to 
deprive them of their weapons, took the field in great force, assisted by 
some of the neighbouring states, who were equally incensed at the conduct 
of the Romans. Their undisciplined bravery however j)roved of littie avail 
agaiust Roman weapons and Roman discipline ; and after a sanguinary 
confhct, they were obUged to submit to the harsh terms of their conquerors. 
This peace was of short duration, for exasperated by new oppressions, com- 
bined with atrocities still more galling, the Iceni again had recourse to 
arms. The death of Prasutagus, their king, and the impolitic arrange- 



24 HISTORY OF NORFOLK. 

meuls of his will, furiiishetl the Eomans with a pretext for coercive mea- 
sures, and with the most insulting rapacity the realm was plundered by the 
greedy centurions, the native chiefs were deprived of their estates, the royal 
family were treated as slaves, and for daring to remonstrate, Boadicea or 
Bunduica, the widow of the deceased king, was ignominiously scourged, and 
the chastity of her daughters was violated by the Roman officers. Fired 
by these atrocities, the Iceni flew to arms, and under the conduct of the 
injured but intrepid Queen, commenced an exterminating war. The Roman 
cities of Camulodunum (Colchester) -and Verulam (St. Alban's) were re- 
duced to ashes, the infantry of the ninth legion were cut to pieces, and the 
inhabitants of London were massacred with unsparing fury because they 
remained faithful to the Romans. Suetonius Paulinus, the Roman general, 
who had succeeded Ostorius, and was in Anglesea, destroying the temples 
and groves of Druidism, at the commencement of the insurrection, marched 
hastily to meet the exulting foe, whose numbers had increased to nearly 
250,000 men, whilst Suetonius had scarcely 10,000. Having chosen a spot 
encircled with woods, narrow at the entrance, and sheltered in the rear by 
a thick forest, the Roman general and his undaunted band, awaited the 
attack of the Britons, who being led on and animated by the heroic 
Boadicea rushed forward to the combat, but flushed by their former suc- 
cesses and confident of victory, they fought in such tumultuous disorder 
that their vast superiority of numbers, tended only to their own destruction, 
and the dire conflict ended in the total defeat of the Britons. A dreadful 
slaughter followed, neither sex nor age being spared, and it is said that 
about 80,000 of the Britons were destroyed on this fatal day, whilst the 
loss of the Romans was scarcely 400. Boadicea either died of grief or 
ended her days by poison, and though the British chiefs endeavoured to 
collect their scattered forces, and for some time kept the field, they durst 
not again contend with the Roman power. From this period history is 
silent as to the annals of the Iceni as a separate nation. Although Nor- 
folk formed part of the territory of the Iceni, and its aboriginal inhabitants 
must have shared in the disasters which befel that brave people, in their 
various, but unsuccessful struggles for liberty, there is no evidence in 
history that this portion of their country was ever the scene of the sanguin- 
ary conflicts between them and the Romans. The district of the Trino- 
bantes appears to have been the chief theatre on which British valour was 
displayed, with so much zeal, as to excite even the admiration of the victors. 
After the death of Boadicea and the disjpersion of the allied armies, Oereahs 
was sent into this island, and after him Julius Frotiuus, both which generals 
were successful against the vanquished Britons, but Julius Agricola dis- 
tinguished himself the most, and completed the conquest of Britain, even 
penetrating into the almost inaccessible forests and mountains of Caledonia. 
In the time of Suetonius, the Romans divided England into two Presidial 
Provinces, by a line drawn from Clausentum to Oabroseiitinu, that is from 
Southampton to Gateshead, near Newcastle. All the country on the east 
side of this imaginary line thej called Britannia Prima; and all on the west 
side Britannia Secunda; so that Norfolk was comprised within the former. 
But after they had gained a firmer footing in the north, they subdivided tho 
country north of Wiltshire, Berkshire, and Middlesex into three other pro- 
vinces, called Maxima Ccesariensis, Flavia Ccesariensis, and Valentia. Of 
these the first and third were Consular Provinces ; and the other Presidial, 
like Britannia Prima and Secunda, and included Norfolk and the whole 
territory of the Iceni. To keep the conquered Britons in subjection, as well 
as to guard the coast against the frequent attempts of the northern hordes, 
the Roman generals judiciously appointed a number of military posts in tliis 
part of their newly- acquired territory. Five principal stations were esta- 
blished in this county. These were Branodumim, (Brancaster ;) Oarianonum, 
(Caistor, nearYarmouth;) V€nta-Icenoru7n,{C&is,toY,nesiv'^oxwich;)Sitotnagus, 



HISTORY OF NORFOLK. 25 

(Thetford:) and Ad-Tuam, (Tasbm-gh ;) besides wliich, several subordinate 
Castra-^stiva and Stativa-hyherna were also formed. Of the latter kind 
were, according to some writers, 5wx^o«,5«<r^/i, near Aylsham, BucJfenham, 
Castle- Acre, and Elmham. At these places have been discovered, coins, 
urns, and other Roman remains. 

Before the reign of the Emperor Constantino, the Roman government in 
Britain was vested in a Prattor, who possessed the whole administrative, 
judicial, and mihtary power; a Qucsstor, or Procurator, arranged the affairs 
of tlie revenue ; and a numerous army of legionaries and auxiliaries secured 
the obedience of the people, and protected the country from invasion. The 
superintendence of the army was committed to tlu'ee Dukes; the first com- 
manded from the northern frontier to the Humber; the second, with tlie 
title of Comes tractus Maritimi, or Comes litoris Saxonici, i.e.. Count of the 
Saxon Shore, had the command of the troops on the coast from the Hum- 
ber to Land's End; and the third commanded the garrisons in the interior. 
The garrisons on the east side of the island are stated to have consisted of 
2200 infantiy, and 200 cavahy. These numbers are set down in the 
Notitia, written in the reign of the younger Theodosius, about the year 410. 
But as this allowance of troops was inadequate for the defence of each 
station, much more to subdue insurrection, it is probable that to the 
Romans were joined British conscript troops, not included in this enumera- 
tion ; for we find that about twenty years after, the imperial armies in this 
country were comprised chiefly of British auxiliaries, which, together with 
the few remaining troops, were recalled, to defend the Roman capital, in 
A.D. 446. The greatest and most protracted struggles of the Romans were 
with the Caledonians, or Plots and Scots, who, proudly refusing to crouch 
to the imperial eagle, frequently descended in rage from their native moun- 
tains, and penetrated into tlie Roman territories, even after the great-icall 
had been extended across the island by the Emperor Severus, from Solway 
Frith to the mouth of the Tyne, in A.D. 208. In consequence of these 
irruptions of the Caledonians, the northern parts of England became the 
chief seats of the power of the Romans; and Yorh, where Constantine the 
Great was bom in 272, obtained the name of Altera Roma. In 287, 
Carausius, who had been sent from Rome, with a fleet to guard the Bel^dc 
coast, passed over into Britain, and usurped the imperial purple at York. 
On the death of Constantius, in 307, his son, Constantine the Great, as- 
sumed the imperial purple at York ; but a few years afterwards he removed 
the seat of empire from Rome to Byzantium, which was subsequently called 
from him Constantinople. For the better government of his vast dominions, 
he now divided them into four prcBfecture.s, viz., Italy, Gaul, the East, and 
Illyria. Britain was included in the praefecture of Gaul. After taking 
with him to his wars in Gaul the flower of the British youth, this country 
was again left open to the devastating incursions of the Picts and Scots. 
Constantine embraced Christianity in 312, and made a solemn declaration 
of his sentiments in the celebrated edict of jMilan, which restored peace to 
the Cathohc Church, and promulgated the principles of religious hbert3^ 
Constantine died in 337, and though the Romans continued to hold their 
sway in Britain for more than a century after this event, their writings 
afford but scanty materials for illustrating the liistory of this island. In 
364, the Picts and Scots renewed their incursions, and the southern parts 
of the country were at the same time harassed by the Saxons, whose pre- 
datory descents on the coast indicated their intention to seize, as a prej', 
a dominion which imperial Rome now held "uith a feeble hand. Dissen- 
sions within, and assaults from without, were now fast hastening on the 
overthrow of the mighty empire of Rome ; and in 448, the Romans finally 
relinquished all possession, power, and authority in Britain, after an occu- 
pation of nearly four centuries. 

Saxons. — After the Romans had abandoned Britain, the country sank 



26 HISTORY OF NORFOLK. 

into a state of anarchy. Under the Romans, England and Wales contained 
thirty civitates, governed by their own magistrates, and it is supposed that 
the Britons, when left to themselves, established the same number of re- 
pubhcs. Civil discord terminated in the establishment of military tyran- 
nies, and to aggravate these maladies, the Picts and Scots again renewed 
their marauding irruptions into England. To crush these savage foes, the 
British chiefs united their forces under the command of Vortigern, King of 
the Belg£e. By his advice, the Saxons, under the command of Hengist and 
Uorsa, were at length introduced as auxiliaries against the Picts and Scots, 
whom they had no sooner overthrown, than, in their greedy concupiscence 
to possess the fertile country for which they had been fighting, they turned 
their swords upon the Britons, who made an obstinate resistance, in which 
they fought many great battles under Vortigern and the renowned King 
Artliur, who in 520 expelled the Saxons from York, and almost fi'om the 
Idngdom ; but after the death of that monarch, they again prevailed, and 
by slow progression of conquest, at length obtained possession of the whole 
of that part of the island, which from them obtained the name of England. 
They were confederated tribes consisting of the Angles, (hence the term 
Anglo-Saxons,) the Jutes, and the genuine Saxons, who had long been 
settled on the shores of the German Ocean, and extended from the Eyder 
to the Rhine. The Britons yielded to them no part of the country until it 
had been dearly purchased Avith blood, and 111 years elapsed from the 
invasion of the Saxons before they established the northern part of the 
Heptarchy, or seven kingdoms of Kent, East- Augha, Essex, Sussex, Wessex, 
Mercia, and Northumbria, into which England was divided. Hengist 
estabhshed himself as King of Kent about a.d. 457, and ^llas as King of 
Sussex in 491. Cerdic, another of the Saxon chiefs, became the first King 
of Wessex about 495 ; Uffa became IGng of East-Anglia in 575 ; Erhewin, 
King of Essex *in 585; Ethel/rid, King of Northumbria, in 547 ; and 
Crida, King of Mercia, about 58G. 

The Saxon leader, Utf'a, established himself in this part of the island in 
A.D. 575, and assumed dominion over that portion of the country which at 
present comprises Norfolk, Suff-olk, and Cambridgeshire, giving it the 
appellation of East-Angi,ia : and the inhabitants were denominated Ujfa- 
gines. About this period, it is highly probable, the city of Norwich 
arose out of the Venta-Icenorum of the Britons and Romans, and from its 
relative bearing to the old city, was called by the Saxons — North-wic. 
Some authors say that Orecca, the father of UfFa, was the first sovereign of 
East-Anglia. Uffa, who died a.d. 578, was succeeded by his son Titul, on 
whose demise, in 599, his son Redwald assumed the reins of government, and 
embraced Christianity, but by the inlluence of his wife renounced it again. 
He was succeeded, a.d. 624, by his son Erpemvald, who was assassinated by 
a relation named Riohbert,A.T>. 033. His half-brother Sigebert, or Sig- 
bercht, who succeeded to the crown, established the bishopric of Dunwich, 
in Suffolk, and formed the first seminary for religious instruction, which 
led to the establishment of an university in Cambridge. Fatigued with the 
burden of government, he resigned both his crown and its cares, a.d. 644, 
to his kinsman Egric, and retired into the monastery of St. Edmund, which 
he had founded at Bury. The Saxon kings were now at variance amongst 
themselves. Penda, King of Mercia, commenced hostilities against Egric, 
who called Sigebert from his monastic retirement to head his army; they 
were defeated and both slain in battle ; and Anna, nephew of Redwald, 
ascended the throne, restored Cenwalch to liis Idngdom of Wessex, and 
became the most celebrated of the East- Anglian princes. But Penda bring- 
ing against him the powerful resources of Mercia, he fell in battle, a.d. 054. 
From this period, the Mercian princes seem to have dictated in the choice 
of monarchs for the East- Angles ; and in the year 792, Qffa, King of 
Mercia, united the kingdom of East-Anglia with his own. 



SAXONS AND DANES. 27 

Tlie several kingdoms of the Heptarchy, or Octarchy, were reduced by 
intestine broils and the incursions of the Danes and Caledonians, to a state 
of confusion, approximating to anarchy, when Egbert ascended the throne 
of Wessex. He had been brought up in the court of Charlemagne ; and 
from that wise and powerful monarch he had learned to aspire at imiversal 
dominion. On his return to this country, a.d. 800, having taken the reins 
of government, he first directed his attention to the refractory Britons in 
Wales and Cornvrall, whom he so far subdued, as to render them tributary 
to his crown. He then x^roceeded to chastise the iusolence and usurpa- 
tions of the contiguous kingdoms, and to execute his plan of a general in- 
corporation of them into one government. Some of the states, too vreak 
for resistance, had previously met the wishes of Egbert, and he soon re- 
duced to compliance the remaining states of Mercia, East Saxony, and 
Kent. In this manner, the separate kingdoms of tlie Heptarchy were united 
into one great nation, about 380 years after the first landing of the Saxons 
on the shores of Britain, and Egbert was crowned King oi all England at 
Winchester, in a.d. 827. He was succeeded in 838 by his son EthelwoJf, 
who died in 857, and was succeeded first by Ethelbald, who had rebelled 
agamst him in his lifetime ; and then by Ethelbert, his second son, during 
whose short reign the country Vv-as again invaded by the Danes. Ethelbert 
died in 866, and was succeeded by his third brother Etheldred. In 867, 
the Danes came over in much larger numbers than before, under the com- 
mand of Hinguar and Hubba, sons of a Danish chieftain named Lothbroch, 
or Lodbrog, who ha-\dng been ship^\^;ecked near Yarmouth, was hospitably 
received by Edmund, King of East Angha, at his court at Reedliam, but 
was dastardly murdered by the King's huntsman. (See Reedham). The 
two leaders landed tlieu* troops near Yarmouth, and having passed through 
Norfolk with fire and sword, they burnt the monasteries of Crowland, 
Thorne}', Peterborough, Ramsey, Soham, and Ely, destroying most of the 
rehgious occupants. Ubba or Hubba, being left in Cambridgeshu-e, to 
protect the collected spoUs, Hinguar or Ingwar proceeded with his army to 
besiege Thetford, then a royal residence of the East-Anglian princes. 
Having forced an entiy, he gave his soldiers free booty ; who put most of 
the inhabitants to the sword, and reduced the city to ashes. Edmund, 
who was then at Eglesden, a village now called Hoxne, in Suffolk, received 
an insulting offer fi'om the Danish leader, pui'porting that if the king would 
renounce Christianit}-, and consent to worship Scandinavian idols, Ingwar 
would agi'ee that Edmund and himself should share the spoils of the king- 
dom. This roused the timid monarch to march against the enemy. The 
armies met at Snarehill, near Tlietford, and after great slaughter on both 
sides, a drawn battle ensued. The spmt of Edmund was subdued, and he 
made the fatal resolution never to encounter the Pagans again ; who, taking 
advantage of his pusillanimity, seized on his person, bound him in close 
fetters, and after scourging him, cut off his head Nov. 20, 170. They 
now overran the whole of East Anglia, but were repeatedly checked in 
theu' further encroachments by Etheldred, assisted by his younger brother 
Alfred, afterwards surnamed the Great. Etheldred was mortally wounded 
at the battle of Merton in 871, when Alfred succeeded to the kingdom, then 
reduced to the brink of ruin. 

King Alfred fought several great battles with the Danes, but being at 
length overpowed by numbers and deserted by many of his subjects, he v/as 
compelled to leave the Danes in possession of his country for some time, 
during which he remained in humble disguise at the cottage of a swine- 
herd in the isle of Athelney, amidst the fens of Somersetshire. The Saxons 
again uniting their forces against the tyranny and savage cruelt}^ of the 
Danes, Alfred resumed his dominion, and defeated the pagan marauders at 
Haddington, in Wiltsliii'e. This renowned monarch soon obtained the 
popular title of Alfred the Great. He divided the country into shii-es, 



28 HISTORY OF NORFOLK. 

hundreds, parishes, and tithings, established trial hy jury, and composed a 
famous body of laws, which may be considered as tlie foundation on which 
the glorious superstructure of Enghsh liberty was finally erected. Alfred 
was not less generous than brave, and strove to convert the Danes from 
mortal enemies into faithful subjects, by settling them in East AngHa and 
Northumbria, on condition of their accepting Christianity. Guthrum, their 
leader, was to hold East Anglia in capite, or fealty of the crown, as a feu- 
datory prince. Here for a while these marauders betook themselves to the 
cultivation of domestic duties, and received a code of laws. The great 
Alfred died in 901, after reigning 28 years. He was succeeded by his son 
Edward the Elder, whose cousin Ethelwold attempted to wrest the sceptre 
from his hand, with the assistance of the Danes. Ethelwold being slain in 
battle, peace was again restored between the Saxons and the Danes, but 
the restless spirit of the latter could not long brook restraint ; and encou- 
raged by fresh arrivals of their countrymen, they again broke out into open 
hostilities, but were subdued in 910 by Edward the Elder, who died in 925. 
He was succeeded by Athelstan, who carried his arms to the borders of 
Scotland, and obtained a complete victory over an almost innumerable host 
of enemies, who sought to seize his empire. Edmund, who succeeded him in 
941, was assassinated in 946. He was succeeded by Edred, who died 
in 955, when Edwy, a youth of fourteen, became Mng, but died in 959. His 
brother Edgar succeeded, and was acknowledged sole sovereign of England. 
He preserved peace by being always prepared for war. His fleet consisted 
of about 600 vessels, which constantly scoured the seas on all sides of the 
island. He kept the Scottish, Welsh, and other inferior princes in subjec- 
tion. He required of LedwuU, a refractory Welsh prince, to bring the 
heads of 300 wolves yearly to Winchester, and deposit them at the Bishop's 
palace, and this was continued tiU the entke race of these ferocious animals 
was destroyed in this country. Edgar travelled throughout his dominions 
to see that the laws were properly executed, and to redress abuses. He 
died in 975, and was succeeded by Edward the Martyr, who was assassin- 
ated four years afterwards. Ethelred then ascended the throne, and ob- 
tained the surname of the Unready, from his incapacity in governing the 
kingdom, or providing for its safety. In 981, the Danes again landed and 
pillaged the country, and during the succeeding twenty years they became 
very numerous in England, and lived indiscriminately among the Saxons. 
King Ethelred being unable to master them in the field or by law, resorted 
to treachery, and attempted to destroy their power by secretly ordering them 
to be massacred on the IWi of Novemher, 1002. Great was the slaughter 
committed on that fatal day, m the Southern parts of England ; but in the 
north the Danes were too numerously intermingled with the Saxons to be 
sentenced to assassination, and the detestable act so inflamed tliem vritli 
indignation, that in a little time the Saxons became the sport of an in- 
furiated enemy. In the same year the tax called Danegeld or Dane Money 
was imposed upon the people by Ethelred, and paid by that feeble sovereign 
to the Danes in order to render them peaceable. 

Sweyne, King of Denmark, to revenge the cruel massacre of his country- 
men, undertook the conquest of England. Landing with a powerful army 
in 1010, he fixed his camp on the banks of the Ouse, near York, where 
Ethelred marched with all his forces to give him battle. The engagement 
was bloody and well contested, but victory at length declared for the Danes ; 
and Ethelred, with a few of his followers, seizing a boat fled into Nor- 
mandy, leaving hie crown and liis kingdom to the conqueror. Sweyne died 
in 1014 at Gainsboro', where his son Canute was proclaimed king, but being 
obliged to return to Denmark, the English in his absence, recalled the 
banished King Ethelred, who after a feeble struggle to regain his crown, 
gave place in less than a year to his son Edmund Ironside, who fought 
three bloody battles with Canute. Their success was various, and at length 



SAXONS AND DANES. 29 

tlie Danish and Saxon nobility, equally harassed by these convulsions, 
obliged the kings to come to a compromise, and to divide the kingdom 
between them. Canute reserved for himseK the northern parts of the king- 
dom ; and the southern parts were left to Edmund Ironside ; but the latter 
being murdered about a month after this treaty, Canute was left in peace- 
able possession of the whole kingdom. In 1016, he summoned a general 
meeting of his nobles at Winchester, and again in 1020. At these parha- 
ments many wise and equitable laws were passed for promoting the peace, 
prosperity, and morality of his subjects. In 1016, Canute gi'anted his 
Charta da Foresta, the first law relating to forests. His piety and power 
were so much praised by his courtiers that some of them afiected to insinuate 
that all things would be obedient to his command. Canute, sensible of 
their adulation, reproved them in the following manner : — Being at South- 
ampton, he ordered his chair to be brought to the sea shore while the tide 
was coming in, and commanded the sea to retire. " Thou art under my 
dominion," cried he, " the land upon which I sit is mine ; I charge thee, 
therefore, to approach no farther, nor dare to wet the feet of thy sovereign." 
He feigned to sit some time in expectation of submission, till the waves 
began to surround him ; then turning to his sycophants, he observed that 
" the title of Lord and Master belonged only to Him whom both earth and 
sea were made to obey." His royal crown, which he never wore after giving 
tliis reproof, was presented to the priory of Winchester Cathedral, and sus- 
pended over the crucifix of the high altar, as a token of liis humility. He 
died at Shaftesbury in 1036, and was succeeded by his second son Harold, 
who died in 1039, when his brother Hardicanute ascended the throne. 
The violent and unjust government of the latter was of short duration, for 
he died in 1041, in consequence of excesses at the marriage feast of a Danish 
lord. Harold and Hardicanute leaving no issue, Edivard the Confessor, 
son of Ethelred, the Saxon, ascended the throne, and in him the dominion 
of the Danes in Britain was for ever extinguished. The Anglo-Saxons, 
who had long groaned under the Danish yoke, set no bounds to their joy, 
on finding the line of their ancient kings restored. Though Edward the 
Confessor had been bred in the Norman Court, and showed a predilection for 
the laws and customs of that country, he established here such wise and 
equitable laws as were cherished in his own and subsequent reigns. He 
married Editha, daughter of Earl Godwin, but from mistaken piety or fixed 
aversion, he abstained from her bed. Thus having no legitimate issue, 
when he died in 1066, in the 56th year of his age, and the 25th of his reign, 
tlie throne was left in dispute. 

The Beligion of the Saxons, wliich prevailed till the close of the 6th 
centiuy, was founded in traditional tales received from their fathers, not 
reduced to any system. Wooden, whom they deemed the ancestor of their 
princes, was regarded as the god of war, and was the chief object of their 
religious worship. They believed that if they obtained the favour of this 
divinity by their valour, (for they made little account of other virtues,) 
they should be admitted after death into his hall; and reposing on couches, 
should satiate themselves with strong drink from the skulls of their 
enemies whom they had killed in battle Little more is known of their 
theological tenets. We only learn that they were Polytheists ; that they 
worshipped the Sun and Moon ; that they adored the God of Thunder, 
under the name of Thor ; that they had images in their temples ; prac- 
tised sacrifices; and behoved firmly in spells and incantations. Their 
mythology is interwoven with our language. From the objects of their 
worship the names of our days have been derived. The first and second 
days in the week they dedicated to the Sun and Moon, hence Sunday and 
Monday; the third and fourth were dedicated to Tuisco and Woden, hence 
Tuesday and Wednesday ; the fiftli, sixth, and seventh, in like manner, to 
Thor, Frea, and Seator, hence Thursday, Friday, and Saturday. 



30 HISTORY OF NORFOLK. 

Bede says, the intention of converting the Anglo-Saxons to the Christian 
rehgion originated with Pope Gregory the First, surnamed the Great. It 
happened that this prelate, when in a private station, before he was elevated 
to the Pontifical chau% had observed in the Market place of Rome some 
British youths exposed for sale, whom their mercenary parents had sold to 
Roman merchants. Struck with their fair complexions and blooming 
countenances, Gregory asked to what country they belonged? and being 
told that they were Angles, he rophed that they ought more properly to be 
denominated Angels. Inquiring furtlier concerning the name of the pro- 
vince, he was informed that it was Deira, a district of Northumbria. Deira, 
replied he, that is good ! They are called to the mercy of God from his 
anger, De-ira. But what is the name of the Icing of that province ? Ella 
or Alia, was the reply. Alleluia, cried he, ive must endeavour that the praise 
of God he sung in their country. On his elevation to the Popedom, in 590, 
Gregory despatched Augustine, a Roman monk, with forty associates, to 
preach the Gospel in Britain. The marriage of Ethelbert, Ihc King of 
Kent, with Bertha, a Christian Princess of France, secured the missionaries 
a favourable reception. This auxiliary founder of the Christian rehgion in 
Britain, as she may properly be called, had been very assiduous in her 
devotional exercises, and had supported the credit of her faith by an irre- 
proachable life. Her popularity in the court, and her influence over the 
king, had so well paved the v^'ay for the Christian doctrine, that Ethelbert 
himself became a convert; Augustine was created Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, and Christianity obtained a footing which it has never since lost in 
tliis island. Liicius, King of the BeJgat, is said to have been converted to 
Christianity in A.D. 177, and to have built a Cathedral at ¥/inchester, but 
it was destroyed by the Romans during the Dioclesian prosecution, about 
tlie year 297; after which pagan darkness again reigned in Britain till the 
seventh century. The Normans, tliough their conquest of England was 
marked with great cruelty and injustice, were then among the most pohshed 
and learned people in Europe, and being zealous professors of Christianity, 
after they had firmly seated themselves in possession of the country, they 
began to build churches, as well as castles and mansions, in a more noble 
style of arcliitecture than had previously been seen in England. 

NoKMAN Conquest. — Harold II., son of Earl Godwin, ascended tlie 
tlirone on the death of Edward the Confessor, in 1066, but was opposed by 
his hvothev Tostig, the exiled Earl of Northumberland, who at length in- 
(kiced Harfager, King of Norway, to assist and accompany him in his 
invasion of England. They entered the Humber with a numerous arm3^ 
and having sailed up the Ouse, to within ten miles of York, they moored 
their vessels, and a desperate conflict ensued, in which Tostig and the Nor- 
wegian King were both slain, and Harold was victorious. But Harold's 
triumph was of short duration, for a messenger having arrived from the 
south on the following day, announced to him, as he sat in state at a magni- 
ficent entertainment in York, that Dulce William of Normandy, (whom 
Edward with his dying breath is said to have nominated as his successor 
to the croA^m,) had landed at Pevensey, in Sussex, on the 29th of September, 
1066. On receiving this unexpected intelligence, Harold marched at the 
Jiead of his army, through London to Sussex, in order to expel the invaders. 
The two armies met at Hastings, where, on the I4th of October, a sangum- 
ary battle was fought, in which Harold lost both his life and his kingdom, 
together with 60,000 men. Thus ended the Saxon monarchy in England, 
which had continued for more than 600 j^ears. 

William the Conqueror was nephew to Edward the Confessor, and had 
no sooner estabhshcd himself on the throne of England, than he set up 
various claims to his new possession. He dispossessed the English of 
their estates and offices of trust and confidence, and gave them to the 
numerous train of military adventurers who had come over with him from 



NORMAN CONQUEST. 31 

Normandy under the promise of reward. The roll of Battle Abbey, as 
given by Holinshed, contains the names of 629 Normans, who all became 
claimants upon the fair territory of Britain. After so mighty an agita- 
tion as that produced by the conquest, some years necessarily elapsed 
before the coimtry could be restored to a state of harmony ; and the inha- 
bitants of the ancient kingdom of Northumbria, still cherishing tlieir wonted 
spirit of liberty and independence, were among the last to bow their necks 
to the Norman yoke. A violent struggle took place in the north of Eng- 
land in an attempt to expel the Conqueror, and York was constituted the 
ralljdng point of the patriot army ; but he gained unmolested possession of 
all the soutliem counties immediately after the Battle of Hastings. In 
the south-western part of Hampshire, between Southampton Water and 
the river Avon, he laid waste 36 parishes to form the New Forest. For 
the purpose of gratifying his love for the chase he destroyed 36 churches, 
and a great number of villages, hamlets, and scattered dwellings, and laid 
waste upwards of 60,000 acres of land; driving out the inhabitants, and 
stocking it with deer, boars, and other beasts of chase. The Conqueror's 
son and successor William Bufiis, was accidentally Idlled in this extensive 
forest in 1100. Richard, another of his sons, was gored to death there by 
a deer; and Henry, his grandson, (son of Kobert Curtois,) while eagerly 
following the chase, "was stricken by a bough into the jaws, and so en- 
tangled in it, tliat he, like Absalom, was hanged there till he died." Tims 
divine vengeance is said to have been taken in the Conqueror's family, for 
his cruelty to the inhabitants of that part of England. Though the ruthless 
Norman Conqueror found but little opposition in the south, a period of 
three years elapsed before he could subdue his rebellious subjects in the 
North of England, where the Northumbrians, aided by the Scots and 
Danes, fought many battles with the Normans, routed them on several 
occasions, and put thousands of them to the sword. At length the Con- 
queror hastened to the north, at the head of a powerful army, swearing 
'"by the splendour of God" (his usual oath.) that he would not leave a soul 
of his enemies ahve. After re-taking York he laid the whole country waste 
from the Humber to the Tyne, and destroyed more than 100,000 of the 
inhabitants by sword and famine. 

Domesday Book. — After the Norman Invasion, Norfolk experienced a 
complete revolution in its civil and manorial privileges, as the Conqueror 
divided it, like the rest of the kingdom amongst his relations and followers. 
No sooner was "William seated on the throne of England than he showed 
that his policy was to root out the ancient nobihty, and to degrade the 
native inhabitants of the humbler classes to the rank of miserable slaves, 
and being conscious of the detestation in which he was held, he built 
and garrisoned strong castles to overawe the insulted and oppressed inha- 
bitants; and, as he entertained a perpetual jealousy of the English, he 
obliged them, in the wantonness of his power, and the restless apprehen- 
sions of his wicked mind, to extinguish their fires and candles every night 
at the hour of eight o'clock, on the toll of a bell, which obtained the name 
of the " Curfew." Having by these sanguinary atrocities, silenced tlie dis- 
affected, and constrained the country to a state of sullen repose, he caused 
a survey to be taken of all the lands in the kingdom, on the model of the 
Booh of Winchester, compiled by order of Alfred the Great. Tliis survey 
was finished in 1086, after a labour of six years, and was registered in a 
national record, called Domesday Book, in which the extent of each dis- 
trict, the state it was in, whether meadow, pasture, wood, or arable; the 
name of the proprietor, the tenure by which it was held, and the value at 
which it was estimated, were all duly entered. Tiiis "^ooA* of Judicial 
Verdict," written in Boman, with a mixture of Saxon, is still preserved 
amongst the national archives ; and in the 40th year of the reign of George 
HI., (1800,) a large number of copies of it were printed for the use of par- 
liament and the public libraries of the kingdom. Portions of it have also 



32 HISTORY OF NORFOLK. 

been recently reproduced in facsimile by the aid of pliotography. Tlirough 
all time it will be held in estimation, not merely for its antiquity, but for 
its intrinsic value. It afforded the Conqueror an exact knowledge of his 
own land and revenue, while the rights of his subjects, in disputed cases 
were settled by it ; and to this day it serves to show what manor is, and 
what is not ancient demesne. That nothing might be wanting to render it 
complete, and its authority perpetual, commissioners were sent into every 
county to superintend the survey, and their returns were made under the 
sanction of juries of all orders of freemen in each district, empanelled for 
the purpose. The inquisitions taken in each county were sent to Winches- 
ter, where the substance of them was formed into the register now called 
Domesday Booh, from the Saxon Dom BoJr, signifying the book of laws, 
though some have supposed it was so called by the dispossessed Saxons, 
who were doomed by it to serfdom, or slavish dependency. When lirst 
written it was called Liher de Wintonia, tha,t is Book or Roll of Winchester , 
which was also the title of the register of a similar survey, said to have 
been made by order of Alfred the Great, about A.D. 900, when he di\dded 
the kingdom into counties, hundreds, and tithings. Alfred's Register is 
said to have been extant at the Norman Conquest, but being of little use 
after the Norman Survey, it was neglected and lost; which has caused some 
antiquaries to doubt even its existence. As we occasionally give in the 
parish histories in this volume a translated copy from Domesday Book, of 
all that is important relative to the manors and estates of Norfolk, it is 
necessary to explain the land measures, and obsolete feudal terms, used at 
the time to which it refers. 

Measurement, &c., in Domesday Book. — A PercJi, 20 feet. An Acre, 
40 perches in length, and four in breath. An Oxgang or Bovate, as much 
as a pair of oxen can keep in husbandry, usually 15 acres. A Virgate, or 
Yard Land, about 40 acres. A Garucate, Carve, or Plough Land, generally 
100 acres, or eight oxgangs. A Hide, an uncertain quantity, generally 
about 120 acres. A Knight's Fee, five hides. BerewicJcs, are manors 
within manors. Merchet, or Maiden's Bent, was a payment to the lord 
of the manor, in commutation of his right witli the virgin bride on the 
marriage of a vassal's daughter. Heriot, a tribute to the lord for his better 
maintenance in war. Theam, was a manorial jurisdiction; and Tnfangtheof, 
the power of passing judgment on any theft. Socmen, were inferior land- 
owners, who held lands in the Soc, Soke, or Liberty of a great baron, by 
copyhold or socage tenure. Bordars, were small occupiers, living in a bord 
or cottage ; and supplying eggs, &c., for their lord's board or table. Villeins 
or Villains, were husbandmen, servants, &c., little better than the Saxon 
serfs ; — attached to the soil, though on taking the oath of fealty they had 
the right of protection from cruelty, but were not allowed to acquire i^ro- 
perty of any sort. 

Feudal System. — In carrying out the machinery of the feudal system, 
all lands in England were described as being held of the King ; and all 
gi'eat vassals of the Crown, whether lay or clerical, were compelled to have 
a certain quota of knights, or horsemen, completely armed, and to maintain 
them in the field during the space of forty days. By this regulation the 
King, at any time, could raise an army of 60,000 horsemen. The chief 
tenants, or lords, generally divided their estates into two portions, one of 
which {viz. the demesne) they let or cultivated themselves, and the other was 
bestowed on military tenants, with the obligation of serving on horseback. 
Fealty and homage were required from all the free tenants. The military 
tenants of the crown were obliged to attend the court at the three great 
festivals, and hence were called the kings harons, and their lands baronies. 
By degrees two classes arose, viz. the lesser and the greater barons, and as 
the latter only attended the king, they alone retained the title of barons. The 
king's great barons, who held a large extent of territory of the crown, 



FEUDAL SYSTEM. ^3 

granted out smaller manors to inferior persons, to be held under tliem ; and 
this seigniory was termed an honour. The barons were bound to keep 
their honour courts " every year at least, or oftener if need be ; at which 
court all the freeholders of the manors that stood united to the honours 
were requu'ed to make their appearance as suitors, and not to sit, but to 
stand bare-headed." All the fees granted by the Conqueror were in per- 
petuity to the feoffees and their legitimate descendants. But in case of tlie 
failure of heirs, of felony, or treason, the fee was escheated, or forfeited to 
the crown. Fees of inheritance were always enjoyed by the nearest heir ; 
but what the tenant acquired by purchase, or from favour, was at his own 
disposal. When the heir of a fee was a minor, he became the ward of the 
lord : when the fee descended to a daughter, the lord claimed the right to 
dispose of her in marriage, also the homage and sei-vice of her husband. 
These grievances continued until the I2th of Charles II., when " all tenures 
of honour, manors, lands, &c., were turned miofree and common socage." 
The Normans preserved most of the Anglo-Saxon laws and customs; but 
despising the fiery ordeals of the English, they preferred their own trial by 
battle, as more worthy of freemen and warriors. They separated the 
spiritual from the secular courts, which produced much rivalry between the 
two jurisdictions. The old distinction of classes, viz. Earldormen, Thanes, 
Cearls, and Theowas, were preserved under the names of Count, or Earl, 
Baron, Knight, Esquire, Free-Tenant, Villein, or Villain, and Neif. 

Under the government of this military aristocracy, the miseries inflicted 
upon the natives were severely oppressive, and the autliority of the monarch 
was insufficient to repress the irregularities of his haughty and warHke 
barons. The lord who had strength sufficient to wrest land from another, 
was suffered to retain his acquisition till superior violence forced it from 
him. Young knights and esquu'es exercised themselves in rapine and 
robbery ; even the bishops, during the reign of King Stephen, joined in the 
general practice of depreciation ; and in King John's reign, the castles of 
the barons are said to have been little better than the caves of robbers and 
the dens of thieves. While society was in this state of military chaos, 
hnight-errantry arose in England, and became a popular and lucrative pro- 
fession. These Imights travelled about the country for the purpose of re- 
dressing such wrongs as the laws were too feeble to remedy, but their prin- 
cipal objects were the acquisition of honour and wealth. As the manners 
of the people became more refined and domesticated, the utility of chivalry 
diminished, and after the reign of Edward III., it disappeared with the 
evils which it had contributed to remove. The Norman Lords or Barons, 
who enjoyed the landed property of England, after the Conquest, held their 
possessions as they had obtained them, by the sword ; but some of them 
were subsequently dispossessed on account of disaffection, and their estates 
were conferred by William and his successors on subjects more devoted to 
the interests of the crown. 

The order generally observed in writing Domesday Book was to set 
down at the head of every County the King's name, and then a list of the 
Bishops, Religious Houses, Churches, and great men, according to their 
rank, that held of the King in capite, or serjeantry, in that county. After 
this list of tenants, the manors and i)OSsessions which belonged to the King 
and to each owner throughout the whole county, whether they lie in the same 
or different Hundreds, are collected together, and minutely noted, with 
then- under-tenants. The follo"«dng is a list of the chief tenants enumerated 
in Domesday Booh, as holding the manors in " Nordfolc," at the time of the 
Norman Survey ; with some additional notes and explanations : — 
Res Willelmus (William I.) Yarmouth. 



Norwich Burgenses. 

BuRGENSEs in H. de H. 

Franci de NoRwic in Novo Burgo. 



Thetford. 
Terre Regis quas Godric servat. 
Terre Stigand, Epi, quas custodi 

c 



34 



HISTORY OF NORFOLK. 



W. De Noiees in manu regis. 
Odo, Bishop of Baieux. He was brother 
to the king by the mother's side, re- 
ceived 22 manors in this county, and 
was created Earl of Kent. 
Earl De Mauritanio, Earl of Mortain 
in Normandy, and of Cornwall, in 
England. He was half brother to the 
Conquerer. 
Alan Kufus. Received Sl^manors, and 
was created Earl of Richmond, in 
Yorkshire. 
Eakl Ecstace, of Bouillon, in Picardy. 
He married Goda,'sister by the father's 
side to Edward the Confessor, and 
was father of the famous Godfrey de 
Bouillon, who won Jerusalem from the 
Saracens. 
Hugh De Abrancis, He was nephew 
to the Conqueror,' and was surnamed 
Lupu?. He was a person of great 
note amongst the Norman nobiiitv, 
and a very expert "soldier. Hia earl- 
dom of Chester was given him to hold 
as free by the sword as the king held 
England by the crown, and he received 
12 manors in Norfolk. 
Robert Malet. He held the office of 
Grand Chamberlain of England un- 
der Henry I., but was disinherited 
and banished for taking part with 
Robert Curtbose. 
William de Warren. Earl of Warren, 
in Normandy, and nearly allied to the 
Conqueror. He received as a " meed 
of valour," 139 lordships in this 
county, and was constituted one of the 
chief justiciaries of the kingdom. 
William Rufus conferred upon him the 
Earldom of Surrey. 
Roger Bigot. 

Bishop of Theteord, ad ejnscopatum 
pertlnens. (William Galsagus, or 
Beaufoe). 
Feudum Ejttsdem. 
St. Michael, Norwich. 
OsBERN Bishop of Exeter. He was 
kinsman to Edward the Confessor, and 
allied to the Conqueror. His brother, 
Wm. Fitz Osbern, Earl of Hereford, 
v;as the chief and earnest adviser of 
the Conqueror enterprising the crown 
of England, and had the principal 
command at the Battle of Hastings. 
GoDRic Dapifer. 

Hermerus. He was a powerful Norman 
baron, and takes place in the Survey 
before the Abbots. His possessions 
came afterwards to the Lords Bardolf. 
Abbey of St. Edmund. 
Abbey of Ely. 
Abbey of Ramsey. 
Abbey of Hulme. 



St. Stephen of Caen. This Church 
was founded by the Conqueror in 1064, 
and he was buried there in 1093. 
William De Scohies. Had large pos- 
sessions in Norfolk, most of which he 
sold in the reign of Henry I. to Walter 
Giffard, Earl of Buckingham. 
Ralph de Bellofago. He was a near 
relation, if not the son of William de 
Beaufoe, bishop of Thetford. His 
only daughter and heiress married 
Hubert de Rie, second son of Hubert 
de Rie, a trusty servant of the Con- 
queror. 
Rainaldus Jilius Ivonis. He bad many 
lordships granted to him, all which 
came into the family of the Earls of 
Clare. 
Ralph de Todeni. He was descended 
from Roger de Todeni, or Toenio, 
standard bearer to the Conqueror, 
and received 19 lordships in this 
county. His son Ralph married Judith, 
daughter of the great Earl Waltheof. 
Hugh de Montfort. He was one of 
the commissioners appointed by Wm. 
I. for the restitution and reseizing of 
whatsoever had been unjustly taken 
from the bishoprics and abbeys all over 
the kingdom, and lost his life in a 
combat with Walchsline de Ferrers. 
EuDo Dapifer. Fourth son of Hubert 
de Rie, and steward of the household 
to William I., received 9 manors in 
this county. 
Walter Giffard. Was son of Osborne 
de Bolebec and Aveline his wife, sister 
to Gunnora, Duchess of Normandy, 
and great grandmother to the Con- 
queror. He was created Earl of Buck- 
ingham, received 28 manors in Norfolk, 
and was one of the principal persons 
who compiled the Survey. 
RoGERii PicTAviENsis. Qu(S fucrent. 
Ivo Tailbois. Was brother to Fulk Earl 
of Anjou and Lord of Holland, and 
married Lucia, sister of the Earls Ed- 
win and Morcar. 
Ralph de Limesi. Was nephew to the 
Conqueror, and had only one lordship 
in this county, 
'EiVDo jilius SPiREuuic. The founder of 
the Tattershall family in Lincolnshire. 
Drogo de Beurere. Was a noble 
Fleming, who attended the Conqueror 
on the invasion, and was rewarded with 
large estates in several counties. He 
was probably ancestor of Wm. Briwere, 
who stood in great favour with Henry 
11. , Richard L, John, and Henry III. 
Ralph Bainard. The head of whose 
barony was Baynard's Castle, in the 
city of London. 



DOMESDAY BOOK. 



sa 



Ranulph PiPERELii. The reputed pro- 
genitor of the families of Piperell and 
Peverell. 

Egbert Geenon. Was descended from 
the house of Boulogne, and from him 
the noble family of Cavendish is line- 
ally descended. William, his second 
son, assumed the name of Montfichet. 

Peter Valoniensis. Was a great baron, 
and married Albreda, sister to Eudo 
Dapifer. He had 20 lordships in this 
county, and his descendants made the 
castle of Oxford the principal seat of 
their barony. 

Rob-eut JiUus Corbutionis. 

Ralph frater Ilgeri. 

Tehel Brito. He was sumamed Brito, 
being undoubtedly one of the Britons 
or Armoricans,who served under Alan, 
Earl of Brittany. 

Robert de Verli. 

Humphrey j^?z«s Alberici. 

Humphrey de Bohun, From him de- 
scended Humphrey de Bohun, who 
marrying Margery, the eldest of the 
sisters of Mahell, Earl of Hereford, 
and Constable of England, possessed 
those honours in her right. 

Ralph de Felgeres. 

Gilbert jilius Richeri. 

Roger de Ramis. He was created 
Baron of Raines. 

Ivikellis the Priest. 

COLEBERNUS THE PrIEST. 

Edmund filius Pagani. 

Isaac. 

Tovus. One of the Conqueror's attend- 
ants. He had several manors in 
Norfolk. 

John Nepos Walerani. 



Roger ^Zms Renardi. 

Bernerus Arbalistarius. 

Gilbert Arbalistarius. 

Ralph Arbalistarius. 

Rabellus Aetifex. He had the com- 
mand, as an engineer,, of all the en- 
gines, or brakes, and the direction of 
them at the battering of forts, &c. 

Hago "^til Hugo. 

Ralph jilius Hagonis. 

Ulchetellus. 

Alfred. .4 4—:. r^ H*-» f^ C* ^ 

Aldit. U.r>.,Up i OcO_l_ 

GoDwiNUS Ealdenus. He seems to 
have been an old English Saxon or 
Dane, and was apparently the only 
person in Norfolk, who was allowed to 
keep the lands he held at the Con- 
quest. 

Stracolfus. a Dane who for his ser- 
vices to the Conqueror against King 
Harold, had lands granted to him in 
this county. 

Edric Accipitarius. 

LiBERi Homines ad nullam firmam per- 
tinentes T. E. R. These were free- 
men who held their lands independent 
of any lord, as in the time^of King 
Edward. 

LiBERi Homines Regis. These] were 
Thanes, or servants of the king. 

Invasiones in Nordfolc. Under this 
title were entered such people as 
retained their lands or had possessed 
themselves without a title from the 
Conqueror. There were many of these 
Invaders or Intruders, but more in 
Norfolk, Suffolk, and Essex than in 
any other countieSc 



The Conqueror created Ralph Waher or O^iader, Earl of Norfolk and 
Suffolk, and bestowed upon him nine manors in this county. To WiUicmi 
de Albini Pincerna, his bursar, he gave the possessions of a Thane, named 
Ed-^dn, comprising the four manors of Snettisham, Sharnbom, Stanhoe, 
and Buckenham, the latter to be held by the service of bursar, or butler 
to the king; whence De Albini took the additional name of Pincerna. 
During the reign of the Conqueror, Ralph de Waher having forfeited 
his honours and estates, by taldng uj) arms against his sovereign, both 
were conferred on Hugh Bigod, who had distinguished himself in the 
battle of Hastings. The property continued in this family till the time 
of Edward the Second; for, in 1312, Thomas de Brotherton had a char- 
ter in-tail general of the honours and estates of Boger Bigod, Marshal 
of England, and Earl of Norfolk. These were confiiTaed to him in the 
reign of King Edward III., in whose time, the manors in the hundred of 
Brothercross, which, till that period, had belonged to the Earls of Warren 
and Surrey, were given to John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster. The great 
estates in the Hundred of South Erpingham, descended from the Barons 
de Rye, to the Marshals, Earls of Pembroke, and from them to the Morley 
family. The possessions of the Albini family, afterwards Earls of Arundel, 
passed with their heiress to the Montalts, in the reign of Henry HI. The 
estates of Ralph de Toni, went by marriage, in the time of Edward II., into 

c3 



36 HISTORY OF NORFOLK. 

the family of Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick. Of the great proprietary 
usurpers established here by the Conqueror, but few of their descendants 
held their estates for any great length of time. The property has frequently 
changed owners. In the reigns of Henry VII. and VIII., amongst the 
great land owners here, were the families of Townshend, Yelverton, 
Hobart, Level, Southwell, Gawdy, Spelman, Howard, Fitzalan, Willoughby 
de Eresby, Denny, Darce, Shelton, Kerdiston, Coke, Paston, Goring, Ber- 
ney, &c. By the abolition of feudal customs, the admission of all classes 
of society to participate in the distribution of legal privileges, and the 
general diffusion of a spirit of trade and commerce, property has been 
greatly divided ; and though in some cases, large tracts of land have been 
accumulated into great estates, yet, in numerous instances, both the tenures 
and the owners have been changed. 

The Historical Events which have happened in Norfolk, since the Nor- 
man Conquest, are detailed in the Histories of Norwich, Yarmouth, Lynn, 
Thetford, &c., at subsequent pages; therefore, a brief summary of their lead- 
ing features will here suffice. In the time of William Rufus, Norfolk was 
a scene of confusion, by Roger Bigod having sided with Rohert Curthose 
against the king; in which contest the county suffered very considerable 
devastation. During the commotions excited in the kingdom b}^ the unna- 
tural attempt of Prince Hemy, to wrest the crown fi'om the head of his 
father. King Henry, this county participated largely in the disasters which 
arise from civil discord. Earl Bigod espoused the prince's cause, but the 
King's troops being victorious, the Flemings, in the pay of the prince, were 
permitted to return to their own country, and Bigod purchased his peace at 
the expense of 1000 marks. In the turbulent reign of King John, Roger 
Bigod, Earl of Norfolk, took part with the refractory Barons. And while 
they were taking cities and towns in one part of the kingdom, John Avas 
laying waste, with fire and sword, the baronial j^ossessions in another. In 
his career he came to Lynn, where, being well received, he crossed the 
Washes with the loss of his baggage, to the Abbey of Swineshead, in his 
way to Newark Castle, where he died. After this, the county was overrun 
by Prince Leivis, who exacted heavy contributions. In Richard the Second 's 
time, a powerful insurrection broke out in Essex, under Wat Tyler and two 
other daring leaders, and tlie disaffection soon spread into Norfolk, where 
the rebels were headed by Litester, the Norwich dyer ; but these " Norfolk 
Levellers' were ultimately overthrown by the Bishop of Norwich. Two 
other rebellions broke out in the reign of Edward VI., owing to a system of 
enclosing, adopted by the nobility and gentry, who had been put in pos- 
session of the abbey lands. Though they happened in different parts of the 
kingdom, (Norfolk and Devon,) they were evidently the consequence of 
previous communication, and a preconcerted plan. The Norfolk insurgents 
were headed by the two Ketts, of Wymondham, and under their exactions 
and outrages, tlie county suffered severely for several months, but they were 
finally subdued by the army under the Earl of Warwick, in a dreadful bat- 
tle fought near Normch, on August 27th, 1549. At the commencement of 
the Civil Wars, in the reign of Charles I., Norfolk took a decisive part. 
When the parHament had voted the necessity of taking up arms against the 
King and his party, on July I2th, 1642, the inhabitants of this county 
generally approved of that determination, and Norwich, Yarmouth, and 
other places were speedily garrisoned by the jDarliamentarian troops. — At 
no period during this long unnatural struggle, did the King's forces make 
much impression in Norfolk, though Lynn was occupied by them ^till 
September, 1043. 

Civil, Political, and Honorial History. — In the early reigns of the 
Saxon princes, the civil and military authorities were blended together in 
the same persons, who, from their rank, were styled yJ^thelings, and from 
theii* office, JEaUkrmen, or Earls. — These were tiic vicegerents of royalty, 



CIVIL AND MILITAEY GOVERNMENT. 3T 

— being empowered to raise troops and contributions ; to repel invasion, 
quell insurrections, and preserve the King's peace, — until Alfred the Great 
separated the civil and niihtary functions, and founded the basis of the pre- 
sent enviable constitution of England. Before this period, one mote or 
court served for the decision of civil, ecclesiastical, and military causes ; for 
hearing which, the earl and the bishop conjointly x)resided, but a severation 
was now made between temporal and spiritual concerns. The bishoi? was 
allowed to hold a privileged court for his diocese ; and the Sheriff had the 
power granted him of holding courts for determining such civil causes as 
were previously tried by the Earl, Until 1576, one sheriff served for the 
two counties of Norfolk and Suffolk,— both being in the bishopric of Nor- 
wich. The Sheriff is elected yearly; attends the judges at the assizes; 
assists in the execution of justice ; has virtually the custody of all the 
county prisoners; and holds a court called the Sheriff's Torn, for enquu-ing 
into all offences committed against the common or statutable law of the 
realm. The Military and Maritime government of Norfolk is usually 
vested in the same person. The Earl of Leicester is the present Lord- 
Lieutenant, Gustos Rotulorum, and Vice-Admiral. In the two first capa- 
cities, he is appointed by the Crown, and as deputy viceroy, presides 
over the affairs of tlie county, has the control of the militia and volun- 
teers, and the appointment of deputy-lieutenants and magistrates. As 
Vice-Admiral of Norfolk, he is appointed by, and executes liis authority, 
under the Lord High Admiral of England. He has power to hold a 
Court of Admiralty for the county, with judges, marshals, and other pro- 
per officers, subordinate to him, for the purpose of exercising jurisdiction 
in all maritime affairs within his peculiar Hmits ; but the mayors of Yar- 
mouth and Lynn have admiralty jurisdictions on the rivers of their 
respective boroughs and ports. Froin the decision of these local courts, an 
apxDeal lies to the High Court of Admiralty. Exclusive of the borough and 
general jurisdiction of the county, and the Queen's courts, there are in 
Norfolk several Honorial Jurisdictions, with courts, peculiarly privileged 
by exemptions and powers, vested in the lords paramount of the Honors 
OR Liberties. The Court for the Liberty of the Duchy of Lancaster is 
kept at Aylsham; for the Honor of Rhye, at Hingham; for the Fee of Rich- 
mond, at Swaffham; and for the Liberty of theDuhe ofNorfollc, atLopham, 
or elsewhere, within the liberty, at the discretion of his Grace. The latter 
liberty is very extensive, comprising the four Hundreds of Earsham, Guilt- 
cross, Launditch, and South Greenhoe,and the following scattered parishes, 
viz. : — Yelverton-with-iUpington, Aldeby, Bixley, Bayfield, Boughton, 
Bramerton, Caistor-next-Norwich, Cantley, Dichingham, Dickleburgh, 
Forncett St. Mary and St. Peter, Framingham-Earl-and-Pigot, Hedenham, 
Halvergate, Holverstone, Loddon, Limpenhoe, Poringiand, (Great and Lit- 
tle), Reedham, Sisland, Strumpshaw, Seetliing, Tunstall, Thwaite, Toft- 
Monks, South Walsham, Wickhampton, Winterton, and Wheatacre-Burgh. 
Two Coroners are appointed to this extensive Honorial Liberty of His Grace 
of Norfolk; one for the Liberty of Sir Thomas Hare; one for the Hundred 
of Clackclose; and one for the Liberty of the Duchy of Lancaster, which 
comprises the Hundi-eds of Brothercross, Gallow, North and South Erping- 
ham. North Greenhoe, and Smithdon. 

Earls and Dukes of Norfolk. — Before the Conquest, there were seven 
successive LJarls of Fast Anglia, viz.: — iEthelstan, Ethelwold, Alwin, 
Ulfkettlc, Turketel or Turkil, Harold, and Leofric. Eali^h de Waher, or 
Guader, was created Earl of Norfolk and Suffolk, by the Norman Con- 
queror. Having rebelled against liis benefactor, in 1057, he was obhged to 
fly to Denmark, and part of his confiscated estates, together witli the title 
of Earl of Norfolk, were conferred on Roger Bigod, who had previously 
obtained several great lordships in this county, as a reward for his eminent 
services in the battle of Hastings. High Bigod, the third Earl, died 



88 HISTORY OF NORFOLK. 

attainted, in 1177; after wldcli, his heiv— Roger Bigocl, was obliged to pur- 
chase the title and estates, by paying a fine of 1000 marks. In the reign 
of King John, he joined the reh-actory barons, and was one of the most 
active amongst them in procui'ing for the people that great palladium of 
Enghsh liberty — Magna Ghana. Roger Bigod, the sixth Earl, was 3Iar- 
8lial of England in right of his mother Maud, the sister and co-heu'ess of 
Anselm, Earl of Pembroke, and Earl Marshal. He died in 1270, and was 
succeeded by his nephew Roger, who, having no issue, surrended his Earl- 
dom and Marshal's rod to king Edward I., who conferred them both on his 
fifth son, Thomas Plantagenet de Brotherton, who died without male issue, 
in 1338 ; after which, his eldest daughter, Margaret, was created Duchess of 
Norfolk for life, and married Lord Segrave. Their daughter, Elizabeth, 
was married to Thomas Lord Moubray, who, in right of liis wife, succeeded 
to the Honor of Norfolk, and was created Duke of NorfoU; in 1397; but he 
was banished the following year, and died at Venice in 1400. His second 
son, John de Mowbray, having fought vahantly, dui'ing the wars in France, 
was, by an unanimous vote of parliament, restored to the title of Duke 
of Norfolk, in 1424. John de Mowbray, the foiu'th Duke, died in 1475, 
without male issue. His infant daughter was betrothed to Richard Plan- 
tagenet, Duke of York, second son of Edward IV., who was created Duke of 
Norfolk, in 1477, but being murdered in the tower, with his brother 
Edward, by order of his ambitious uncle, Richard III., all his honors be- 
came extinct. Sir John Hoivard, Kt., who was descended fi'om a daughter 
of Thomas de Mowbray, the first Duke, was created Duke of Norfolk and 
Earl Marshal, in 1483, but was slain at Bosworth-Field, in 1485, while 
fighting for the ruthless Richard III. 

Howard Fa:niily. — The titles of Duke of Norfolk, Earl Marshal, &c., still 
remain with the illustrious family of Howard, wliich ranks in the British 
Peerage next the Blood Royal ; but it has had its share of state sufierings ; 
the block has been several times stained with its blood, and its dignities 
and possessions have been often forfeited to the Crown, but as often restored. 
The Howards are descended from the Earl of Passy, in Normandy. William 
Howard, a learned judge in the reigns of Edward I. and II., was one of 
their ancestors. His son, John Howard, was sheriff of Norfolk and Suff^olk, 
and served in the wars against the French and Scots, in the latter reign. 
Sir John Howard, the son of the latter, was a renowned admiral in the reign 
of Edward III. His grandson, Robert, married Margaret, daughter and co- 
heu'ess of Thomas de Mowbray, the first Duke of Norfolk. He had issue 
by that lady, Johyi Hoivard, who was commonly called ''Jockey of Norfolk," 
and distinguished himself in the wars with France, in the reigns of Henry 
VI. and Edward IV., in the latter of which he was " Captain- General of 
the king's forces at sea," Deputy-Governor of Calais, summoned to Parhament 
among the barons, and Constable of the Tower of London; and obtained a 
grant in special tail of divers lands and manors. He (Jockey of Norfolk) 
had a pension fi'om France, and in addition to it, he received from 
Louis XI., in less than two years, in money and plate, " 24,000 
crowns, by way of dhect bribe." He got all the honom's of Earl-Marshal, 
&c., in return for his favouring the usui-pation of that blood-stained 
monarch, Richard III., with whom he w^as lolled at the battle of Bosworth- 
Field, in 1485, and being attainted, all liis honours were forfeited. But 
hia son Thomas subsequently obtained the favour of Henry VII., and was 
restored to the title of Earl of Surrey. He afterwards routed the Scots at 
Flodden Field, and rendered such essential service to Hemy VIII., that 
in 1514, he was created Duke of Norfolk. William, his second son, was 
cieated Baron Howard of Effingham) and Thomas, his eldest son, suc- 
ceeded hmi as Duke of Norfolk; but after rendering great services to 
Hemy VIII. both as a soldier and a plenipotentiary, he was seized and 
attainted with liis son Henry, who lost his head on Tower Hill, in 1547. 



HOWAED FAMILY. 39 

He liiinself, however, lived till the catholic Mary ascended the throne, and 
restored him to all his honours and estates, in 1553 ; but he died in the 
following year, when he was succeeded by his grandson, Thomas, who, in 
the protestant reign of Ehzabeth, was attainted and beheaded in 1572, '' for 
taking paii; with Mary Queen of Scots." His son, Philip, Earl of Arundel, 
(by Margaret, sole heiress of Heniy Fitz Alan, Earl of Arundel,) was found 
guilty of high treason in the 23rd of Elizabeth, and died in the Tower six 
years afterwards. Thomas, Earl of Arundel, son of the latter, introduced 
the " Arundel Marbles' into this kingdom, and obtained possession of 
Sheffield, &c., by marrying Lady Alethea Talbot. Henry, the Duke of 
Norfolk of the time of James II., was a stanch protestant. One day, 
says Burnet, " the King gave the Duke of Norfolk the sword of state to 
carry before him to the popish chapel, and he stood at the door : Upon 
which the King said unto him ' My Lord, your father would have gone 
further ;' to which the Duke answered, ' Your Majesty's father was the 
better man, and he would not have gone so far.' " It was owing to his nephew 
succeeding him that the title came again into the Roman Cathohc Hne. 
The titles of the present Most Noble Henry Fitz-Alan Howard, are 
Duke of Norfolk, £^a?'Z of Arundel, Surrey, and Norfolk, Baron Fitz-Alan, 
Clnn, Oswaldestre, and Maltravers, Hereditary Earl Marshal, and Premier 
Duke and Earl of England. He is the 15th Duke of Norfolk, and was 
bom in 1847, so that he is nov/ only 17 j^ears of age. His father, the late 
Duke, succeeded to the titles and estates in 1856, and died in 1860 ; and 
his mother the present Dowager Duchess of Norfolk, was the youngest 
daughter of the late distinguished Admiral Lord Lyons. His principal seat 
is Arundel Castle, Sussex, and his town residence in St. James's square. 
His brother, Lord Edmund Bernard Fitzalan Howard, is the heir presump- 
tive. The family formerly had seats at Norwich, Kenninghall, and other 
places in Norfolk. 

The Peers who have derived titles from -places in Norfolk, are noticed 
in the parish histories at subsequent pages. Baronets, who were first 
created by James I., in 1611, seem to answer to the feudal barons of ancient 
times, when the distinction existed of barons of parliament and barons by 
patent. Of the number which have been created in Norfolk, the titles of 
34 are extinct, but more than 20 still remain. 

Antiquities. — Norfolk being situated on the eastern coast of the kingdom, 
where so many important events and changes took place, does not possess 
any of those important Celtic remains, such as cromlechs, circles of stones, 
&c., which are so remarkable on the western shores ; but innumerable bar- 
rows, containing Celts, spear heads, beads, and other vestiges of early times 
are scattered all over the county. Of the Roman period, there dXQ still con- 
siderable remains at the five Stations mentioned at page 24, and coins, 
urns, glass, and pottery have been found in many other places. Some 
writers consider Ickborough to have been a Roman Station, and have iden- 
tified it as the Iceani of the Itinerary. Of the Saxons and Danes there are 
comparatively few vestiges, but the skill and piety of our Norman forefathers 
are exhibited in many of the ecclesiastical or monastic edifices of the 
county, particularly in Norwich Cathedral, and at Castie Rising, Castie 
Acre, Lopham, Great Gillingham, Windham, Bromhohn, Binham, Great 
Dunham, Hales, and Walsoken. In several parts of the county are clusters 
of singular excavations which have long puzzled the antiquaries, but have 
been usually considered to be the sites of the dwellings of the primeval in- 
habitants of Britain. These pits vary from eight to twenty feet in diameter, 
and from two to six feet in depth, and appear to have been originally lined 
with stones. In some instances two of them are joined together by a 
narrow trench, also carefully lined with stones ; and occasionally the floors . 
bear traces of fire. The heaths of Weyboume, Aylmerton, Beeston, Mar- 
sham, and Weeting, have thousands of them ; and they are to be found in 



40 HISTORY OF NORFOLK. 

smaller quantities at Eclgefieltl, Mousehold, and Eaton heaths, and else- 
where. They are known by the peasantry under diflferent names as 
" Grimes Graves," " Shrieldng Pits," *' Hills and Holes," &c., and there 
are many traditions about them, all of which appear to be without founda- 
tion, though affording strong evidence of their great antiquity. Of the vice 
militares, or great Roman Roads, made for the convenience of carriages, 
and for facilitating the marching of armies, few perfect vestiges remain in 
Norfolk. But as several important stations were formed within the county, 
no doubt can be entertained that such roads once existed, though the traces 
of most of them are now obliterated. It was the custom of the Romans to 
open this kind of communication between all their stations, and many 
appearances of roads are still to be seen in those parts of the adjoining 
county of Cambridge which abut upon this, and in a direction as though 
they had come from the eastern part. A great Roman road connected the 
south eastern and north western parts of the kingdom ; and another formed 
a similar communication between the north-eastern and south-western 
extremities. — This, commencing on the coast of Norfolk, probably at Burgh, 
near Yarmouth, passed by Caistor, near Norwich, and is now conspicuous 
near Downham ; crossing the river Ouse, it passes through the fens into 
Cambridgeshire, and proceeding through the central counties, joins the Julia 
strata, and terminates at St. David's head. Sir WiUiam Dugdale says it 
was discovered in the fens sixty feet wide and three feet deep, and formed 
of compact gravel. Extending southward to this road, from Narborough to 
the vicinity of Stoke Ferry, along the boundary of Clackclose Hundred, 
was an embanked road and foss, still extant in many places, and called the 
Devil's Ditch. Of the cJdnmii minores, or Vicinal Roads, some traces are 
still visible. What is called Peddefs, or Pedlefs way, passing from Thet- 
ford by Ickborough, Swaffham, Castle Acre, Fring, and Ringstead, to the 
sea, near Brancaster, appears one of this sort. The road leading by Long 
Stratton to Tasburgh, was probably another, whilst a thu'd branched off 
from this to the north-west, going through Marshland, Upwell, and Elm, to 
Wisbech. What is called the Milky-ivay has been considered Roman ; but 
is more likely of later date, and was probably made for the convenience of 
the devotees, who went on pilgrimage to the chapel of our Lady of Wal- 
singham. It is traceable in several places, and is pretty perfect in the 
vicinity of Weeting. 

Castles, &c.-^Besides the Roman stations and the Saxon and Danish 
encampments already noticed, Norfolk contains the remains of several 
castles and castellated halls, the chief of which were built or materially 
altered by the Norman barons. The most formidable were at Norwich, 
Castle Acre, Castle Rising, and Buchenham. At Middleton, near Lynn, is 
a fine gate-house, or tower, which formed the entrance to a castellated struc- 
ture, and has been admirably restored by its present owner. Caistor Hall, 
near Yarmouth; Oxhurgh Hall, Winwall House, nediVy^eYeh^cm; Hunstan- 
ton Hall, Scales Hall, Fincham Hall, Stiff key Hall, and Baconthorpe Hall, 
are ancient mansions, all of which exhibit some features of a castellated 
character, though they do not appear to have been regularly or completely 
fortified. The walls of these buildings, as well as most of the numerous 
churches, monastic ruins, and other ancient edifices in Norfolk, are com- 
posed chiefly of Jlint, embedded in strong mortar ; — the county producing 
scarcely any stone, except an iron-coloured carr-stone, which is got in 
j)ieces not much larger than the flints, which latter are found in great 
abundance, nearly in every part of the county. Both the flint and the carr- 
stone are much used in modern erections, but the quoins, and the windows 
and door cases, &c., are generally constructed of brick or free-stone, forming 
a sort of frame to the other hregularly shaped material^, and giving to the 
whole a very picturesque effect. 

EccLESTASTTCAL Htstory. — After the death of King Arthur, in 518, the 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 41 

religion of the ancient Britons gave i^lace to the more barbarous superstitions 
of the Saxons, who worshipped the sun and the moon, adored the God of 
thunder, had images in their temples, practised sacrifices, and believed 
firmly in spells and incantations. Happily, this idolatry did not long exist 
in Britain. The Saxons, who had settled in East Anglia, were amongst 
the first to embrace the Christian religion, which had gained a small footing 
in their kingdom in the reigns of Redwald and Erpenwald, but was not 
firmly estabhshed until Sigebekt was invested -with the government. 
Redwald, while viceroy of Kent under King Ethelbert, was converted to 
Christianity, and baptised, but succeeding his father Titul in the kingdom 
of the East Angles, he was persuaded by his wife to return to his former 
idolatry; yet, that he might not seem wholly to renounce Christianity, he 
erected in the same temple an altar for the ser\dce of Christ, and another 
for sacrifice to idols, which, as Bede informs us, were standing in his time. 
Thus Christianity was banished from his kingdom during his reign. The 
Queen, however, who had thus excluded the true religion, was the means 
of its establishment in the sequel. Being the widow of a nobleman, by 
whom she had a son named Sigebert, she introduced him at the court of 
Redwald. By Redwald she had two sons, Reynhere and Erpenwald, who, 
being brought up with Sigebert, were so far surpassed by him both in per- 
son and behaviour, that Redwald took umbrage at the youth, and banished 
him to France, where he continued during the remainder of Redwald's 
reign, and that of Erpenwald, who succeeded his father, because Reynhere 
had been killed in battle with Ethelfrid, King of Nortliumbria, in Netting 
hamshire. Erpenwald having been convinced of the truth of Christianity 
by Edwin, King of Northumbria, while residing as an exile at liis father's 
Court, had embraced that religion ; and on his accession to the throne, he 
openly professed it, hoping that his subjects would follow liis example ; but 
contrary to his expectations, they were so dissatisfied that a conspiracy was 
formed against his life, and he fell by the hand of an assassin, leaving no 
issue. The East Angles being now destitute of an heir to the throne, and 
consideiing none so well qualified to fill • it as Sigebert, made him an offer 
of the crown. Having accepted it, he returned to liis native countiy, and 
brought with him Felix, a religious Burgundian ecclesiastic, by whom he 
had himseK been converted, to undertake tlie conversion of his subjects. 
Felix cheerfully entered upon the arduous task, so that, charmed by the 
impressive eloquence of the evangehst, and incited by the royal example, 
numerous converts were soon made, schools were instituted, and churches 
erected for pubhc worship. Over these, Fehx was appointed to preside, 
under the title of Bisliop ; and, after having been consecrated by Honorius 
the second archbishop of Canterbuiy, in 630, he fixed his seat or sec at 
SiltJiestoiv, afterwards called Dunwich, in Suff'olk. Such was his piety and 
zeal, and so extensive was the fame he acquired by his eminent services 
in the church, that after his death, in 047, he was canonized as a saint 
and his festival appointed to be held yearly on March 8th. The second 
Bishoi) of East Angha was Thomas, who had been deacon to FeUx, and 
died in 653. He was succeeded by JBonifaee or Breyilsus, en whose death, 
in 669, Bisus, or Bossa, became the third bishop of East Anglia, but in liis 
declining years, finding his diocese much too large for his enfeebled exer- 
tions, he obtained permission to divide it into two sees, fixing one at Dun- 
wich, in Suffolk, and the other at North Elmhani, in Norfork. He died in 
673, and was succeeded in the see of Dunwich by the following eleven 
Bishops, viz., JScca, Easculplius, Eadrhl, Guthwin, Albrith, Eglaf, Heard- 
red, Alsinus, Titefertus, Weremundus, and Ethilwald. During this partition 
of tlie East Anglian diocese, there were also 11 Bishops of North Eljiham 
— \iz., Bedwinus, consecYSited in. GIS; Nortlibertus, Hedulacus, Edilfridus, 
Lanfertlms, Athelwalfus, Unfertus, Sibba,Alherdus, Humbert, and Wybred. 
The latter was appointed bishop of both the sees, which having been again 
united, he fi:§:ed the Episcopal seat at North Elml;am, about the year 870. 



42 



HISTORY OP NOEFOLE. 



At this period, tliis part of England was repeatedly invaded by the Danes, 
and the see was vacant more than half a century. The ecclesiastical 
government was at length restored by Tlieudred tJie First, or Teodred. He 
was succeeded by Theodred the Second, surnamed the Good, who was also 
Bishop of London, and held both the sees till his death, about the year 962. 
After these, there were eleven other Bishops of North Elmham — viz., 
Athulf, Alfric, Atlielstane, St. Algare, Alfidn, AJfric the Second, Alfrio tlie 
Third, Stigand, Grimhetel, Egehnar, and Herfast. The latter, in compliance 
with an order that all episcopal sees should be removed from villages to the 
most eminent cities or towns in the respective dioceses, translated the see 
of North Elmham to Thetford, in 1070. He was by birth a Norman, a 
great favourite of the Conqueror's, and Chancellor of England. He died 
in 1084. Wm. Oalsagus, or Beaufo, succeeded, and was afterwards made 
Chancellor. He died in 1091, and by his will, divided his immense wealth 
between his family and see. His successor, Herbert de Lozinga, or 
Losigna, purchased the bishopric of Wm. Rufus, at a cost of ^61900 ; he 
also bought for his father the abbacy of Winchester for .^1000 ; for which, 
and other simoniacal practices, he was cited to appear before the Pope, and 
besides the forfeiture of his polluted staff and ring, was commanded, by 
way of penance, to build certain churches and monasteries. In obedience 
to tliis injunction, he laid tlie foundation of Norwich Cathedral and its 
Priory, in 1096, after solemnly translating the see to that city, and being 
there consecrated by Thomas Archbishop of York on the 9th of April, 1094. 
For the site of his cathedi-al and priory, he purchased of the King and 
citizens, the meadow land called Cow-holm, now forming the Cathedral 
Close and Precincts. Since the removal of the see to Norwich, 68 prelates 
have successively presided over it, as will be seen m the following Ust, with 
the years in which they were respectively inducted. 



Herbert de Losinga A.D. 1094. 

Founded the Cathedral and built the 
Palace and Monastery. 

Vacant three years. 

Eborard or EvERARD A.D. 1121 

Divided the Archdeaconry of Suffolk 
into two, and founded the hospital and 
church of St. Paul, in Norwich. 
Either resigned or was deposed. 

WM.TuRBus,orDe TurbaVillaA.D. 1146 
A friend and advocate of Thomas-a- 
Becket, who induced him to excom- 
municate the Earl of Norfolk and 
gome other nobles, for which he was 
forced to take sanctuary till he had 
appeased the king's wrath. 

John of Oxford A.D. 1175 

Took part with Henry II, against 
Becket, and built the church of the 
Holy Trinity at Ipswich. 

John de Grey A.D. 1200 

Built a palace at Gay wood, near Lynn, 
made that town a free borough, and 
lent large sums to King John, for 
which he received in pledge the royal 
regalia. 

Vacant seven years. 

Pandulphus A.D. 1222 

Obtained a grant of the whole Jirst 
fruits of the clergy in his diocese, for 
himself and successors ; which was 
not revoked till the time of Hen. VIII. 

Thomas db Blandsvill.. ..A.D, 1226 



,A.D. 1236 



.A.D. 1230 



Ralfo (died soon after) . . 

Vacant three years, 

William de Raleigh .... 
Translated to Winchester. 

Walter de Suthfield A.D. 1244 

Obtained for the bishopric a charter 
of free warren to himself and success- 
ors ; erected and endowed the hospital 
of St. Giles ; and made a valuation of 
all the ecclesiastical revenues in the 
kingdom for Pope Innocent. 

Simon de Waltone ........ A.D. 

Roger de Skerewing A.D. 

William de Middleton. . ..A.D. 

Ralph de Walpole A.D. 

Translated to Ely. 

John Salomon A.D. 

Enlarged the palace, and founded the 
Charnel House School. 

Robert de Baldok A.D. 1325 

Resigned the same year. 

William de Ayrminne A.D. 1325 

Enclosed and fortified the cathedral 
and palace with embattled stone walls, 

Thomas Hemanale A.D. 1337 

Translated to Worcester same year. 

Anthony de Beck A.D. 1337 

Being of an imperious and quarrelsome 
temper, was poisoned either by the 
monks or his own servants. 

William Bateman A.D. 1348 

Was a native of Norwich, and founded 
Trinity Hall, Cambridge, 



1258 
1265 
1278 
1288 

1299 



BISHOPS OP NORWICH. 



43 



Thomas Percy A.D. 1355 

Youngest brother of the Earl of North- 
umberland, was only 22 years of age 
when he obtained the prelacy. 

Heney le Spencer A.D. 1370 

Was consecrated by the Pope in per- 
son ; took an active part in the war- 
fare between the Urbanists and Clem- 
entines ; was an enthusiastic zealot, 
and a rigorous persecutor of the Lol- 
lards. 

AliEXANDER DE ToTINGTON . . A.D. 1406 

Richard de Courteney, ll.d. A.D. 1413 

John Wakeryng A.D. 1416 

William Alnwick, ll.d A.D. 1426 

Translated to Lincoln. 

Thomas Browne, ll.d A.D. 1436 

Translated from Rochester, left money 
to pay the city tax ; and founded ex- 
hibitions at the universities for poor 
scholars in his diocese. 

John Stanbery, d.d A.D. 1445 

Chosen but never consecrated. 

Walter Ly ha rt A.D. 1446 

James Goldwell A.D. 1472 

Granted 12 years and 40 days pardon 
to all who assisted him in beautifying 
the cathedral. 

Thomas Jane A.D. 1499 

Richard Nykke, or Nix A.D. 1500 

Alienated the revenues of his diocese 
for the Abbacy of Holme, by agree- 
ment with Henry VIII. ; and was a 
cruel persecutor of the church re- 
formers. 

Wm. Rugg, d.d A.D. 1535 

Resigned the see for an annuity of 
£200 per annum. 

Thomas Thirlby A.D. 1550 j 

Translated from Westminster, of which I 
he was first and last bishop ; and j 
afterwards removed to Ely. 

John Hopton, d.d A.D. 1554 

A sanguinary persecutor of the re- 
formers, and is supposed to have died 
through fear of retaliating vengeance 
on the accession of Elizabeth. 

Richard Cox, d.d ,.,A.D. 1558 

Translated to Ely. 

John Parkhtjrst, d.d A.D. 1560 

Edmund Freke, d.d A.D. 1575 

Translated from Rochester, and after- 
wards removed to Worcester 

Edmund Scambler, d.d.... A.D. 1584 
Translated from Peterborough. 

William Redman, d.d A.D. 1594 

John Jeggon, d.d A.D. 1602 

In his time a fire broke out in the 
palace at LudJiam, and consumed the 
whole of the library and many valu- 
able documents respecting the diocese. 

John Overall, d.d A.D. 1618 

Translated from Lichfield & Coventry. 



Samuel Harsnett, d.d .... A.D. 1619 
Translated from Chichester, and after- 
wards became Archbishop of York. 

Francis White, d.d A.D. 1628 

Translated from Carlisle, and after- 
wards removed to Ely. 

Richard Corbet, d.d.. .. ...A.D. 1631 

Translated from Norwich. 

Matthew Wren, d.d A.D. 1635 

Translated from Hereford, and after- 
wards removed to Ely. He was father 
of the celebrated architect Sir Chris- 
topher Wren. 

Richard Montague, d.d A.D. 1638 

Translated from Chichester. A dis- 
tinguished scholar. 

Joseph Hall, d.d. A.D. 1641 

Translated from Exeter. During the 
civil wars he was sent to the Tower for 
asserting his right to vote in the 
House of Peers, and Parliament de- 
prived him of his temporsdities, and 
prohibited him from exercising any 
spiritual j urisdiction . 

Vacant four years. 

Edward Reynolds, d.d A.D. 1660 

Was a liberal benefactor to the City of 
Norwich, and paid much attention to 
the comforts of the parochial clergy. 

Anthony Sparrow, d.d A.D. 1676 

Translated from Exeter. 

William Lloyd, d.d A.D. 1686 

Translated from Peterborough. On 
the accession of William III., refusing 
to take the oath of abjuration against 
James II. he was deprived of his 
bishopric. 

John Moore, d.d A.D. 1691 

Translated to Ely, He collected an 
immense library of rare and valuable 
books, which at his death was pur- 
chased by George L, and presented to 
the University of Cambridge. 

Charles Trimnell, d.d. . . , A.D. 1707 
Translated to Winchester. He was a 
native of Norwich, and greatly as- 
sisted the Protestant emigrants, who 
fled to his diocese from the Palatinate, 
on the Rhine, through the irruptions 
and exactions of the French. Many 
of these emigrants were artizans, and 
greatly increased the general welfare 
of the county. 

Thomas Green, d.d A.D. 1721 

Translated to Ely. 

John Long, d.d A.D. 1723 

William Baker, d.d A.D. 1727 

Translated from Bangor. 

Robert Butts, d.d A.D. 1732 

Translated to Ely. 

Sir Thos.Gooch, Bart, d.d. .A.D. 1738 
Translated from Bristol, and after- 
wards removed to Ely. 



44 



HISTORY OF NORFOLK. 



1748 



Samuel Lisle, d.d A.D, 

Translated from St. Asaph. 

Thomas Hayter, d.d A.D. 1749 

Translated to London. 

Philip Yonge, d.d A.D. 1761 

Lewis Bagot, ll.d A.D. 1783 

Translated from Bristol, and after- 
wards removed to St. Asaph. 

George Horne, d.d A.D. 1790 

Author of a " Commentary on the 
Psalms,''^ and other works of consider- 
able merit. 

Rt. Hon. CM. Sutton, d.d.. .A.D. 1792 
Prelate of the Order of the Garter. 
Translated to the Archbishopric of 
Canterbury. 

Henry Bathurst, ll.d A.D. 1805 

Died in the 94th year of his age, and 
was much esteemed for his Christian 
charity, liberality of sentiment, and 



meekness of deportment. A beautiful 
statue to his memory, by Sir F. Chan- 
trey, has been placed in the Cathedral. 

Edward Stanley, d.d A.D. 1837 

President of the Linnsean Society, an 
active philanthropist, and a distin- 
guished advocate of civil and religious 
liberty. Brother to the first Lord 
Stanley of Alderley. 

Samuel Hinds, d.d A.D. 1850 

Author of " The Rise and Progress 
of Christianity,''^ and other valuable 
works ; as well as many beautiful 
poems and hymns. Resigned the 
bishopric in 1857, and lives in re- 
tirement. 

Hon.John Thos. Pelham, d.d. A.D. 1857 
The present highly esteemed prelate, 
who is brother to the Earl of Chi- 
chester. 



The Diocese of Norwich, until 1837, comprised 10 parishes in Cam- 
bridgeshire and the whole of Norfolk and SuffoUi, except a few pecuhars. 
Its number of parishes was anciently 1350, but they were reduced, after the 
Reformation, by various consolidations to 1279, divided into 47 deaneries, 
apportioned among the arcMeaconries as follows — viz., 13 to Norwich, 12 
to Norfolk, 14 to Suffollc, and 8 to Sudbury. By an order in Council, 
dated April 19, 1837, the Archdeaconry of Siidbunj was added to the Dio- 
cese of Ely, except the Deaneries of Stow and Hartismere, which have been 
annexed to the Archdeaconry of Suffolk, which comprises also all the 
Eastern Divisions of that county, and is still in the Diocese of Norwich. 
The loss of the Sudbuiy Archdeaconry took from this diocese nearly all the 
Western Division of Suffolk, and also the 10 parishes in Cambridgeshire 
which belonged to it. At present, the Diocese of Norwich comprises the 
whole of Norfolk and more than half of Suffolk, and comprehends altoge- 
ther about 1100 parishes, of which about 750 are in Norfolk and 350 in 
Suffolk. It is now divided into the three Archdeaconries of Norwich, Nor- 
folk, and Suffolk. The first is subdivided into 13, the second into 12, and the 
third into 10 Rural Deaneries, maldng in all 41, of which an enumeration, 
with the names of the Rural Deans, &c., is given at a subsequent page. 
The revenues of the bishopric were anciently very valuable, but were much 
decreased by Henry VIII., who stripped it of all its manors, and gave in 
exchange only those belongmg to the abbey of St. Bennet-at-the-Holme, 
and the priory at HickHng, It stands charged in the Liber Regis, or King's 
Books, at the annual value of ^834. lis. 7d. It pays first fruits, but^ no 
tenths, those having been discharged by a commutation with Queen Eliza- 
beth, for the manors of Sudborn and Swanton. The Bishop has the patron- 
age of 87, and the Dean and Chapter are patrons of 42 benefices. Tlie 
latter being the successors of the wealthy prior aiid monks of Norwich, 
possess a large revenue fi-om the Bishop. The diocese is mthe province of 
Canterbury, and its bishop is a suffragan to the archbishop of that metro- 
politan see. At an early period, the see enjoyed extensive privileges, as well 
as great revenues. The bishop possessed all the usual powers granted to 
lay baronies, the liberty of coinage, exemption from all taxes, tallage, and 
customs, except those of the city of London; JM?"rt regalia within his manors, 
a coroner and prison for his liberty, and all mulcts and amerciaments from 
his tenants ; the right of choosing a justice for the precinct of his palace, 
and of acting himself as one of the Idng's justices of the peace for the city, 
county, and liberty. All these were confirmed by a charter of inspexi- 
mus, granted by King Henry VIII., 29th of March, A.D. 1512. But, 



DIOCESE OF NORWICH. 45 

through many ancient statutes becoming obsolete, the abolition of feudal 
customs, and various subsequent i^arliamentary regulations, manj'- of these 
privileges ai'e abridged, if not annulled. There is, however, one which the 
bishox^s of Norwich have had from time immemorial, and as it is peculiar to 
this diocese, ought not to be unnoticed. It is the power of uniting any two 
cures within the diocese, at the time of institution, mthout regard to their 
value; and that, either hj personal ov perpetual union. The personal union 
lasts only during the life of the incmnbent, and answers to an arcluepisco- 
pal dispensation, requiring in this diocese only the bishop's consent. The 
perpetual union is made with the joint consent of pati'on, incumbent, and 
bishop, and is equal to a consoHdation, The BisJwp is a Peer of the Realm, 
and sits in the upper house, not only in the right of liis barony, but as titu- 
lar Abbot of St. Bonnet's at Holme; and is the only Abbot at present in 
England. He nominates the three archdeacons, the chancellor, registrars, 
steward of the courts, auditor, apparitor, &c. The arms of the see are Az., 
three mitres labelled. Or., two and one. 

The Dean and Chapter were instituted out of the prior and convent of 
Norwich, by Henry VIII., andrefounded by charter in the reign of James I. 
The Ecclesiastical Commissioners, in then- report, published in 1835, say, 
"The corporation coiisistsof a clean and six prebendaries. The corpse money, 
&c., of the dean is ^'102. 6s., and of each prebendary only ^£20. There ai-e 
six minor canons, three of whom have =£20 per annum ; one of them, the 
precentor, £4S) ; another of them, the sacrist, <£29 ; and another, the libra- 
rian, £,2>1. There are also a gospeller and an epistoller: to the gospeller is 
paid c£'19 per annum, and to the epistoller, ^'26. lOs., all of which payments 
are made out of the funds of the dean and chapter. Three of the minor 
canons have houses assigned to them. Three of the other minor canons 
have small sums per annum, in heu of houses, viz., one ^£25, and tlie other 
two =£10 each. For the ej)istoller, a new house has been built ; and the 
gospeller has ^£15 a-year in lieu of one. The dean and prebendaries divide 
the surplus net revenue, (about -£5000,) after payment of all stipends and 
allowances, in the following proportions : — The clean has two eighths, and 
the prebendaries one-eighth each. The average annual sum thus divided 
among the dean and jprebendaries from 1828 to 1831, was ^£4992, and tlieir 
gross yearly income was £'7811. Houses are assigned to each of them for 
their residence, and they are bound to keep them in repair ; but there is a 
j^early allowance out of the general funds of the corporation, of ^£20 to the 
dean, and ^£10 to each of the prebendaries for materials and repairs." By 
an Act passed in 1840, pursuant to the recommendation of the Ecclesiastical 
Commissioners, the number of prebendaries has been reduced to four, who 
are styled Canons, and are appointed, like the dean, by the Crown, for 
which the Lord Chancellor presents. By the same act, the Minor Canons 
are appointed by the Chapter, and are not to exceed seven, nor to be less 
than two ; and no minor canon's income, as minor canon, is to exceed <£150 
per annum. The possessions of the Dean and Chapter are nearly the same 
as those formerly enjoyed by the Priory. They had the civil as well as the 
ecclesiastical government of the Cathedral Close and Precincts, until this 
peculiar jurisdiction was added to the parUamentary and municipal borough 
of Norwich, as part of the First Ward, by tlie reform Acts of 1832 and 1835. 
They had formerly a gaol, and power to hold sessions of the peace, but the 
exercise of this power ceased many years ago, and since then all persons 
committing offences in the precincts of the cathedral have been tried in 
the City Courts. The care of the Cathedral is vested with the Dean 
and Chapter, who still appoint two coroners for the pecuUar jurisdic- 
tion. A vice-dean, receiver, and treasurer are annually appointed from the 
canons ; and the other officers are, eight lay clerics, an organist, ten choris- 
ters, two vergers, tivo sub-sacrists, six poor almsmen, to assist in cleaning 
the cathedral; a high steward, a commissary, chapter- clerk, auditor, porter, 



46 HISTOEY OF NORFOLK. 

ferryman, beadle, &c. The Dean and Chapter have a valuable library of 
more than 6200 volumes, many of which were given by the late Dr. Sayer, 
in 1817. The arms of the Deanery are the same as those formerly used by 
the Prior, viz., ar. a cross sable. Since the foundation of the Deanery to 
the present time twenty-five Deans have presided over it, of which the 
following is an enumeration, with the dates when each was inducted: — Wm. 
Castleton, 1538; John Sahsbury, 1539; John Christopher, 1554; John 
Boxhall, 1557; John Harpsfield, 1558; John SaHsbury, 1569; George Gar- 
diner, 1573; Thomas Dove, 1589; John Jeggon, 1601; Geo. Montgomery, 
1603; Edward Suckling, 1614; John Hassal, 1628; John Crofts, 1660; 
Herbert Astley, 1670 ; John Sharp, 1681 ; Henry Fairfax, 1689 ; Humphrey 
Prideaux, 1702; Thos. Cole, 1724; Robt. Butts, 1731; John Baron, 1733; 
Thomas Bulloch, 1739; Edward Townsend, 1761; Philip Lloyd, 1765; 
Joseph Turner, 1790 ; and lastly, the Hon. and Very Rev. Oeo. Pellew, D.D., 
the present dean, iuducted in 1828. Several of the deans have been 
elevated to the episcopal bench, and one, John Sharp, became Archbishop 
of York. 

Monastic Institutions. — In the dark ages of cathoHcism and supersti- 
tion, monasteries absorbed a great portion of the wealth and population of 
every part of the kingdom, and nowhere were they more numerous than in 
Norfolk, which contained no less than 122, including the various distinctions 
of abbeys, prioiies, nunneries, colleges, preceptories, commanderies, hospit- 
als for lepers, &c., besides a much larger mmiber of chantries, guilds, and 
free-chapels. The monks, by amassing riches, usurping power, tramphng on 
the laws, and defeating the ends of justice, and by their arrogance, insolence, 
and luxury, at length brought about then- decline, and facilitated their faU. 
Some of the monasteries were possessedof exclusive jurisdiction, and pecuhar 
exemptions and privileges ; others were dependent ; and some were still more 
subordinate. The preceptories and commanderies of Knights Hospitaller 
and Knights Templar of St. John of Jerusalem were peculiars, governed 
by distinct laws, and privileged by mihtary service. The cells were houses 
belonging to large monasteries, where the monks sent their junior brethren, 
when too much crowded at home ; or refractory monies to do penance for 
non-compliance with monastic rules. The nature of the other institutions 
may be ascertained from the particular descrij^tions given of them in the 
course of this work. In the number of these reHgious foundations, England 
appears to have been inferior to no country ; nor less profuse in granting 
means for their support. Many in this kingdom were richty endowed, and 
from their own history, it appears that luxury kept pace with increasing 
wealth. Their accumulation of property proceeded in an extensive ratio, and 
prior to the suppression in the time of Henry VIII., they appear to have 
been possessed of a third part of all the lands in England. When pride, 
luxury, and licentiousness had, with their train of dependent vices, become 
inmates of these sacred walls, they, by disgusting the moral feehngs of 
society, induced the good sense of the nation to enquu'e into these scandal- 
ous abuses, and to question the utility of such institutions to real rehgion, 
and hastened their dissolution and the abolition of the system on which they 
were founded. Of the numerous monastic buildings which formerly ex- 
isted in Norfolk, there are still remaining several highly interesting ruins 
at Norwich, Lynn, Thetford, Walsingham, Castleacre, Westacre, &c. 

Churches. — In its ecclesiastical architecture, Norfolk presents excellent 
examples of every variety of style, from the rude Saxon to the latest per- 
pendicular. The towers of Dunham-Magna and Newton-by-Castleacre, 
and portions of many other churches, are attributed to the Saxons; and the 
round towers of which so many remain in Norfolk, although so uncommon 
elsewhere, have by many been thought to be Saxon or Danish ; but they are 
more probably of Norman origin, and many of them are surmouiited by 
octagonal turrets of undoubted Norman work. The Cathedral of Norwich, 



ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. 47 

and many churches in the county, retain much of their original cumbrous 
and massive Norman architecture, but liave all been more or less spoiled by 
subsequent alterations, cai-iied out in totally dissimilar styles ; though per- 
haps in some few instances an improvement may have been affected, as in 
the erection of tlie clerestory, over tlie choir of the cathedral. The early 
EngHsh period is exemplified at Binham, Walsingham, Yarmouth, Walso- 
ken, and West Walton ; but the larger proportion of the Norfolk churches 
ai'e in the decorated and perpendicular styles, usually intermixed and 
seldom completely distinct. Noble specimens of these styles in conjunction 
are to be foimd along the whole coast line, and still finer ones exist in the 
fen country between Lynn and Wisbech. Many of these churches dis- 
play beautiful specimens of flint and stone panelling, in which the flints 
are so regularly squared, and so evenly faced as to be almost said to repre- 
sent a sheet of glass. Not the least interesting features of the ecclesiastical 
edifices of the county are the numerous fine rood-loft screens, the lower 
panels of most of which are enriched with beautiful paintings of apostles 
and saints. Sepulchral brasses are also very numerous, and some of them 
are executed in the highest style of ai*t. Those in St. Margaret's church, 
Lynn, are particularly fine. The roofs of Wjonondham, and some other 
churches, are magnificent specunens of carved woodwork. Many of the 
churches have undergone judicious repaks during the last 30 years, and 
some of them have been enthely refitted with open seats, and restored to 
theu' pristine state, though in many instances the restorations have been 
carried out with very questionable taste. 

Reformation, Monasteeies, &c. — Hemy YVLl. succeeded to the throne 
in 1509, when only 16 years of age, nearly 40 years after the art of printing 
had been introduced. In the early part of his reign, he wrote a book in 
defence of the seven sacraments, and the Pope was so ravished with its 
eloquence, that he conferred on him the title oi Defender of the Faith, Httle 
imagining that Henry would so soon become the greatest enemy the Romish 
church had to contend with. In 1517, Martin Luther began in Germany that 
Reformation of the Church which WicMiffe had laboured so assiduously 
to effect in England, nearly a century and a haK before, but which was not 
estabhshed till March 30tli, 1531:, when Henry VIII. sanctioned the Pro- 
testants; a name which originated with the Diet of Sphes, in 1529, when 
the haughty Cardinal Wolsey, Ai-clibishox^ of York, Chancellor of England, 
Pope's Legate, &c., fell from the lofty summit of his ambition. The Bihle 
and Prayer Booh were now translated into English, and ordered to be read 
in that tongue in all churches, &c. The Reformation of the Church, 
and the Suppression of the Monasteries, were effected by this lascivious 
monarch, more perhaps for the gratification of his own lustful avarice, than 
for the benefit of his subjects, to whom the change proved so gi'eat a 
worldly as well as a sphitual blessing. In a few years, the King suppressed 
about 700 abbeys, priories, and nunneries; 90 colleges; 2400 chantries; free 
chapels, &c. ; and more than 110 hospitals. The total yearly revenues of 
these institutions amounted at their dissolution to no less than about one- 
twentieth part of the whole rental of the nation, so that, if the monastic 
system had gone on to the present time, it might have swallowed up mora 
than half the landed estates in the kingdom. The monks, nuns, &c., 
were tm'ued out of their monasteries ; and then- estates and possessions 
were seized by the King, who, after retaining sufficient to satiate his own 
greedy concupiscence, divided the rest among those favourite courtiers who 
assisted to gratifs^ his wicked propensities. As the poor for some years suf- 
fered much from the dissolution of the monastic institutions, and as many of 
them and the gentry were still adherents to the Romish Church, there was 
much popular discontent, and a rebellion broke out in the north of Eng- 
land, called The Pilgrimage of Grace, but it was put down in 1537, when 
many of the ringleaiders, (including seyeral abbots,) were executed at 



48 



HISTORY OF NORFOLK. 



Tyburn. From 1553 to 1558, when the cruel and bigoted Queen Mary sat 
upon the throne, the Roman Catholic religion and papal supremacy again 
prevailed, and the protestants were persecuted with fire and sword. In 
November, 1558, when Queen Elizabeth ascended the throne, the Protestant 
religion was permently re-established, and the Roman Catholics became 
the objects of j)ersecution, and made several fruitless attempts to restore 
Popery, 

After the restoration of Charles IT., an Act of Uniformity was passed in 
August, 1662, requiring of all clergymen episcopal ordination, canonical 
obedience, and a general assent to everything in the Book of Common 
Prayer. For not conforming to this act, more than 2000 clergymen were 
deprived of their benefices; and thus originated non-conformity, oyVyo- 
testant dissent; for prior to this time, the Puritans had remained members 
of the establishment, though labouring to promote a further reformation. 
The ejected ministers and the Catholic priests suffered much under the 
operation of several other laws, amongst which were the Conventicle, the 
Oxford, the Coriioration, and the Tests Acts, all of which are now abolished, 
the two last about 40 years ago, when the Catholic Emancipation Act was 
passed; and the two former in 1689, when the Toleration Act was passed. 
In the county of Norfolk about 70 ministers, of whom the following is a 
list, were either ejected or silenced : — 



Aldeby. — John Banister. 
Aylmerton. — John Smith. 
Barford. — Robert Part. 
Barton Hulm. — Charles 

Sumpter. 
Baconthorpe. — J.Lougher 
Barningham. — Ts. Worts. 

Blickling. Burrough. 

Blofield.— Saml. Maltby. 
Bodham. — Robert Watson 
Backenham,New. — Chris. 

Amyrant & Nicolas Pitt 

Buuwell. Pittedate. 

Cailton. — James Gedney. 
Denton. — Thos. Lawson, 

M.A,, [of Katherine 

Hall, Cambridge). 
Dickleburgh.--E. Crabtree 
Diss.— Richd. More, M.A. 
Drayton. — Richard Vin. 
Earshiim. — Thos. Bayes. 
FeltweU. — John Butler. 
Forncett. — Wm. Hinton. 
Foalsham. — Rd. Worts. 

Fandeuhall. Shepherd 

God wick. — John Hooker. 
Gorleston. — Robert Part 

and — Pew. 
Hardingham. — Nathaniel 

Jocelyn. 



Heydon. — Thos. Newman 

Intwood'. ShefBeld. 

Lopham. — Thomas Ellis. 

Lynn. — John Hone, {of 
Trin. Coll. Cambridge), 
— Fenwick, and John 
Dominick. 

Mundesley. — Paul Amy- 
rant & Robert Bidbank. 

Neatishead.-Jno. Leving- 
ton and Miles Barkitt, 
M.A., {of Edmund Hall, 
Oxford) . 

Necton, — Israel Shipdam. 

Norwich. — Jno. CoUinges, 
D.D., {ofEman. Coll., 
Camb.), St. Stephen's ; 
Thos. Allen, M.A., {of 
Caivs Coll. Camb ), St. 
George's; Benj. Snow- 
den, M.A., (of Eman. 
Coll, Cam.), St. Giles'; 
Francis English, St, 
Nicholas' ; E. Wood- 
ward, — WinJress, and 
John Hashart. 

Pallham. — Thos. Benton 

Reepham. — W. Sheldrake 
and Sampson Townsend 

Repps, South. — E. Brome 



Repps, North. — Ed.Corbit 

Rollesby, — John Rejner. 

Roughton,--Jno. Reynolds 

Scottow. — Wm. Bidbank, 
M.A. 

Stalham. — John Lucas. 

Stanfield. — SI. Alexander. 

Stibbard. — John Darant. 

Stratton St.Michl.— Thos. 
Benton. 

Swanton Morley. — John 
Daliel. 

Tipsend. — John Green. 

Tranch. — Rd. Lawrence, 
M.A., {of both Univer- 
sities). 

Tanstead. — John Green. 

Walcot. — John Cory. 

Walsham. — John Baker 
and Nathaniel Mitchell. 

Walsingham. — Nathaniel 
Northcross. 

Wymondham. — J. Mony. 

Yarmouth.-- Jno. Brinsley, 
MA., {of Eman. Coll., 
Camb.) ; Wm. Bridge, 
M.A., {of Eman. Coll., 
Camb.) ; Job Tookie, 
{ofEman. Coll. Cam.); 
and John Allen. 



In 1688, James II., a bigoted Roman Catholic, having made several 
attempts for the rc-establishment of popery, and attempted to dispense with 
acts of parliament, was expelled from the throne, after tolerating and com- 
mitting many acts of cruelty. William Prince of Orange, who had married 
king James' eldest daughter, the Princess Mary, and was a decided cham- 
pion of the protestant faith, was invited by many of the principal nobility 
and gentry to assume the rems of government. He accordingly landed 
with a considerable army at Brixham in Devonshire, Nov. 4th, 1688, and 
in the following January was elected to the throne, jointly with his wife the 



fllSTORY OF, NORFOLK. 49' 

Princess Mary, and they were proclaimed tlie lawful sovereipins of the 
realm, mth every demonstration of joy and satisfy. ction. Since this 
" Glorious Revolution" the protestant faith has continued undisturbedly the 
estabhshed religion of the kingdom. 

Soon after the introduction of Chiistianity, the kingdom was divided into 
Parishes, and afterwards into Bishoprics. Extra-Parochial Places are 
usually found to have been the sites of religious houses, or of ancient castles, 
the owners of which did not permit any interference with tlieir authority 
within their own limits. In the language of the ancient law of England, 
such places were not " Geldable nor Sliireground," and until about the 
time of the Revolution in 1688, they were neither taxable, nor within the 
ordinary pale of ci^dl jurisdiction. The inhabitants are still virtually ex- 
empt from any civil duties and offices, but some of the extra-parochial 
places in Norfolli have latterly been attached to the neighbouring parishes 
or unions, for the support of the poor. The number of Parishes, Town- 
ships, Hamlets, and Extra-parochial x^laces in the county is about 1000. 
The number of Parishes is about 700, but many of the new ecclesiastical 
districts are now considered as parishes. The Rectories of about one-fourth 
of the parishes in Norfolk, are appropriations or impropriations ; the 
former in the hands of colleges, dignitaries, &c., and the latter in the hands 
of laymen. Dissenters are numerous in all parts of the county, especially 
the Independents, Baptists, and Wesleyans, who have many large and 
handsome chapels. 

The Tithes of most of the parishes in the county have been commuted 
for fixed annual rents, or allotments of land, made at the enclosure of the 
commons and wastes. Though tithes are said to operate very unfavour- 
ably upon agriculture, they must be admitted to be a property equally sacred 
with the land itself, and no admirer of justice can expect thek abolition 
without equivalent either in money or land ; and such a commutation is 
generally found to be beneficial both to the farmers and the clergy, as the 
latter avoid the expense and uncertainty of collections in kind or in mo- 
duses, and the former may efi'ect any further improvements without the fear 
of any additional tax upon their industry and capital. The most ancient 
laws on record touching the legality of tithes, are those of Ina, king of 
Wessex, which are supposed to have been enacted about the year 690, the 
foui'th section of which is to the following purport : — " The first fruits of 
seeds, or the church dues arising fi'om the product of com, &c., are to be 
paid at the feast of St. Martin ; and let him that fails in the payment for- 
feit 40s., and besides ^^2/ the clues twelve times over^ In the 62nd section, 
" church dues are to be paid where the person owing them dweUs, in the 
midst of winter." The oblations and gifts of the people, which originated 
from feeHngs of piety and benevolence, were transformed by usage into a 
right, which appears to have been first recognised and firmly estabhshed 
by the Saxon laws just quoted, and are now advanced to the firmer title of 
an ordinance. Hence modem lawyers say that tithes are due by prescrip- 
tive right, as having existed from the first establishment of churches, and 
by law from the period when the country was first divided into parishes. 

Queen Anne's Bounty. — First Fruits and Tenths. — From an early 
period, perhaps ever since the institution of parishes in this island, every 
bishop and clergyman has been required to pay the amount of his first 
year's incumbency to the fund, called fi'om thence the "First Fruits;" and 
every succeeding year, as long as he enjoys the Hving, he has been reqidi-ed 
to pay one tenth part of his income into a fund hence called "The 
Tenths" These Fu*st Fruits and Tenths were annually collected at their 
full value, and applied to the use of the Pope, during the time that this 
kingdom acknowledged the papal supremacy. As early as the time of Pope 
Nicholas IV., (in 1290,) a valuation was for this purpose made, of aU the 
Ecclesiastical Livings in England ; and the book containing that record is 



50 HISTORY OF NORFOLK, 

XDreserved in the Remembrancer's office, under the designation of the 
" Valor of Pope Nicholas IV." At the time of the Eeformation, Henry 
VIII., passed a law, with the sanction of Parliament, declaring that the 
First Fruits and Tenths should be applied to the use of the State, and tliat 
any Bishop or Clergyman neglecting to pay those imposts into tlie public 
treasury should be declared an intruder into his living, and should forfeit 
double the amount ; and, that the fuU amount might be ascertained, he caused 
an accurate and full valuation to be made of all the Ecclesiastical Livings 
in England and Wales. With the exception of a short period in the reign 
of Philip and Maey, the First Fruits and Tenths continued to be paid 
punctually into the public exchequer tiU the reign of Queen Anne, when 
the Queen, moved, it is said, by Bishop Burnet and others, and deploring 
the wretched condition in which many of the poor clergy were placed, owing 
to the insufficiency of their livings, came to the determination that the 
First Fruits and Tenths of the livings of all the clergy, from the Bishops 
downward, should be paid into a fund, called "Queen Anne's Bounty," 
and tliat the amount of those payments should be appropriated to the aug- 
mentation of the livings of the poor clergy, for their better maintenance. 
No fresh valuation was, however, made of the livings in the time of Queen 
Anne, the payments continuing to be made upon the valuation of Henry 
VIII., made in 1535, and registered in what is called the King's 
Books, or Liler Regis, to which v/e shall fi-equently refer in the ac- 
counts of church livings at subsequent pages, by the contraction K.B.,. 
and to the augmentations from Queen Anne's Bounty, by the abbreviation, 
Q.A.B. — That the payment of First Fruits and Tenths might not operate 
oppressively, the first year's income was to be paid by four annual instal- 
ments, and all livings of small value v/ere entkely exempt, and hence called 
''discharged livings." 

For the faithful administration of " Queen Anne's Bounty Fund," the 
Archbishops and Bishops were all made Governors, along with a number 
of otlier persons, and the administration has been in their hands from that 
time. Since the establishment of this fund, an enormous increase has taken 
place in the value of the church livings, except those of the lowest class, 
though the First Fruits and Tenths continue to be paid on the valuation of 
1535, which yields only an average annual income of about ^15,000, instead 
of more than ^£350, 000, which would be derived from First Fruits and 
Tenths, if collected on the present valuation of the revenues of the Esta- 
blished Church in England and Wales, now amounting to an aggregate net 
income of ^3,055,654 per annum, as ax^pears from the Report of the Eccle- 
siastical Commissioners, appointed by King Yv^illiam IV. This Rex^ort of 
the annual value of church livings was made on an average of tln-ee years, 
ending December 31st, 1831, and x)^esented to parliament in 1835. The 
Ecclesiastical Commissioners of England, ax)pointed and incorx)orated by an 
act of XDarliament, iDassed in the 6th and 7th of Wilham IV., to carry into 
effect the Reports of the Commissioners apxDointed by Letters Patent, in 
1832, to consider the state of the Estabhshed Churches of England and 
Wales, obtained, in 183G, the sanction of his Majest}^ in Council to certain 
schemes and decrees, of wliich the following is the substance: — "That all 
X)arishes which are locally situated in one diocese, and are under the juris- 
diction of another, be made subject to that See within which they are locally 
situated; that certain new dioceses should be created; that such a]Dportion- 
menfc or exchange of ecclesiastical patronage should be made among the 
archbishops and bishops, as should be consistent with the relative magni- 
tude and imx)ortance of their Sees, so as to leave an average yearly income 
of .£15,000 to the Archbishop of Canterbury; ,£10,000 to the Archbishop of 
York; i;10,000 to the Bishop of London; .£8000 to the Bishop of Durham; 
.£7000 to the Bishop of Winchester ; and £'5000 each to the Bishops of Ely, 
Worcester, and Bath-aud-WcUs; and that out of funds arising from the 



ECCLESIASTICAL COMMISSION. §1' 

above named dioceses, and those of St. Asaph and Bangor, over and above 
the said incomes, the Commissioners should grant such stipends to other 
bishops as should make their average annual incomes not less than ^640 00 
nor more than ^'5000. But these reductions of the incomes of the richer 
Bishoprics were not to take place till the death or translation of the pre- 
lates then holding them ; therefore the present Bishop of Winchester, being 
installed in 1827, has still a net yearhj income of about ^'10,500, though his 
successor will only have £'7000; whilst the Bishop of Exeter, being installed 
in 1831, is still obliged to be content with the small stipend of ^2700 per 
annum. Both the Ai'chiepiscopal Sees, and 22 of the 24 Bishoprics of Eng- 
land and Wales, have changed their x^relates since the appointment of the 
Ecclesiastical Commission. The neiu dioceses of Ripon and Manchester 
were formed in 1836 and 1847, out of the extensive dioceses of York and 
Chester. Large portions of some other lai-ge dioceses have been added to 
smaller ones, and further changes are still in contemplation. Other Church 
Reforms, now in progress under the couti'ol of the Ecclesiastical Commis- 
sioners, are the abohtion of prebends and sineciu'e benefices ; the reduction of 
the incomes of rich rectories, &c.; the augmentation oipoor livings ; and the 
institution and endowment oinev: ecclesiastical ^jarishes, or church districts, 
in large and populous x)arishes. Many new ecclesiastical districts have 
been formed in Norfolk since 1836, under the authority of various Acts of 
ParHament, by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, the Commissioners for 
building new churches, and the Bishoj). The incomes of these and all 
other poor benefices, are ultimately to be augmented to ^'150 per annum, 
out of the funds of the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, Queen Anne's 
Bounty, &c. 

DIGNITARIES AND OFFICIALS OF THE DIOCESE. 

^g" The figures sheit) the dates of induction. 

Bishop of Norwich.— The Hon. and Right Rev. John Thomas Pelham, D.D., 

The Palace, Nonvich. (Yearly income, £4500). 1857. 
Dean of Norwich. — The Hon. and Very Rev. George Pellew, D.D. 1828 ; and 

rector of Great Chart, Kent. The Deanery. 
Archdeacon of Norwich. — Ven. R. E. Hankinson, M.A. (£200), 1857; and 

rector of North Creake. 
Archdeacon of Norfolk. — Ven. W. Arnndell Bonverie, B.D. (£300), ■ 1850; 

and Hon. Canon of Norwich, and rector of Denton. 
Archdeacon of Suffolk. — Ven. Thomas J. OnnerocI, M.A. (£184), 1846 ; and 

rector of Redenhall with Harleston. 
Canons.— -Rev. Adam Sedgwick, MA., F.R.S,, 1834, Woodwardian Professor of 

Geology, Cambridge, and Vice Master and Senior Felloio of Trin. Coll. Gam, ; 

Rev. George ArchdaU Gratwick, D.D., 1842, Master of Emanuel Gall. Gam.; 

Rev. J. W. Lucas Heaviside, M.A., 1860; and Rev. Charles Kirkby Robinson, 

MA., 1861, Master of St. Gatherine's Gollege, Gambridge. 
Honorary Canons.— Revg. Hon. E. S. Keppel, M.A., 1844 ; Fras. Cunningham, 

M.A., 1846 ; Ves. W. A. Bouverie, B.D., 1847 ; George Stevenson, M.A., 1847 ; 

Henry Tacey, M.A., 1848 ; Stenhen Ciissold, M.A., 1848 ; Bishop of Columbia, 

D.D., 1850; E. J. Moor, M.A., 1850; Wm. H. Parker, M.A., 1852; Robert 

Eden, M.A., 1852; Wm. Potter, M.A., 1852 ;Wm. Jackman, M.A., 1852 ; A. M. 

Hopper, M.A., 1854; W. R. Colbeck, B.D., 1856; R. Collyer, M.A., 1856 ; 

Hinds Howell, B.A., 1856 ; Thomas Gree»e, B.D., 1858 ; Hon. Kenelm H. 

Digby, M.A., 1858; Robert H. Groome, M.A., 1858 ; Thomas Mills, M.A., 

1859; Wm. Fred. Patteson, M.A.,1860; Henry R. NeviU, M.A., 1860 ; Wm. 

Howarth, 1863; Charles Shorting, M.A., 1863 ; E. F. E. Hankinson, M.A. , 

1863 ; Salisbury Everard, 1863 ; and H. J. Lee Warner, 1868. 
Chancellor of the Diocese. — Worshipful Charles Evans, Esq., M.A., 1845. 
Minor Canons.— Rev. George Day, M.A., 1817 ; Rev. Jonathan Matchett, M.A., 

1824, sacristan ; Rev. Henry Symonds, M.A., 1844, ^precentor ; and Rev. Edward 

Bulmer, M.A., l%b^, Assistant Blinor Ganon. 
Principal Registrars. — Rev. Eyre Stuart Bathurst, and John Kitson, Esq. 

d2 



52 



DIOCESE OF NOEWICH. 



Registkaks of the Akchdeaconries. — Edward Steward, Esq., Norwich; Henry 

Hansen, Esq., Norfolk; and Charles Steward, Esq., Suffolk. 
Bishop's Examining Chaplains. — Kev. J. J. S. Perowne, B.D., and Rev. T. T* 

Perowne, B.D. 
Secretaries to the Bishop. — John Kitson, Esq., Norwich, and J. B. Lee, Esq., 

Dean's yard, Westminster. 
High Steward of the Cathedral. — Rf. Hon. and Rev. Lord Bayning, M.A. 
Organist.— Zachariah Buck, Esq., Mus. Doc. 
Proctor for the Chapter. — Rev. Canon Heaviside, M.A. 
Proctor for the Archdeaconries of Norfolk and Norwich. — Rev. A. M. 

Hopper, M.A., Rector of Starston. 
Proctor for the Archdeaconry of Suffolk.— Rev. Thomas Mills, M.A. 
Chapter Clerk. — John Kitson, Esq. 



RURAL DEANS AND DEANERIES. 



archdeaconry of NORWICH. 

Deanery of Blofield. 

Eev. J. Burroaghes. 

Postwick 



Acle 

Beightoa 

Blofield 

Brundall 

Buckenham Ferry w. 
Hassingham 

Burlingham St. An- 
drew w. St. Edmd. 
St. Peter 

Cantley 

Pishley 

Halvergate 

Hemblington 

Lingwood 

Moulton 

Plumstead, Great 

PlotQstead, Little 



Ranwonh with Upton 
Reedham w. Freethp. 
Southwood with Lim- 

penhoe 
Strumpshaw with 

Braydeston 
Thorpe by Norwich 

St. Matthew's 
Tonstall 
Walsham, South, 

St. Lawrence 

St. Mary 
Wickhampton 
Witton 
Woodbastwick with 

Panxworth 



Deanery of Breccles, 
Eev. B. Edwards and Eev. W. H. Parker. 
Ashill 
Breccles 
Carbrooke 



Gaston 

Ellingham, Little 
Gristoa 
Merton 
Ovington 



Saham Toney 

Scoalton 

Stowbedon 

Threxton 

Thompson 

Tottington 

Watton 



Deanery of Brisley, 

The Hon. and Eev. K. H. Digby and Eev. 

H. T. Lee. 



Beeston, nr. Mileham 
Beetly 
Bilney, East 
Bittering, Little 
Brisley with Gateley 
Dunham, Great 
Dunham, Little 
Elmbam, North 
Fransham, Great 
Fran&ham, Little 
Gressenhall 
Howe 
Kempstone 
Lexham, West 
Litcham with East 
Lexham 



Lougham with Wend- 

ling 
Mileham 
Oswick 
Pattesley 
Rougham 
Seaming 
Stanfield 
Swanton Morley with 

Worthing 
Tittleshall W.God wick 

and Wellingham 
WeaaenhamAU Saints 

and St. Peter 
Whissonsett w. Horn- 

ingtoft 



Deanery of Flegg. 
Eev. G. W. Steward. 



Ashby with Oby and 


Repps with Bastwick 


Thurne 


Rollesby 


Biliockby 


Runham 


Burgh St Margaret 


Somerton, West 


with St. Mary 


Stokesbyw.Herringby 


Caister St. Edmund 


Thrigby 


with Holy Trinity 


Winterton with East 


Clippesby 


Somerton 


Filby 


Yarmouth, Great 


Hemsby 


St. Nicholas 


Mar I ham 


St. George Chap el 


Mantby 


St. Peter 


Ormesby St. Margaret 




with St. Michael & 




Scratby 


Deanery of Holt. 


Eev. E. Brum ell. 


Bayfield 


Langham, Bishops 


Bodham 


Letheringsett 


Briningham 


Morston 


Briston 


Melton Constable w. 


Cley next the Sea 


Little Burgh 


Edgefield 


Saxlingham w. Shar- 


Field Dalling 


rington 


Glandford 


Stodey w. Hunworth 


Gnnthorpe with Bale 


Swanton Novers 


Hemstead by Holt 


Thornage w. Brinton 


Holt 


Wiveton 


Kelling w. Salthouse 


Wejbourn 


Langham Little with 




Blakeney 




Deanery oflngwonth. 


Eev. E. T.Yates. 


Alby 


ColtishalJ 


Aylsham 


Corpusty 


Baconsthorpe 


Hautbois, Great 


Banningham 


Bevingham 


Barningham, Little 


Heydon with Irming- 


Beckham, West 


land 


Bfclaugh with Scottow 


Ingworth 


Blicking withErping- 


rtteringham w. Man- 


ham 


nington 


Booton 


Lammas with Little 


Burgh by Aylsham 


Hautbois 


Brampton 


Marsham , 


Calthorpe ; 


Oulton 


Cawston 1 


Saxthorpe 


Coleby, or Colby ; 





\ 



RURAL DEANS AND DEANERIES. 



'53 



Skeyton with OxneadiThwaite 



and Baxtou 
Stratton Strawless 
Swanton Abbott 



Tuttington 
Wolterton with Wick- 



mere 



Deanery of Lynn, 

RcT. C. Carrie, Rev. C. D. Brereton, and 

Rev. J. Freeman. 



Anmer 
Appleton 

Ashwicken w. Leziate 
Babingley 
Bawsey 
Bilney, West 
Castle Acre 
Castle Rising with 

Roydon 
Clenchwarton 
Congham 
Dersinghanl 
Flitcham 
Gaywood 
Geyton 
Geytonthorpe 
Grimston 
Harpley 
Hillington 
Islington 
Lynn, North 

St. Edmund w. St. 
Margaret and St. 
Nicholas 

St. John 
Lynn, South 

All Saints 
Lynn West, St. Peter 



Massingham, Gt.&Lit 

Middleton 

Newton, West 

Pentney 

Runcton, North, with 
HardwickitSetchey 

Sandiingbam and 
Babingley 

TerringtoD, St. Cle- 
ment with St. John 

Tilney All Saints 
with St. Lawrence 

Walpole, St. Andrew 
St. Peter 

Walsoken 

Walton, East 

Walton, West 

Westacre 

VViggenhall 
St. Germans 
St. Mary Magdalen 
St. Mary the Virgin 
St. Peter 

Winch, East 

Winch, West 

Wolverton 

Wootton, North 

Wootton, South 



Deanery of Norwich. 
No Rural Dean. 



All Saints 

St. Andrew 

St. Augustine 

St. Benedict 

St. Clement 

Christ Church 

St. Edmund 

St. Etheldred 

St. George Colegt. 

St. George Tmbld. 

St. Giles 

St. Gregory 

St. Helen 

St. James 

St. Julian 

St. John Mdr-mkt. 

St. John Sepulchre 

St. John Timber-hl 



iSt. Lawrence 
St. Margaret 
St. Martin at Oak 
St. Martin at Palace 
St. Mary at Coslany 
St. Marj in Marsh 
St. Michl. Coslany 
'St. Michael at Plea 
iSt.Micbl.at Thorn 
I St. Paul 

'St. Peter Hungate 
St. Peter Mancroft 
St. Peter per Mntgt 
St.Peterof Southgt 
St. Saviour 
St.Simon & St. Jude 
St. Stephen 
St. Swithin 



Deanery of Sparhzm. 
Rev. L. A. Norgate. 



Alderford 

Bawdeswell 

Billingford 

Bintryw Tbemelthorp 

Rrandeston 

Bylaugh 

Elsing 

Foulaham 

Foxley 



Guestwick 
Guist 

Helmiogham 
Heverland 
Hindolveston 
Lycg 
Reepham 
All Saints w. Whit- 
well 



Reepham, St. Mary, 
w. Kerdestone 

Ringland 

Sail 

Spar ham 

Swannington w.Wood 
Dalling 



Thurning 
Twyford 

WestOD Longvilie 
Witchingham, St. 

Mary, w. St. Faith's 
Woodnorton 



Deanery of Taverham. 
Rev. Hinds Howell. 



Alderford w. Attlebdg 

Catton 

Crostwick 

Drayton w. Hellesdon 

Felthorpe 

Frettenham w. Stan- 

ninghall 
Haynford 
Horsford 



Horsham, St. Faith 
Horstead 
Rackbeath 
Spixworth 
Sprowston 
Taverham 

Wroxham with Sale 
house 



Deanery of Thelford. 
No Rural Dean. 

Santon House jThetford, St. Mary 

Thetford.St.Cuthbert' St. Peter 

Deanei-y of Toftrees. 

The Hon. and Eev. K. H. Digby, and 

Rev. H. T. Lee. 



Colkirk 
Helhoughton w.Rain- 

ham, St. Martin 
Pudding Norton 
Rainham, St. Mary 



Rainham St.Margaret 
Ry burgh, Great 
Sheringford 
Testerton 
Toftrees 



Deanery of Walsingham, 
Rev. H. J. Lee Warner. 

Snoring, Great, with 

Thursford 
Stiff key, St. John, w. 

St. Mary 
Walsingham, Gt,& Lit 
Warham, All Saints 

St. Mary Magdalen 
Wells 
Wighton 



Barney 
Binham 
Cockthorpe 
Egmere 
Hindringham 
Holkham 

Houghton, near Wals- 
ingham 



AECHDEACONBY OF KORFOLK. 

Deanery of BrooTce, 
Rev. Joseph Dewe and Rev. Abbot Upcher. 



Aldeby 
Arminghall 
Bedingham 
Bergh Apton with 

Holveston 
Bixley with Framing- 

ham Eari 
Bramerton 
Brooke 
Broome 
Caister, St. Edmund, 

with Marketshall 
Carlton with Ashby 
Chedgrave 
Claxton 
Ditchingham 
EUingham 
Framiogham Pigott 
Geldeston 



Gillingham,A.llSaint8, 

w.St.Mary,Win8ton 

and Windell 
Haddiscoe with Toft 

Monks 
Hales 
Hardley 
Heckingham 
Hedenham 
Hellington, or Halag 

ston 
Howe with Little 

Poringland 
Kirby Bedon, St, 

Andrew 
Kirby Cane 
Kirksted w. Langhale 
Langley 
Loddon 



54 



DIOCESE OF NORWICH. 



Mandham, St. Ethel- 
red w. St. Peter 

Norton Subcourse 

Poringland, Great 

Eaveningham 

Eockland, St. Mary 

Saxlingham Nether- 
gate w. Saxlingham 
Thorpe 

Seething 

Sbottisham,Ml Saints 
with St. Mary and 
St. Martin 

Surlingham, St. Mary 
with St. Savioar 



Sizeland 
Stockton 

Stoke Holy Cross 
Thorpe by Haddiseoe 
Thurltoa 
Thurton 

Thwaite, St. Mary 
Topcroft 
Trowse 

Wheatacre & Barnby 
Wheatacre Burgh 
Witlingham 
Woodston or Wottoa 
Yelverton withAlph' 
ington 



Deanery of Burnham. 
Eev. T. Greene. 



Bagthorpe 

Barmer 

Barsham, East, with 

Little Snoring 
Barsham, North 
Barsham, West 
Burnham, All Saints, 

or Ulph with Overy 
Burnham Deepdale 

St. Margaret, or 
Norton 

St. Mary, or Burn 
ham Westgate 

Thorpe 
Creake, North and 

South 



Dunton w. Doughton 

Fakenham 

Fulmodestone with 
Croxton 

Houghton nr.Harpley 

Kettlestone 

Pensthorpe 

Eudham East, with 
Eudkam West 

Ey burgh, Little 

Scalthorpe 

Stibbard 

Syderstone 

Tattersett w. Tatter- 
ford 

Water den 



Deanery of Crantvise or Cranwich. 
Bev. S. Everard and Eev. Alex. Thurtell. 



Bradenham,E.and W. 
Cockley Cley, All 

Saints, w. St.Peter's! 
Cranwich 
Cressingham, Great, 

with Bodney 
Cressingham, Little \ 
Croxton ] 

Didlington with Col 

yeston 
Feltwell, St. Mary, 

with St. Nicholas 
Qooderstone 
Hiiborough 
Hockwold w. Wilton 
Holme Hale 
Langford w. Igburgh 
Methwold 
Mundford 



Narburgh w. Narford 
Neighton, or Neclon 
Newton, near Castle 

Acre 
Northwold 
Oxburgh w. Foulden 
Pickenham , North , w, 

Houghton on Hill 
Pickenham, South 
Santon 
South Acre 
Sporlewith Great and 

Little Palgrav3 
Stanford 
Sturstoa 
Swaffham 
Tofts, West 
Weeting, All Saints, 

with St Mary 



Eev. H. 
Ashwellthorpe 
Aslacton 
Bunwell 
Carleton Eode 
Forncet, or Fornselt, 
St. Mary & St, Peter 
Fritton 
Fundendall 
Hapton 
Hempnall 
Moulton, St. Michael 



Deanery of Depwade. 



E. Preston 
Morningthorpe 
Shelton w. Hardwick 
Stratton Long, St. 

Mary 
Stratton, St. Michael, 

with St. Peter 
Tacolnestone 
Tasburgh 
Tharston 
Tibbenham 
Wacton, Geftt, & Lit. 



Barton, St. Andrew's 

St, Mary, with Ali 
Saints 
Beachamwell.StMarj 
and St. John 

All Saints, with 
Shingham 
Bexwell, or Becksweli 
Boughton 
Crimplesham 
Denver 

Dereham, West 
Downham Market 
Fincham.St. Michael 

with St. Martin 
Fordbam 
Hilgay with Ten Mile 

Bank 



Deanery of FincJiam. 
Eev. W. Blyth. 



Marham 
Outwell 
Runcton, South, with 

Holme and Wal- 

lington 
Ryston, with Eoxham 
Shouldham, All Saints 

with Thorpe 
Southery 
Stoke Ferry 
Stow-bardolph, with 

Wimhotsham 
Stradsett 
Tottenhill 

Upwell, with Welney 
Watlington 
Wereham, w. Wretton 
Wormgay 



Deanery of Hingham. 
Eev. Edvr. Gurdou: Eev. W. C. Johnson. 



Baiford 

Barnham Broom with 

Bickereton & Kim- 

berley 
Bawburgh 
Brandon, Little 
Carlton Forehos 
Colton 

Costessey, or Cossey 
Coston with Eunhall 
Cranworth w. Letlon 
Crownthorpe 
Deopham 
Dereham, East, with 

Hoo 
Easton 
Garveston 
Hackford 
Hardingham 
Hingham 
Hockering with Mat* 

tisball Burgh 



Honingham w. East 

Tuddenham 
Longham 
Marlingford 
Mattishall w.Pattisley 
Melton, Little 
Morley, St. Botolph 

with St. Peter 
Reymorston 
Shipdham 
South Burgh 
Thuxton 

Tuddenham, North 
Welborne 
Wendling 
Whinbergh, w. West- 

field 
Wicklewool 
Woodrising 
Wramplingham 
Wymondham 
Yaxham 



Barwick 
Bircham, Great 
Bircbam, Newton, w. 

Tofts 
Brancaster 
Docking 
Fringe 
Heacham 
Hunstanton 
Ingoldisthorpe 



Deanery of Heacham. 
Eev. J. A. Ogle. 



Eingstead, St. Peter, 
with St. Andrew 

Sedgford 

Shernborna 

Snettisham 

Stanhoe 

Thornham w. Holme 
next the Sea 

Titchwell 



Deanery of Humbleyard. 
Eev. W. W. Andrew. 



Bracon Ash 

Carlton, St. Mary 

Colney 

Cringleford 

Dunston 

Earlhamw.Bowthorpe 

Flordon 

Heigham 

Hethell ' 



Hetherset with Cftn- 

telofF 
lutwood w. Keswick 
Ketteringham 
Lakenham 

St. Mark's 
Melton, St. Mary, w. 

All Saints 



EURAL DEANS AND DEANERIES. 



u 



Mulbarton with Kin- 
ninghftm 

Swainsthorpe w. New- 
ton Flotman 



Swardesfcon 
Wrenningham &Ney- 
land 



Deanery of Redenhall. 
Eev. Gr. Stevenson. 



Alburgh 

Billingford w. Little 

Thorpe 
Bressingham 
Brockdish 
Burston 
Denton 
Dickleburgh 
Diss 

Earsham 
Fersfield 
Frenza 
Gissing 
Needham 
Palbam, St. Mary the 

Virgin 

Deanery 
Eey. P. 
Alborough 
Antingham, St. Marj 

St. Margaret 
Ajlmerton w. Eunton 
Barningham Norwd. 
Barningham Town 
Bassingham 
Bseston Eegis 
Cromer 

Fellbrigg w. Metton 
Gresham 

Ganton w. Hanwortb 
Gimingham 
Knapton 
Matlaske 



Mary 



Pulham St. 

Magdalen 
Eedenhall w. Harks- 

ton 
Roydon 
Ruiahall 

Scole,or Ozmandiston 
Shelfanger 
Shimpling 
Starston 
Thelveton 
Thorpe Abbotts 
Tivetshall, St, Mary, 

with St. Margaret 
Winfarthing 



of Repps . 
C. Law. 
Mnndesley 
Overstrand 
Plumstead by Holt 
Repps, North 
Repps, Sooth 
Eoughton 
Sheringham 
Sistead. or Sustead 
Saffield 

Syderstrand, or Side- 
strand 
Thorpe Market 
Tbargartou 
Trimiagham 
Irunch 



Deanery of Boekland. 

Hon. and Eev. E. S. Keppell and Eev. T. 

B, Wilkinson. 



Attleborough 

Banham 

Besthorpe 

Bio Norton 

Bridgham 

Brettenbam 

Buekenham, New 

Backenham, Old 

Eccles 

EUingham, Great 

Garboldisham, St. 

John, w. All Saints 
Harling, East 
Harling, West 
Hockham 
lUington 



Kenninghall 

Larling 

Lopbam, North, with 

South Lopham 
Qaiddenham w. Snet- 

terton 
Riddlesworth with 

Gasthorpe 
Rockland, AH Saints. 
with St. Andrew, 
and Caston 

St. Peter 
Shropham 
Wilby w. Hargham 
Wrethana, East, and 

West Wrethana 



Deanery of Waxion, or Waxham. 
Eev. J. Gann and Eev. G. King. 



Asbraanhaugh 

Bacton 

Barton Turf, with 

Irstead 
Beeston, St.Lawrence 
Bradfield 



Brunstead 
Catfield 
Crostwick 
Dilham w. Honing 
Eccles near Sea 
Edinthorpe 



Felmingham 
Happisburgh 
Heigbam Potter 
Hempstead w. Les 

singham 
Hickling 
Horning 
Horsey 
Hoveton, St. Peterj 

with St. John 
Ingham 
Ludham 
Neatishead 
Paston 



Ridlington with East 

Euston 
Sloley 
Smallburgh 
Stalham 
Sutton 
Swafield 
Tunstead, with Sco 

Easton 
Walcot 

Walsham, North 
Waxham with Palling 
Westwick 
Witton 
Worstead 



AECHDEACONBY OF SUFFOLK. 

Deanery of Bosmere. 
Eev. E. Longe and Eev. C. Shorting. 



Ashbocking 

Badley 

Barking w. Darmsden 

Battisford 

Bajlham, St. Peter 

Blakenbam, Gt.&Lit. 

Brataford 

Bricett, Great 

Coddenham w. Crow- 
field 

Creeting, St. Mary, 
and St. Olave 

Flowton 



Gosbeck 

Hemingstoue 

Mickfield 

Needham Market 

Nettlestead 

Offton with Little 

Bricett 
Eingshall 
Somersham 
Sionham, Aspall 
Stonham Earl 
Stonham Little 
Willisham 



Deanery of Carlesford. 
Eev. E. J. Moor and Eev. W. Potter. 
Bealings, Gt. & Lit. jNewbourn 



Brigbtwell w. Foxhall 

Burgh 

Clopton 

Culpko 

Grundisburgh 

Hasketon 

Kesgrava 

Martlesham 



Otley 

Playford 

Eushmere, St.Andvew 

Taddenham, St. Mar- 
tin 

Witnesham 

Woodbridge 
St. John's 



Deanery of Claydon 
Eev. W. Howartb. 



Ashfield with Thorpe 

Barham 

Claydon w. Akenham 

Debenham 

Framsden 

Helmingbara 



Henley 

Pettaugh 

Swilland 

Westerfield 

Whitton w. Thurlton 

Winston 



Deanery of Colneys. 
Eev. W. Jackman. 



Backlesham 

Falkenham 

Hemley 

Kirton 

Nacton w. Levington 

Trimley, St. Martin, 



and Alieston, or Al- 

kinston 
Trimley, St. Mary, 

with Stratton 
WaldrJngfield 
Walton w. Felixstow 



Deanery of Dumvich. 
Eev. T. O. Leman &Eev. G. A. Whitaker. 



Aldringham w.Thorpe 
Benacre with North 
Hales or CoveHithe 
Blythburgh 
Blythford 



Bramfield 
Brampton 
Cove, South 
Cratfield 
Darsham 



56 



DIOCESE OF NORWICH. 



Dunwich, St. James 1 
Fordley w. Westleton 
Frostenden 
HalesvForth with 

Chediston 
Henstead w. Hulver 
HeveniDgham 
Holton 
Huntingfield with 

Cookley 
Kelsale with Carlton 
Knoddishall with 

Baxlow 
Leiston 

Linstead, Great & Lit 
Middleton 
Peasenhall 
Eejdon 
KuDiburgh 



Sibton 

Sizewell 

Southwold 

Spexhall 

Stoven 

Theberton 

Thorington 

Ubbeston 

Uggesball with 

Sotherton 
Walberswick 
Walpole 

Wangford w.Henham 
Wtnhaston 
Westhall 
Wisset le Eoos 
Wrentham 
Yoxford 



Deanery of Hartismere. 
Kev. K. Cobbold & Eev. G. W. Kershaw. 



Aspall 
Bacton 
Braiseworth 
Brome, with Great 

and Little Oakley 
Bar gate 
Cotton 
Eye 

Finningham 
Gislingham 
Mellis 

Mendlesham 
Occold 
Palgrave 
Kedgravewith Botes- 

dale 
Kedlingfield 



Rickinghall Inferior 
with Eickingball 
Superior 

Bishangles 

Stoke, Ash 

Stuston 

Thorndon,All Saints 

Thornham.Gt. &Lit. 

Thrandeston 

Thwaite, St. George 

Westhorpe 

Wetberingsett 

Wickham Skeith 

Worth amEverard and 
Jarvis 

Wyverstone 

Yaxley 



Deanery of Tloxnc. 
Rev, J. Bedingfeld. 



Athelington 

Badingham 

Bedfield 

Bedingfield 

Bennington 

Fressingfield with 

With ersd ale 
Horham 

Hoxne w. Denham 
Kenton 
Lax&eld 
Mendham 



iMetfield 
Saxted 

Soham, Monk 
Stradbroke 
Sjleham 
Tannington with 

Brandish 
Weybread, St. Mary 
Wilby 
Wingfield 
Worlingworth with 

Soatholt 



Deanery of Ipswich. 
Eev. S. Croft. 



St, Clement with 

St. Helen 
St. Lawrence 
St. Margaret 
St. Mary at Elms 
St. Mary at the Key 
St. Mary Stoke 



St. Mary at 

Tower 
St. Matthew 
St. Nicholas 
St. Peter 
St. Stephen 
Holy Trinity 



the 



Deanery of Loose. 
Eev. G. Attwood. 



Boalge, w. Debach 
Boyton, St. Andrew 
Brandeetou 



Campsey Ash 
Campsey Ash 
Charsfield 



Cr&tingham 

Easton 

Eyke 

Framlingham 

Hoo 

Letheringham 



Marlesford 

Monewden 

Parham w. Hacheston 

Rendlesbam 

Soham, Earl 



Deanery of Lothingland. 
Rev. F. Cunningham. 



Ashby 

Belton 

Blandeston w.Flixton 

Bradwell 

Bargh Castle 

Carlton ColviUe 

Gorton 

Fretton 

Gisleham 

Gorleston 

Gunton 

Herringfleet 



Hopton by Lowestoft 

Kessingland 

Kirkley 

Loand 

Lowestoft w. St. Peter 

Lowestoft, St. John's 

Matford w. Barnby 

Oalton, or Oldton 

Pakefield 

Ruihmere, All Saints 

Somerleyton 

South Town, St. Mary 



Deanery of Orford. 
Rev. H. T. Dowler. 



Aldeburgh 

Benhall 

Blaxball 

Bruisyard 

Chillesford 

Cransford 

Farnham 

Friston with Snape 

Glemham, Gt. & Lit. 

Iken 



Rendham 

Saxmundham 

Stercfield 

Stratford, St. Andrew 

Sunbonme w. Orford 

Swefling 

Tonstall with Don- 

ningworth 
Wantisden 



Deanery of Stamford 
Rev. H, J. Hasted. 



Belstead, Little 

Bentley 

Bergholt, East 

Burstall 

Brantham 

Capel, St. Mary, with 

Little Wenham 
Chattisbam 
Chelmondiston 
CopdockwWashbrook 
Erwarton w. Woolver- 

stone 



Freston 

Higham 

Bintlesham 

Holbrook 

Holton, St. Mary 

Raydon 

Sbelley 

Shotley, St. Mary 

Stutton 

Tattingstone 

Wenham, Great 

Wherstead 



Deanery of Soidhelmham. 
Rev. E. A. Holmes. 

Elmham, South, AUl St. Margaret, with 

Saints, with St.I St. Peter 
Nicholas JFlixton 

St. James iHomersfield with St. 

St. Michael | Cross 

Deanery of Stoic. 
Rev. Copinger Hill; 

Newton, Old 
One-house 
Shelland 

Stowmarket withUp« 
land 
Trinity 
Wetherden 



Buxhall 

Combs 

Creeling, All Saints 

St. Peter 
Finborough, Gt.&Lit 
Haugbley 
Harleston 



RURAI* DEANS AND DEANERIES. 



57 



Deanery of Waynford, or Wangford. 
Rev. E. A. Holmes. 
Barsham lllketshall, St. Margt. 

Beccles & Endergate'Mettingbam 



Bungay, St. Mary 

Holy Trinity 
Cove, North, w. Wil- 

lingham 
Ellongh, All Saints 
Ilketshall, St.Andrew 

St. John 

St. Lawrence 



Eedisham, Great 
Piingsficld, w. Little 

Bedisbatn 
Shadingfield 
Shipmeadow 
Sotterley 
Weston 
Worlingham 



Deanery of Wilford. 
Bev. E. Walford & Rev. W. P. Larken. 



Alderton 

Bawdsey 

Bredfield.or Bradfield 

Bromeswell 

Butley with Capel 

Dallinghoe 

HoUesly 

Kettleburgh 



Lowdham with Pet- 

tistree 
Melton 
Ramsholt 
Shottisham 
Sutton 
Ufford 
Wickham Market 



Climate, Aspect, &c. — The face of Norfolk may be considered as less 
varied in its features than that of any other tract of similar extent in the 
kingdom. Though it has no stupendous mountains furnishing traits of the 
grand, and no bold and toweling cliffs, except a few washed by the ocean, 
there are many exceptions to the prevailing uniformity of its appearance, 
particulaiiy in the northern parts, where the general surface is broken into 
moderate elevations and depressions; where turf-clad hills and fertile 
valleys are diversified by woods, plantations, hedge-rows, and other en- 
livening sylvan decorations, combining all the softer beauties of picturesque 
scenery, and in some places approaching to the subHmer features of nature, 
especially in the deep and secluded .valleys of the Stiffkey, Ant, Bure, 
Glan, and some other of the smaller streams. The most extensive prospects 
are from the Castle Hill, at Norwich, and the heights near Strumpshaw, Gres- 
ham, Dunham, Ashill, (near Swaffham), Melton Constable, Poringland, 
Castle Rising, and Docking. It has already been seen that Norfolk is of 
an oval figure, about 70 miles in length from east to west, and from its being 
exposed to the ocean on the north, and to a large extent of marshes and fens 
on the south and south-west, the air is extremely sharp in Tvinter and in 
the early part of spring. North and north-easterly winds are more prevalent 
here than in other parts of the kingdom. These are severely felt, and vege- 
tation is consequently backward. The contiguity to the sea and the marshes 
and fens, with the vapours brought from Holland, accounts for the frequent 
rains during the summer months, when storms of thunder, lightning, and 
wind are not unusual ; but they are seldom of so long duration as in more 
hilly districts. In the Hundreds of Marshland and Clackclose, and other 
fenny parts of the county, the air is not only cold but exceedingly damp, 
and the inhabitants are subject to intermittant fevers ; but as the watery 
fens and marshes are now well drained, these endemial agues are much less 
frequent than formerly, when strangers on their first residence were gen- 
erally attacked with them, and proverbially said to be " arrested bij the 
bailiff of Marshland." The country extending to the east and north-east 
from the fens and marshes near Lynn, Downham, Brandon, and Thetford, 
rises in bold undulations and high plains, forming the greater part of Nor- 
folk, consisting chiefly of a sandy or gravelly soil, and peculiarly salubrious 
and pleasant. Though Mr. Young considered the temperature as rather 
affecting animal than vegetable life, the vital piinciple is evidently homo- 
geneous throughout nature, and Norfolk has produced as many instances of 
longevity as most other counties in England. More than eighty of its in- 
habitants, who outhved their 100th yeai* since 1727, might be enumerated, 
and at the time of taking the census in 1801, there were ten women and 
one man living in the coimty who were more than 100 years of age. 
The men of Norfolk are generally of a light wiry make, formed for activity 
rather than sti-ength, and the same may be said of the horses and other 
animals. Marshall, an agricultural writer more than 80 years ago, mentions 
his astonishment at the activity and quantity of work performed by Norfolk 
men and horses ; and in Chaucer, and many early authors, the same pecu- 
liarities are noticed. 

The CoAsi Qjf Norfolk varies very much in its outliuQ aud sujbstauce from 



68 • HISTOEY OP NOBFOLK. 

the southern and western shores of the island ; havmg no deeply indented 
bays, except the Great Wash between it and Lincolnshire ; no sinuous 
creeks intersecting the land, nor beethng rocks and bold impending crags 
jutting into the ocean, and forming an adamantine barrier to the assailing 
waves, except Hunstanton Cliff, which is commonly called St. EdmuncVs 
Point, and may be considered as the only rocky prominence of much note 
on the whole coast. The lofty cliffs and small headlands near Cromer, 
being composed of chalk, clay, &c., are constantly becoming a prey to the 
depredations of the ocean. The greater part of the coast is comprised of a 
low sandy beach, covered with heaps of gravel and loose pebbles, here called 
shingles, and which through the violence of the waves, are frequently thrown 
up in immense hills and ridges. These, by the accumulation of sand, are 
formed into hanks, which are kept together by the matted roots of sea-reed 
grass. Numerous banks of this kind lie off the coast, far out at sea ; and 
being only discoverable at ebb or quarter tides, they often prove fatal to 
mariners. The most remarkable is the large bank running parallel 
with the coast off Yarmouth, and having between it and the shore a deep 
channel, called Yarmouth Roads, where ships ride safely, even in tem- 
pestuous weather. The railges of sand hills on this, hke those on the 
coast of Holland, tend to preserve a valuable portion of the county from 
continual inundation. A Une of them, called the Meols, commences at 
Caistor, near Yarmouth, and extends, with occasional inteiTuptions, to 
Happisburgh, and thence to Cromer bay, beyond which commence what are 
sometimes called the mud chffs, which line the shore to Lynn Deeps. 
These sand banks sometimes shift their station, suddenly disappear, and as 
suddenly rise up again in a new shape, as will be seen in the history of the 
parishes lying on the coast. 

The principal Rivees of Norfolk are — the Great and Little Ouse, the 
the Waveney, Wensum, Yare, Bure, and Nar. The Great Ouse rises near 
Brackley, in Northamptonshire, and after receiving the Little Ouse, it 
crosses the west-end of this county to Lynn, where it receives the Nar 
from the east, and pursues its northward course to the ocean, emptying itself 
into the " Metaris ^stuariiim," after a coiu^se of more than sixty miles. 
This river has been diverted betwixt Wiggenhall St. Germain's and Lynn, 
into a new channel called the Eau-Brinh Cut. The Great Ouse is navigable 
for barges 24 miles above 'Ltjmi, and for smaller boats as far as Bedford, — 
thus forming a communication by means of collateral rivers and canals 
with Eight Midland Counties. The Little Ouse and the Waveney both 
rise in the swampy grounds near Lopham, and flowing in opposite dkec- 
tions, separate Norfolk from Suffolk, — the former passing westward to the 
Great Ouse, is navigable for boats up to Thetford ; and the latter passing 
eastward, falls into the Yare above Breydon Water, and is navigable up 
to Bungay, for small craft. The Wensum rises near East Rudham, about 
30 miles N.W. of Norwich, and after passing that city it falls into the Yare, 
which rises near Shipdham, 20 miles west of Norwich, and after bounding 
the southern liberties of that city, pursues an eastward but sinuous course 
to Yarmouth, — a Httle below which, it emj)ties itself into the ocean. It 
expands into a long and broad lake called Breydon Water, and is navigable 
for barges up to Norwich ; but at Reedham, about 8 miles from Yarmouth, 
a Ship Canal has been cut across the marshes from the Yare to Lowestoft, in 
Suffolk. The Bure, rising near Melton-Constable, takes a south-easterly 
course by Bhckling, Aylsham, Wroxham and Acle, to Yarmouth. It is 
navigable up to Aylsham, and near Ludham receives the Ant, now 
navigable up to the bounds of North Walsham and Antingham. It is 
likemse augmented by the Thurne, and several other tributary streams, 
flowing through low marshes, and in many places expanding into large 
meres, or pools, here called " Broads,'' abounding in fish, and some of them 
navigable for small craft; indeed, these broads exist in all the eastern vales 



RIVERS OF NORFOLK. 59 

of Norfolk ; the Tas, rising fi'om several rivulets near Tasburgh, flows 
northward to tlie Yai'e, near Harford Bridges, 2 miles S. of Norwich. The 
Thet rises near Kenninghall, and flows westward to the Little Ouse at 
Thetford. The navigable Wissey, sometimes called Stolce River, is formed 
by the union of several rivulets rising near Griston, Carbrooke, Bradenham, 
and Cockley-Clej, and flows westward by Stoke Ferry, to the Great Ousc, 
near its confluence with the large drains called the Old and New Bedford 
Rivers, beyond which the country is skirted by the river Welney, the Wis- 
bech canal, and the river Nene — the latter of which falls into the Crass 
Keys Wash, on the borders of Lincolnshire. The Nar, rising near Litcham, 
flows westward by Castle-acre and Setch, to the Great Ouse at Lynn, and 
was made navigable for small craft up to Narborough, under an act passed 
in the 24th George II. Several small cuts from the navigable rivers have 
been made in various directions, serving the double purpose of drains and 
canals. 

The Turnpikes and other public Roads in Norfolk are better than those of 
most other counties in England, — being generally raised higher than the 
adjacent lands, well drained by trenches on each side, and having a firm 
bottom composed of gravel, flint and chalk, which, it has ah-eady been seen, 
are found within a few feet of the surface in almost every part of the 
county. Charles II., *' who never said a silly thing, or ever did a ^vise 
one," said, when on a visit to the Earl of Yarmouth, at Oxnead, in 1071, 
" that Norfolk ought to be cut out in strips, to make roads for the rest of 
the kingdom," — alluding, no doubt, to the surface being generally level. 
The road from Nor\^•ich to Thetford was the first turnpike formed in the 
county, — bemg made under acts passed in 1694 and '5. The first toU gate 
in England was erected on the tiu'npike road from London to Harwich, 
in 1679. 

Railways. — Norfolk is now traversed in all directions by the Great 
Eastern Railway and its various branches, so that most of its market towns 
have an easy and direct communication with the metropoHs and aU parts 
of the kingdom. The Great Eastern Railway Company has a capital of 
nearly £"20,000,000. and comprehends the Eastern Counties (1836), Nor- 
folk (1845), Newmarhet{l^^Q), Eastern Union (1847), East Anglian (1847), 
Wells and FahenTiam, (1854), and East Suffolk (1858) Companies, whicli 
were incoi-porated by act of parhament in August, 1862. The county is 
traversed from west to east by a line from Yarmouth to Norwich, Dereham, 
Swaff ham, Lynn, and Wisbech, which is crossed by a line from Ely to 
Downham, Lynn, and Hunstanton, and by another fi'om WeUs to New Wal- 
singham, Fakenham, Dereham, and Wymondham. There are also lines 
from Norwich to Wymondham, Attleborough, Hai-ling, Thetford, Brandon, 
and Ely, and to Diss, Harleston, Bungay, Beccles, and Lowestoft. A new 
railway is projected, and will be shortly commenced from Norwich to 
Aylsham, North Walsham, and Cromer. 

Ageicultuee. — Norfolk has long been celebrated for the superiority of 
its agricultiu'e. It was certainly the first county to adopt those practical 
and theoretical improvements which have recently raised the pursuit of 
fanning in the eyes of the world from a stupid and ignoble occupation to 
iie dignity of a science. At first, practice led the way, and science followed 
afar ofi", but the latter has now overtaken her plodding sister, and even shot 
a head, by propounding aU sorts of strange theories for practice to solve, 
and has been the pioneer of the greatest revolutions in agricultui-e. It is, 
however, only by the union of " Practice uitli Science,'' (that weU chosen 
motto of the Royal Agricultural Society,) that the farming interest can 
really prosper. Practice may be slow to move out of her beaten track, and 
science be a little visionary, yet they thus exercise a healthy check upon 
each other, and the two helpmates of agricultui'e happily go hand-in-hand, 
and the fruit of their safe and careful progress shows no where a better 



60 HISTORY OF NORFOLK. 

return than in the naturally barren but well-farmed county of Norfolk. A 
recent number of the Quarterly Review contained a very clever article on 
the progress of British agricultiu-e. It must be gratifying to the farmers 
of this county to find that the improved cultivation of England and Norfolk 
are used as synonymous terms, for the cliief part of tliis paper in the 
" Quarterly' refers more to the improvements in Norfolli agriculture than 
to the progress of farming generally throughout the kingdom. From the 
middle of the last century, Norfolk has stood foremost in everything which 
tends to elevate this important branch of our national wealth, and though 
its honourable position is not so conspicuous now, the very able writer 
remarks, " If Norfolk no longer occupies its leading position, it is not be- 
cause it has dropped behind in the race, but because other counties have 
pushed forward, and the course of events are tending to equalize the arts of 
cultivation throughout the kingdom." This is, doubtless, very true. The 
farming of other counties has wonderfully progressed, and it is always easier 
to make a start than to keep the lead, but it would puzzle anyone to find 
another county, with its sands, gravels, and thin challis, that annually pro- 
duces such large supplies of corn, meat, and wool for our increasing popula- 
tion. Other parts of the country may be quite as well farmed, and there 
are many districts in which the occupiers of land save more money, but none 
in which such an amount of the necessaries of life is raised by artificial 
means. At any rate Norfolls: farmers cannot be taxed with having stood 
still. On the contrary, they have exerted themselves to the utmost to pro- 
duce " victuals, drink, and clothing" for this great nation. Less than 100 
years ago Norfolk did not i^roduce enough wheat to maintain its scanty 
population. It appears that its staple products were rye and rabbits ; the 
cultivation of wheat being entkely confined to fertile lands to the east of 
the county, and the heavy soils to the south and interior of Norfolk. True, 
the turnip was at this time introduced by the first Lord Townshend, but for 
years it was cultivated only in garden patches, and sown broad cast with 
hardly any manure, and cultivated with very little assistance from the hoe. 
At the close of the last century, Kent wrote his report of Norfolk farming, 
and simultaneously with his report, the improvements on the estate of that 
great man, Thomas William Coke, afterwards Earl of Leicester, began to 
occupy the attention of the county and the Idngdom at large. Eight years 
after the publication of Kent's Survey, the celebrated agricultural writer, 
Arthur Young, prepared a report of the farming of Norfolk for the Board 
of Agriculture. Mr. Coke was then in the x^rime and vigour of manhood, 
and was successfully estabhshing those great improvements and introducing 
those liberal and salutary alterations in farm practice, which soon placed 
Norfolk foremost in the van of agricultural progress. Time rolled on, and just 
30 years elapsed before any other general re^Dort of the farming of the 
county appeared. The good old Earl was just gathered to his fathers, full 
of honours and of years, when, in 1844, Mr. R. N. Bacon, the editor of the 
Norwich Mercury, published his Survey of the Agriculture of Norfolk. This 
work was written for the Royal Agricultural Society, but being too volum- 
inous for the Journal, it was published by the author in a separate form. 
A more readable and condensed article at the same time appeared in the 
Society's Journal, which was written by Mr. Barugh Almack, of London. 
Fifteen years after the appearance of these simultaneous Reports, Mr. C. S. 
Read compiled a paper, at the request of the Royal Agricultural Society, on 
the improvements that had taken place in the farming of Norfolk since the 
year 1844. This is the last record of the farming of the county, and from 
it will be extracted some of the matter wliich we propose now to place before 
our readers. 

The difi'erent soils of the county may be ranged under five heads. First 
in extent and importance is that part of West Norfolk which rests on the 
Upper Chalk .; a naturally weals ,"3oil, but wliioh; lt>y good husbandry, has 



AGRICULTURE. 61 

been made to produce abundant crops ; 2nd, that large tract of blowing sand 
which comi)rises the great portion of the S.W. of the county, a district 
formerly all rabbit warren and sheep walk, and which, though much un- 
proved, must ever remain comparatively barren land ; 3rd, there are the 
stiffer soils of the county, which begin with a broad patch at the S.E. 
corner, and are interspersed over a good part of mid-Norfolk ; 4th, we have 
the naturally good soils to the N.E. of Norwich; and then, under the 5tli 
and last division, may be placed those diluvial deposits which form the fen 
lands of the West, and the gTass marshes to the East of the county. It 
often happens that the greatest improvements have been made on the worst 
land, and Norfolk is no exception to this general rule. Its naturally fertile 
soils have produced good roots and have given good crops for centuries ; it 
is in the lighter description of land where modern agriculture has chiefly 
progressed ; and in Norfolk there are other causes to promote this advance. 
The land in West Norfolk is chiefly held by large proprietors ; in the East 
there is hardly an estate of any size. The landlords of West Norfolk for 
the most part, let their lands at moderate rents, and grant long and liberal 
leases. The lesser proprietors of East Norfolk farm much of their estates 
themselves, and let their small farms from year to year at high rents. To 
the west, the land is laid out in large fields, and the soil is well adapted for 
sheep ; in the east the inclosures are small, the hedge-row timber abund- 
ant, and the land not calculated to winter sheep. This comparison might 
be carried still further, but enough has been said to show in which part of 
the county the greatest agricultural improvements will be found. The 
weakest and most porous soils of Norfolk have been consolidated and almost 
entirely changed in character by the repeated dressings of clay and marl 
which they have periodically received. The clay is of a calcareous natm*e, 
and the marl is a soft kind of chalk, and happily either one or the other of 
these sub-strata is foimd under the chief part of the light land in Norfolk. 

What has been the grand principle of all agricultural improvements is the 
establishment of a good rotation of cropping, and the best and most simple 
of all these rotations is the four-course or Norfolk system of cropping. This 
term of cropping extends, as the name would imply, only over 4 years : — 
The first and most important being roots, (mangel wurtzel, swedes, or white 
turnips) ; second, barley ; third, grass seeds, such as clover, trefoil, sainfoin or 
the like, and the foui'th and last year, w^heat. It is by having the root and 
green crops to alternate with corn, and not allow^ing two white straw crops 
to succeed each other, that land, which half a century ago produced only a 
scanty crop of rye, now grov/s an abundant yield of wheat and barley. The 
preparation of the land for roots generally begins in the autumn ; in fact, as 
soon as the ground has been cleared of the previous corn crop. This 
autumnal tillage is of the greatest advantage in cleansing the land from 
couch grass and weeds ; otherwise, stiiTing land at that usually dry season 
of the year is not often productive of the good which a similar treatment 
effects on more retentive soils. The number of ploughings given for mangel 
wurtzel and swedes is much diminished of late, especially if the land is free 
from weeds, the scarifier and other implements which cultivate and stir the 
land without inverting and drying it too much, being more frequently used 
in the spring. The chief part of these roots is drilled on ridges or baulks 27 
inches wide, the white turnip being generally sown on the flat. The most 
approved plan of manuring for roots is to apply a mixture of farm yard dung 
and artificial manures, but in many districts the turnips are grown exclu- 
sively with artificial fertiHzers, the farm manure being all kept for the wheat 
crop. Soon after Michaelmas, the mangolds are removed from the field and 
haled close by the homestead, and there covered with straw and mould for 
spring use. The leaves are spread over the land, which is sown with barley 
early in the following year, or at once ploughed and planted with wheat. 
A portion of the swedes are carted to the yards for the bullocks, and the 



62 HISTORY OF NORFOLK. 

remainder are eaten on the land by sheep, which are inclosed in hurdles, 
and have the roots cut small by a machine and supplied to them in troughs. 
They have also an allowance of hay, chaiF, and cake, while the bullocks in 
the yard are also supplied with some dry provender and plenty of artificial 
food. White turnips are not extensively grown except on farms where ev/e 
flocks are kept. The land on which the sheep have consumed the turnips 
is ]3loughed once or twice for barley, and that grain is drilled as early in the 
spring as possible, the chief part being iDlanted these last two seasons in 
February. The grass seeds for next year's hay are sown at the same time 
v>'ith the barley or shortly after it is up, and merely rolled in. The clovers, &.c., 
in the following year, are either cut for hay or feed, principally with sheep, 
all through the summer, and then having received some sort of a dressing 
of manure, are ploughed once, and the wheat drilled in the autumn. This 
concludes the main operations of the four-course or Norfolk system of crop- 
ping, and the rotation commences again with the preparation of the land for 
the root crops. 

The quantity of permanent grass in Norfolk is small in proportion to the 
extent of arable land. There are but few really good pastures or meadows, 
except some of ihe latter which are irrigated. A useful tract of grass 
marshes extends along the banks of the Yare and the Biu'e, and there is 
some good grazing land in the vicinity of Lynn. The management of 
the pastiu'es in Norfolk has Httle to recommend it ; all possible care is taken 
to cultivate the arable land well, but the small extent of grass ground is 
generally badly farmed. 

But few of the cattle grazed in Norfolk are bred in the county. The fat 
oxen for which it is so celebrated are mostly grazed m the winter, and are 
fed in loose boxes, stalls, or small open yards. The majority are bought on 
Norwich Hill or at the County markets and fairs during the autumn, and 
sold principally for the London Markets from January to July. It is during 
this half of the year that Norfolk furnishes the Metropolis with such grand 
supphes of the best beef, and the total quantity of bullocks annually fattened 
in tiie county has been estimated at 100,000. Formerly the cattle grazed 
were chiefly Galloway scots ; but now fev/ of them find tlieir way to Norfolk, 
and the cattle wliicli the Norfolk farmers principally buy are the shorthorns 
and the Irish crosses. What cattle are reared in the county are mostly the 
polled Norfolks ; and the dairies, which are few and small now-a-days, are 
chiefly com]Dosed of cows of the same hornless breed. Recently the most 
laudable efi"orts have been made to improve the long neglected Norfolks, 
and after a few generations of careful breeding and judicious selection, it is 
probable that the steers will be as celebrated for their early production of 
beef, as the cows have long been for the quantity and quahty of then- milk. 
The old Norfolk sliee}^ are well nigh extinct, but a hardy black-faced sort of 
ewe, which is descended from them, with a large admixture of good down 
blood, now composes the chief part of the flocks in Norfolk. These ewes are 
generally crossed with long-woolled rams, and the produce is an excellent 
half-bred lamb, which unites both quahty and quantity of wool and mutton, 
and is sold fat in the London markets when about 14 months old. There 
are also many flocks of pure southdowns, but these are mostly on the farms 
of the nobihty and gentry, their tenants generally preferring the improved 
and hardy descendants of the old NorfoU^ sheep, and they are certainly well- 
adapted for the scanty herbage and strong exercise of their barren sheep 
v/alks. The Norfolk ^jif/ is a narrow, flat-sided, long nosed animal, a gi'eat 
consumer and a bad grazier. No county in England has worse porcine 
stock, and as the chief pig breeders are the small farmers, there is not much 
chance of any gi-eat improvement. Norfolk was, some long time ago, cele- 
brated for its trotting cobs : that useful stamp of horse has almost passed 
away, and what few remain arc sadly degenerated. The cart horses are of 
no particular or distinctive breed ; but the old Norfolk browns and bays are 



AGRICULTURE. 6B 

a most useful class of cart horse, — they are quick and active steppers, and 
first-rate workers, and have far better constitutions, better legs, and better 
feet, than their more fashionable neighbom-s — the Suffolks. 

The agricultui'al labourer of '^OTiolk is second to none in the kingdom; he 
may not perform all the operations of husbandry, such as rick building, 
thatching, hedging, and the hke, in the same style and vdth. the same neat- 
ness as the laboiu'ers of other counties, but for doing the generality of farm 
work quickly and well, there are few that are his equal. The weekly wages 
of the common farm labourer vary fi'om 9s. to 123., according to the price 
of wheat ; but at turnip hoeing, grass mowing, and almost all sorts of taken 
v.'ork, he can earn 2s. 6d. a day. His harvest wages also average ^'6, which 
will be about SOs. per week. Although the price of all task work in Norfolli 
is higher than it was a few yeai'S ago, it is yet done as skilfully and as cheaply 
as in any agricultural district of tlie kingdom. The soil of Norfolk being 
mostly friable and easily tilled, does not require a heavy and strong class of 
implements for its cultivation. Consequently the strange looking Norfolk 
plough, with its rampant beam and high fore carriage, and the old wooden 
haiTows, are still greatly in vogue, and hold their own, against the modem 
iron ploughs and harrows wliich have succeeded so universally in many 
other counties. Steam cultiu'e for a similar reason has not made much 
progress, and as long as a man and a pair of light horses will plough an 
acre and a half of land in a day, it is not likely that steam cultivation, for 
some time at least, will become general in this county. On tlie other hand, 
steam thrashing engines have entii'ely superseded the old horse power 
machines, and the still more ancient flail is hardly to be found in many 
parishes. Reaping machines are common in the large farms of the coimty, 
but grass mowers are not at present so numerous. 

" Muck is the mother of money," says the old proverb, and so tlie Nor- 
folk farmer's sheet anchor is his farm-yard manure. But he calls in the aid 
of many auxiliaries to fertilize his fields in the shape of guano, supsrphos- 
Ijhate, bones, rapecake, salt, l^c. The quantity of artificial fertilizer used in 
Norfolk is enonnous ; the nitrogeueous manures, such as guano, niti'ate of 
soda, and the like, being mostly apphed for corn, and the phosphates for 
the turnips. In addition to this large outlay, the Norfolk farmers spend a 
fabulous sum in the pm-chase of artificial food. The chief of these feeding 
stufi's is linseed cake, which is consumed by sheep and cattle, while the more 
recently inti'oduced cotton seed cake finds many customers, and is con- 
sidered a cheap and healthy food, especially for sheep. Farmer's Clubs do 
not flourish in Norfolk : of the list Mr. Bacon gave, not one now remains. 
Agricultural Societies and Institutions for rewarding agricultural laboui'ers 
seem to take and last better. There ai"e very many of these district associa- 
tions, and the county has now a good agricultural society, which was formed 
by the amalgamation of the East and West Norfolk Associations in 1840. The 
meetings of the Norfolk Agricultural Society have for nearly 20 years been 
held alternately at Norfolk and Swaffham, but other towns are now to be 
visited, and the meetings at Dereham in 1862 and at Yarmouth in 1863, 
have been by far the most pleasant and prosperous gatherings the society has 
yet had. Moreover, the association now boasts of the Prince of "Wales as 
its patron. 

Norfolk has always been celebrated for its Game, and there is nowhere 
such parti'idge shooting to be found. But the over preseiwation of game has 
done much to retard agricultui-al progTess. Wing game, especially pai'tiidges, 
do the farmer reaUy hardly any sort of hai-m, but hares and rabbits are very 
destructive to all crops. Good and profitable farming and an excessive 
quantity of foot game cannot exist together, and though this over preserva- 
tion of hares and rabbits is happily not so common as it was when tlie last 
edition of this work was issued, yet there are some estates in the county 
where the quantity of foot game is still uni-easonably lai'ge. Norfolk was 



64 



HISTORY OF NORFOLK. 



never much of a limiting county, but recently two packs of fox Iwunds have 
been established and there are sundry small kennels of harriers kept by 
gentlemen or yeomen in various parts of the county. 

It is very difiQ.cult to arrive at any correct data for estimating the actual 
increase of farm produce in this or aii}^ other county, because statistics and 
returns, although, unhappily by no means general now, are of a compara- 
tively recent date. The quantity of wheat sold in Norwich market may, 
perhaps, faintly shadow forth some correct notion of its increased growth in 
the district which surrounds the cit}'-, and we therefore give three returns 
which were made at irregular intervals, viz.: — 1805 — 25,422 quarters; 
1843—124,872 quarters; and, 1857—168,739 quarters. The foUo^Aing 
statistics were collected by Su* John Walsham in 1853-4. From them some 
idea may be gathered of the productive power of this county, and they form 
a reliable source of information as to the state of the crops and the number 
of stock then kept. Comparisons, if they are not always odious, are seldom 
pleasing, and so but one will be attempted. It is simply this : that in 1854 
tliere were 267,000 more acres of wheat and barley grown in Norfolk and 
Suffolk than in the Vv^hole of Scotland ; and the county of Norfolk alone pro- 
duced 1,290,373 more bushels of wheat than all the land north of the Tweed. 



Total number of Acres in the County... .1,281,278. 



Acres under 

Wheat 202,971 

Barley . • 173,831 

Oats 35,203 

Rye 5,807 

Beans and Peas 20,767 

Vetches 3,252 

Turnips 161,186 

Mangold 16,274 

Carrots 757 

Potatoes 1,958 



217 



Tillage : — 

Flax 

Other Crops, such as Cab- 
bages, &c 8,074 

Bare Fallow 10,202 

Clover, Lucerne, and other 

artificial Grasses 171,891 

Permanent Pasture 192,745 



Total 1,005,135 



Live Stock : — 



Horses 56,350 

Cattle 99,928 



Sheep 841,591 

Pigs 99,773 



Sir John Walsham, being " supplied with a very considerable number of 
estimates of i)roduce, upon which he was justified in placing full reliance, 
from every part of Norfolk," published the following as the average produce 
of cereals per acre, and the produce of the whole county : — 



PER ACRE. 

Wheat 30 bushels 1 peck 

Barley 38 „ 2 „ 

Oats 46 „ „ 



WHOLE COUNTY. 

6,139,872 bushels. 
6,692,493 „ 
1,619,236 „ 



These are creditable averages for a county, the greater part of which has a 
naturally barren soil. A yield of 30 bushels per acre over an extent of 
more than 200,000 acres, includuig thin chalks, hungry gi-avels, and blow- 
ing sands, is a respectable crop, and shows what good farming has done for 
this county. There is but a small portion of Norfolk that can be considered 
the natural soil for wheat, and it is therefore the more creditable that the 
farmers have produced such an increase of the staff of life. It is different 
wdth barley, for in favourable seasons large crops of that gi'ain, and of 
superior quaUty, are readily grown. Oats do not appear to suit the soil 
or climate very well ; the yield is insignificant w^hen compai-ed with that of 
other counties, whose averages of wheat and barley fall far below those of 
Norfolk. But oats, when they form part of a rotation, are only grown on 
the poorest soils ; when sown on better land they generally foUow wheat, 
and of course do not yield so largely as if they grew after turnips, or wei;e 
planted on ley-ground. 



AGRICULTUEE. 65 

Too much praise cannot be accorded to those great and generous land- 
owners who were the first pioneers of agricultural improvement, and who 
by granting long and liberal leases, and building good houses and con- 
venient farm premises, gave the tenants a fair stai't in their new and enter- 
prising undertakings. That these tenants, and their descendants were not 
slow to avail themselves of such sohd advantages, the results that we have 
chronicled will abundantly prove, wliile the rent rolls of the landlords have 
been doubled, and the pockets of tlie tenantry have been well filled. More 
recently the agriculturist has had to pass through many seasons of depres- 
sion, arising partly from bad crops, but more generally the result of our 
great commercial changes, and the last few years have also been most un- 
favourable for the farmers of Norfolk. But they still continue to farm well 
and endeavour to meet then* altered cu'cumstances by applying all the 
modern aids that science has brought within their reach. The character of 
the Norfolk farmer was well delineated 20 years ago by Mr. Bacon, 8Jid we 
cannot do better than record it here at the conclusion of these remarks on 
the agriculture of the county, merely adding that if those encomiums were 
deserved then, they are still more appropriate at the present day. Mr. 
Bacon had been reviewing the general advancement of the agriculture of the 
county, and thus sums up his idea of the farmers — " The eff"ect of this ad- 
vance upon the tenants themselves is what might justly be expected from 
the employment of greater capital and enlarged minds and information. 
They are generous, independent, hospitable, free, intelligent, and very many 
have carried intellectual pursuits and aquirements far beyond the race of 
farmers of former times. They are wisely anxious to avail themselves of 
those opportunities which the increasing intelligence demands of every man 
the important business of whose life it is to provide for the wants of a 
powerful, intellectual, and extended empire." 

Arterial Drainage. — The great level of the Fens, interesting subject 
though it be, can hardly claim much notice under the head of Norfolk farm- 
ing. Its agriculture is so exceptional that it would require a separate 
article to detail the various particulars of its culture and management. Yet 
we may briefly summarise the grand improvement of the fens, under the 
two heads of draining and claying. The one without the other does but little 
good. Happily beneath a great part of the fens runs a stratum of clay 
which in some localities is buried with only one or two feet of peat : at 
others it cannot be reached under 10 or even 20 feet, while in some in- 
stances there is no clay to be found, but a deep bed of peat rests upon a 
running sand. It is only by the admixture of clay with the peat that the 
fertility of the fen country is estabhshed. Where the peat is light and no 
clay can be procured to dress it, then the draining does no good beyond 
securing the lands from floods. Indeed, in the fens about Methwold, arable 
cultivation has been abandoned, the mill-dykes have been dammed up, 
the water kept within a few inches of the surface, and the land allowed to 
grow its coarse and subaquatic herbage as of yore. The two great inunda- 
tions that have lately befallen this low-lying district have brought the fens 
most prominently before the pubHc, alternately exercising their indignation 
at the mis-management of the drainage and their commiseration "v^dth the 
unfortunate sufferers. The vast destruction of property caused by the fall- 
ing of the Middle Level Sluice, has been put forth at such fabidous sums 
that it set people wondering over the natural fertility of land that a few 
years ago was useful only for snipe shooting. Yet few of these calculators 
seemed to be aware that the greater portion of the drained district might 
have a natural or sluice drainage, similar to that of the marshes to the 
east of Lincolnshire. The drainage of the fens was begun, like all other 
piecemeal drainage, at the wrong end. Owners naturally thought more of 
pumping the water off their own lands than of discovering the best means 
of discharging the main outlet into the sea. Had one grand outfall been 

E 



QQ HISTORY OF NORFOLK, 

first properly developed, half the expense and all the danger of draining the 
fens might have been saved. In East Norfolk the main water courses 
have naturally sluggish and tortuous courses. The Thames, in its run of 
145 miles, has a fall of 258 feet, but the Yare between Norwich and Yar- 
mouth has barely a fall of 4 inches a mile. It is therefore highly neces- 
sary that the greater care and attention should be bestowed upon the arterial 
drainage of the county, and it may not be uninteresting to give a short 
review of the present state of the great outfalls in East Norfolk. Consider- 
able improvements have recently been made in the Yare. Among the chief 
may be mentioned the opening of the water-way at the new bridge at Yar- 
mouth, from 80 to 140 feet. The beneficial effect of this is felt even as 
high up the river as Norwich. Then the Burgh Flats have been well 
dredged, and the Reedham, Buckingham, and SurUngham Ferries, which 
greatly projected into the river, have been set back ; and about a mile 
above the confluence with the Wensum, the old Bishop-Bridge, at Nor- 
wich, has had its third arch re-opened for the passage of the flood-waters. 
But report says, and there appears to be some reason in the rumour, 
that this favoured river has absorbed all the money that should have been 
shared by her less fortunate sisters, the Bure and the Waveney. Cer- 
tainly the river Bure is in a lamentable state. The shoals and mud 
almost stop the navigation, as well as choke the drainage. The surveyor to 
the Haven and Pier Commissioners of Yarmouth annually reports that it is 
requisite to expend several hundred pounds in dredging and improving this 
river, and yet nothing of importance is ever done. When one looks at the 
length and breadth of the Bure and its tributaries, the Ant and the Thurne, 
the importance and necessity of these improvements is at once apparent ; 
few rivers drain a more valuable district, and very few that could be so 
easily improved are so shamefully neglected. The chain of broads or small 
lakes — Filby, RoUesby, and Ormsby — which discharge by the Much-Jleet 
into the Bure just below Acle bridge, contain about 700 acres of water. 
Tliis Muck- fleet (appropriately named, for it is both fleet and dirty) is about 
two miles long in its windings and is stuffed up v/ith mud, and the sluices 
are much too small and the sills not low enough. Almost a thousand acres 
of sMrtland, bordering on the Broads drained by the Muck-fleet, would be 
greatly improved, perhaps, to the extent of 10s. an acre in annual value, by 
the permanent lowering of the water in the Broads. The total basin of the 
Broads (i.e., the high land from which the water runs off" to them) is about 
8 or 9,000 acres. It is easy at once to comprehend hov/ much good might 
here be accomplished at a very trifling expense ; and it may be as well to 
mention that a scheme for rendering the Muck- fleet navigable and at the 
same time to improve and develope the resources as well drain the whole 
district was upset by one large proprietor, because he thought his game and 
wild fowl might be disturbed by the noise of the water men and traffic of the 
barges ! The flood waters of the Waveney rise with singular rapidity. The 
drainage is almost all from land l^dng high above it, and a large proportion 
of its waters is derived from the strong Suffolk clay. In many v/inters the 
chief part of the marshes along the Waveney are under water for months 
at a time. It is not probable that floods in this valley will be entirely pre- 
vented, but their duration may be greatly and very easily curtailed. There 
is a lock near Bungay, another at Ellingham, and a third at Ship-meadow ; 
so there is plenty of fall. Beccles bridge is an old low arched structure 
which ponds back the water of the river ; the railway bridge at Aldeby 
also impedes its progress, and then there is Mutford lock which holds it up 
from reaching its natural outfall into the sea, through Lake Lothing, at 
Lowestoft. And so the Waveney is forced round 15 miles to help to scour 
out Yarmouth harbour ! 

Into the sanitary part of this vexed question it is not our intention to 
enter, but we cannot refrain from stating a fact or two about the valley of 



f 



ARTEKIAL DRAINAGE. gy 

the Waveney. The parishes which border the river are always very un- 
healthy in the latter part of the winter and all through the spring. The 
marshes that have been long flooded stink fearfully as the heat increases, 
and even to villages 100 feet above the river, the miasma ascends and fevers 
are most fatal. The mortaUty of these parishes is li; per cent, in excess of 
other well drained rural districts, and taking the population of tlie parishes 
along the Waveney at 400 each, one human being in every parish is each 
year killed by that stagnant river. It is unnecessary to state that the same 
calculation with the like fatal results would apply to all the badly drained 
and flooded districts of Norfolk. 

From these few facts it will at once be seen how sad is the state of the 
gTeat Norfolk rivers, and how absolutely necessary it is that some better 
system of trunk di'ainage should be at once adopted, ahke for the benefit of 
the farmer and the public. The Land Drainage Act of 1861 has not been 
at present tried in this county, save on the Wissey or Stoke Ferry river ; 
the expenses of a commission and the cost of law charges and compensa- 
tions appear to make the sufi'erers " Rather bear those ills they have, than 
fly to otiiers that they know not of." 

Botany. — A County that has given bu-th to a Smith, a Hooker, and a 
Lindley, — three of the brightest names in the science of Modern Botany, 
and that has been submitted to the careful investigation of a host of prac- 
tical Botanists, both native and foreign, for the last hundred years, may 
reasonably be expected to aflbrd a rich and abundant Flora, although not 
possessing all the natural advantages for the production of those rarer wild 
plants that are seldom found except in the more favoured localities. Nearly 
sixty years ago it was said by the learned President of the Linn^ean Society, 
that the Botany of Norfolk was become celebrated, and that its Flora had 
proved richer, he believed, than that of any other county, because it had 
been more closely investigated. In the number of species of ii^ Flowering 
Plants, at least, the Flora of Norfolk is far above the average, when com- 
pared with other coimties of equal extent ; a very large proportion of the 
whole of the Phanerogamea;, now admitted into the general Floras being 
found in the county. In Babington's " Manual of British Botany, con- 
taining the Flowering Plants and Ferns," (4th edition, 1856), there are 
1767 species enumerated as gTowing wild in England, Scotland, Ii-eland, 
and the Channel Islands. Of this number 1027 (besides about 40 which 
are generally considered mere varieties,^ and as such are marked with a 
dagger f), are given in the following list. Tliis will appear- an unusually 
large result, if we are prepared to agree in Mr. H. C. Watson's statement, that 
" on the average a single county appears to contain somewhat less than 
one-half of the whole number of species found in Britain." But Mr. Wat- 
son, to whom British Botanists are so largely indebted for his valuable 
works on their favourite pursuit, calculates the total number of flowering 
wild plants gTowing in the British Isles, at a much lower rate than has 
commonly been done ; the extreme limit, as he thmks, not being above 
1400 ; while Smith's " EngHsh Flora" contains 1503 species, Gray's 
" Natural Arrangement" gives 1636, the several editions of Hooker's 
" British Flora" from 1500 to 1520, Lindley's " Synopsis of the British 
Flora," which does not contain the ferns and their allies, has 1520, and 
Babington's " Manual," as we have seen, 1767. Contrary then, to Mr. 
Watson's statement, the number of the flowering plants found in the county 
is considerably more than the half of the whole number of species found in 
Britain. 

In drawing up the succeeding List of Norfolk Phanerogamese, the scien- 
tific nomenclature and an-angement made use of are, with very few excep- 
tions, those of the 4th edition of Babington's " Manual;" while most of the 
English names are borrowed from Hooker's " British Flora." For infor- 
mation respecting the particular species, that is, whether it is traly in- 

E 2 



68 BOTANY OF NOBFOLE. 

digeiious, or natui'alisecl, or introduced, or perhaps an outcast from gardens, 
tlie reader is referred to tlie general Floras, one or more of which will bo 
of course, in the hands of every Botanist. Notwithstanding the large num- 
ber of species of flowering plants recorded in the Flora of Norfolk, it is 
probable that those of more than one genus might bo still further added to ; 
thus, in the genus Rubus, we have only 7 species recorded, while Babington 
gives 41; in Rosa 7 only, out of 19; in Hieracium 5 only, out of 33; but 
most of the species of this genus are inhabitants of lofty mountains, and 
cannot be expected to occur in our flat county. These hints may be of some 
use to the young Norfolk Botanist, by leading him to investigate the above- 
named genera with redoubled diligence. 

The nomenclature and arrangement of the Norfolk Cryptogamea, or 
Flowerless Plants, are those of Hooker's " British Flora ;" and in drawing 
up this part of the list the compiler acknowledges himself very greatly in- 
debted to a valuable catalogue of all the orders of this vast class, with the 
exception of the Fungi, which was jDrinted about 30 years since, in the 
" Sketch of the Natiu-al History of Yarmouth," by Messrs. C. J. and James 
Paget. But as the catalogue of the Messrs. Paget embraces only a small 
district on the east side of the county, it has been found necessary to make 
considerable additions to it from other sources. The number of species, 
even of the Algae, which appear to have been carefully investigated by them, 
has been increased ; for it could hardly be expected that all the sea- weeds 
met with on the Norfolk coast, extending to a length of about 80 miles, 
should have been found within 10 miles of Yarmouth. An apology seems 
here necessary for the extreme meagerness of the hst of Norfolk Fungi, an 
order of unmense extent, and universal distribution. No professed mj^colo- 
gist, it is behoved, has ever resided in the county ; nor has any list of tho 
species of this vast family, here met with, been ever published ; the com- 
piler was therefore obliged to have recourse to his own notes, made 
occasionally, when in pursuit of other objects, and limited to a small part 
only of the western division of the county. To these he has added the 
Norfolk locahties that are pointed out in the Rev. M. J. Berkeley's elaborate 
work on the Fungi, printed in Hooker's " British Flora," — and those in an 
imperfect copy of Sowerby's " Coloured Figures of English Fungi," the only 
one within his reach. The list here presented, indeed, professes to be little 
more than a compilation, composed of what has been said about the 
localities of plants, in the pages of the great work on " English Botany," 
with coloured plates, in 40 volumes ; in the modern general Floras ; in 
Watson's " New Botanist's Guide;" and in the local Floras to be presently 
mentioned. But while this admission is made, it is but right to say that in 
bye-gone years we chd not spare our own labours in the field, nor were we 
imgrateful for the numerous contributions received from our botanical 
friends. We have thus gathered together all the botanical productions that 
have been recorded as growing wild in Norfolk. Possibly some of them may 
now, from various causes, be utterly extinct, or may be searched for in vain 
in the locahties indicated ; while perhaps a very few of them may never 
have been found in the county at all, but may have been mistaken for some 
other species. Still a record of the ivliole aj^pears to be desirable. We 
would also observe that the distribution of many species is much more 
general than might be inferred from the blank line in the following list which 
does not always imply that the plant is not to be found in the division where 
it is not marked, but only that it has not been recorded there. 

Although it is now almost universally admitted that tlie geological 
character of a district exercises very great influence over its vegetation, yet 
we are of opinion with a writer in the " Phytologist," " that it is by the sur- 
face soil in which they grow that plants are afi"ected, and not by the rocks 
or strata over which they occur, unless the latter happen to lie so near to 
the surface as to afi"ect the surface soil, by altering its constituent parts, or 



BOTANY OF NORFOLK. 69 

modifying its proportions." To enter, therefore, on a detailed account of 
the geological aspect of the district would be superfluous ; but to raark, in 
sorae degree, the distribution of species throughout the county, we have 
divided it into tliree, or rather /owr parts ; and shall briefly mention the pre- 
vaihng strata of each part as we proceed. 

First. The Eastern Division, (marked " e." in the list), whose western 
side has for its boundary an imaginaiy line running nortii and south, from 
Cromer to a little east of Harleston. This division contains the alluvium 
of the vallies of the Yare, the Bui-e, and the Waveney ; the Blue Clay or 
WrecTi of tJte Lias, which occupies the higher ground of the same valleys ; 
next to which we meet with the larger part of the Crag formation, and then 
asmall portion of the Upj^er Chalk, at the south western corner of the 
division. The botanical productions of a considerable part of this division, 
with the exception of the Fimgi, have been thoroughly investigated in the 
admirable " Sketch of the Natiu*al History of Yarmouth," by Messrs. C. J. 
and James Paget, already mentioned. This work embraces a radius of about 
10 miles, and includes a small projecting corner of the county of Sufi'olk. 
In the succeeding list, therefore, a few Sufi'olk plants are admitted, and 
marked E. ; but nearly eveiy one of them occurs in some part or other of 
Norfolk. 

Second. The Central Division, separated into north and south by an 
imaginary line running east and west, from Norwich to Swaffliam, (marked 
respectively "nc." and "sc." in the list), and having for its western bound- 
ary another imaginary line passing north and south from Brancaster to two 
or three miles west of Thetford. This large division, with the exception of 
the north-east comer, which is Crag, lies entirely on the Upper and Medial 
Chalk formations. Its botany has, as yet, been but partially recorded ; as 
in the " Flora of Central Norfolk," by Mr. R. J. Mann, printed in the 4th 
volume of Loudon's "Magazine of Natural History;" this embraces no 
more than what could be accomplished in a day's walk from Norwich. To 
this Flora Mr. S. P. Woodward printed an addenda, in the 43rd number of 
the " Annals and Magazine of Natural History." Neither of these contains 
more than a very few Cryptogamous Plants, and no Fungi. And this is all 
we have of the Flora of Central Norfolk, leaving the botanical jDroductions 
of full three-fourths of this large division entkely unnoticed, except by the 
casual observer. A few, however, of those that grow beyond the neighbour- 
hood of Norwich are noted in IVIr. Wigham's " Plants of Norfolk," printed 
in Chambers's " History of the County." 

Thied. The Western Division, (marked " w." in the list) , which comprises 
all that remains of the county, and contains geological features of a much 
more varied kind ; thus, the north-east comer is occupied by a small por- 
tion of the Medial Chalk ; to which succeeds a belt of the Hard Chalk, run- 
ning from Hunstanton to the banks of the Little Ouse; then follows a 
narrower belt of the Chalk Marl, succeeded by^ about the same width of 
Greensand or Carstone ; and the series ends with a very narrow line of 
Kimmeridge Clay and Oolite, which runs from Heacham till it nearly reaches 
the "Wissey. The extreme west of the county is occupied by the alluvium 
of Marshland, and of the vallies of the Ouse, the Wissey, and the Nar. In 
1841, " A List of the Flowering Plants found growing wild in Western 
Norfolk," was printed in the "Annals and Magazine of Natural History," 
by the present compiler; and in 1843, "A Flora of the Neighbourhood of 
Sandringham," now celebrated as the Norfolk residence of the Piince of 
Wales, was printed in the 1st volume of the " Phytologist," by Mr. James 
Moxon. This Flora embraces a radius of three miles from Sandringham 
church, and is contained within the divisions previously investigated by the 
compiler of the following Hsfc. 

In concluding this brief introduction to the List of Botanical Productions 
of Norfolk, it only remains to observe that the great diversity of soil in the 



70 



BOTANY OF NORFOLK. 



county, arising more or less from the disintegration of so many rocks or 
strata, would naturally lead a botanist to expect a considerable diversity in the 
vec^etation ; and this we may venture to promise him ; but we cannot point 
out to him a single species that is pecuharly and exclusively our own, 
though there are many that rank among the rariores of the British Flora. 

I. PHANEROGAME^, on FLOWERING PLANTS. 

CLASS I.— DICOTYLEDONES. 



Order 

Clematis Vitalba 
Thalictrum minus ... 

majus . . . 

flavum . . . 

Anemone Pulsatilla ... 

nemorosa 

Adonis autumnalis ... 
Myosurus minimus ... 
Ptanunculus aquatilis 

— pantothrixf 

~ circinnatusf 

— — hederaceus 

Lingua . . . 

Flammula 

reptansf... 

Ficaria ... 

auricomus 

sceleratus 

— acris 

— . rep ens ... 

— bulbosus 

• hirsutus ... 

arvensis... 

parviflorus 



Caltha palustris 

radicans 

Helleborus viridisf . . . 

foetidus ... 

Aquilegia vul garis 
Aconitum Napellus . . . 
Delphinium Consolida 

Order II. 

Berberis vulgaris 

Order III. 

Nymphcea alba 
Nupharlutea ... 

Order 

Papaver Argemone 

hybridum 

Rhseas 

dubium 

somniferum 



Roemeria hybrida 
Glaucium luteum 

phseniceum 

CheHdonium majus .. 



I. Ranunculace.e. The Groirfoot Tribe. 

Travellers' Joy 

Lesser Meadow rue 

Greater Meadow-rue 

Common Meado w-rue 

... Pasque-flower 

... Wood Anemone 

... Pheasant's-eye 

... Mouse-tail 

... Water Crowfoot 

... Rigid-leaved Water Crowfoot 

. . . Rounded-leavedWaterCrowfoot 

... Ivy-leaved Crowfoot 

... Great Spearwort 

... Lesser Spearwort ... 

... Least Spearwort ... 

... Pile wort Crowfoot 

... Goldilocks 

... Celery-leaved Crowfoot ... 

... Upright Crowfoot 

... Creeping Crowfoot... 

,.. Bulbous Crowfoot ... 

... Hauw Crowfoot 

... Corn Crowfoot 

... Small-flowered Crowfoot ... 

... Marsh Marigold 

. . . Creeping Marsh Marigold . . . 

... Green Hellebore ... 

... Stinking Hellebore 

... Common Columbine 

. . . Common Monk's-hood 

. . . Field L arksiour 

Berberidace^. The Barherry Tribe. 
... Common Barberry... ... e. 

NYMPH^EACEiE. The Water Lily Tribe 

. . . White Water Lily ... e. 

... Yellow Water Lily ... e. 

. PAPAVERAOEyE. The Poppy Tribe. 

... Prickly-headed Poppy ... e. 

.,, Rough-headed Poppy 

. . . Common Red Poppy 

... Smooth-headed Poppy 

... White Poppy 

... Violet Horned-i)oppy 

... Yellow Horned-poppy ... e. — 

... Scarlet Horned-poppy ... — nc. 

... Common Celandine ... e. nc. 



e. 


nc. 


sc. 


— , 


— 


— 


— 


w. 


— 


— 


— 


w. 


e. 


— 


— 


w. 


— 


nc. 


— 


— 


e. 


— 


— 


w. 


, 


nc. 


•— ■ 


w. 
w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


— 


— 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


— 


— 


— 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


— 


— 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e, 


— 


— 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


— 


— 


— 


w. 


e. 


— 


■ — 


w. 


— 


• — 




■ w. 


e. 
e, 
e. 


. — 




w. 







■ w. 



nc. 



— w 



I\ 



— w. 

sc. w. 

sc. w. 

sc. w. 

sc. w. 

sc. w. 
— — w. 
nc. 



sc. w. 



nc. 



nc. 
nc. 
nc. 
nc. 



FLOWERING PLANTS. 



71 



Oeder '^ 

Coiydalis lutea 

claviculata 

Fumaria capreolata. 

officinalis 

parviflora 

Order VI. Crucifer.^ 



Clieiranthus Cheiri 
Nasturtium officinale 

sylvestre 

terrestre 

ampliibium 

Barbarea vulgaris .. . 

prsecox 

Turi'itis glabra 
Ai'abis hirsuta 
Carclamine hirsuta ,.. 

pratensis 

amara 

Hesperis matronalis ... 
Sisymbrium officinale 

Sophia 

thalianum 

Alliaria officinalis ... . 
Erysimum cheirantlioides 
Brassica oleracea ... . 

campestris 

Rapaf ,.. . 

Napus 

Sinapis nigra 

arvensis ... . 

alba 

Diplotaxis tenuifolia 
Koniga maritima ... . 

Draba verna 

Coclilearia officinalis 

danica ... , 

anglica 

Armoracia rusticana 
Camelina sativa 
Thlaspi arvense 
Teesdalia nudicaulis 

Iberis amara 

Lei^idium campestre 

Smitliii ... . 

ruderale ... 

latifolium 



Capsella Bursa-pastoris . 
Senebiera Coronopus 
Isatis tinctoria ... . 

Caldle maritima 
Crambe maritima 
Raphanus Raplianistrum 

Order VII. 

Reseda lutea 

Luteola ... . 

Order VIII 
Helianthemum vulgare . 



FuMARiACE^. The Fumitory Tribe. 

.. Yellow Fumitory ... — nc. sc. — 

.. White Climbing Fumitory e. — ■ — 

.. Ramping Fumitory ... e. — — 

.. Common Fumitory ... e. nc. sc. 

.. Small-flowered Fumitorj'- e. — — 

The Cress, Cabbage, and Mustard Tribe. 

.. Common Wallflower ... e. nc. sc. 

. Water-cress e. nc'. sc. 

,. Creeping Nasturtium ... e. — — 

. Marsh Nasturtium ... e. — — 

,. Amx^hibious Nasturtium ... e. — — 

,. Yellow Rocket ... ... e. nc. sc. 

. Early Winter-cress ... e. — — 

,. Tower-mustard ... ... e. — — 

,. Hairy Rock-cress e. — — 

,, Hairy Bitter-cress ... e. nc. 

,. Common Bitter-cress ... e. nc. 

. Bitter Lady's Smock ... e. nc. 

,. Dame's Violet ... ... 

. Hedge-mustard 

,. Flixweed ... 

,. Common Thale-cress 

,. Jack-by-the-Hedge 

Worm-seed 

,. Sea Cabbage 

,. Common Wild Navew 

,. Common Turnip ... 

.. Rape, or Cole-seed 

.. Common Mustard 

.. Wild Mustard, or Charlock 

,. White Mustard 

,. Wall-mustard 

,. Sea-side Koniga 

,. "Whitlow- grass 

.. Common Scurvy-grass 

. Danish Scurvy-grass 

,. Enghsli Scuiwy-grass 

. Horse-radish 

,. Gold-of-Pleasui'e ... — 

.. Penny-cress ... ... e. 

.. Naked-stalked Teesdalia ... e. 

,. Bitter Candytuft ... — 

,. Mithridate Pepper-wort e. 

., Smith's Pepper- wort ... e. — 

.. Narrow-leaved Pepper- wort e. nc. 

.. Broad-leaved Pepper-wort — nc. 

.. Shepherd's Purse e. nc. 

.. Wai-t-cress e. nc. 

,. Dyer's Woad 

.. Purple Sea Rocket ... e. — 

.. Sea Kale e. nc. 

Jointed Radish e. nc. 

Resedace^. The Mignonette Tribe. 

.. Wild Mignonette e. nc. sc. w. 

.. Dyers' Rocket e. nc. sc. w. 

CisTACEiE. The RocJc-Bose Tribe. 

„ Rock-roae sc. w. 



e. nc. 
e. nc. 
e. nc. 
e. nc. 
e. nc. 

nc. 

nc. 

nc. 

nc. 

nc. 

nc. 



sc. 
sc. 



sc. 
sc. 

sc. 
sc. 
sc. 
sc. 

sc. 
sc. 
sc. 
sc. 
sc. 



e. 
e. 
e. 
e. 
e. 
e. 
e. 
e. 
e. 
e, 
e. 
e. 

e. — — 
— nc. sc. 



w. 

w. 



w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 



w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w, 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 



w. 
w. 

w. 
w. 
w. 



nc. 
nc. 



nc. 



sc. 



nc. 

nc. 



nc. 



sc. 



w. 
w. 

w. 

w. 

w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 



sc. w. 



sc. 
sc. 



72 



BOTANY OF NORFOLK. 



Order IX 

Viola palustris 

odorata 

suavisf 

liirta 

canina 

. flavicornisf ... . 

lacteaf 

tricolor 

arvensisf 

Order X. 
Drosera rotundifolia ... .. 
longifolia 

anglica. 

Parnassia palustris ... . 

Order XI. 
Poly gala vulgaris 

Order XII. 
Frankenia .laeyis 

Order XIII 



nc. sc. 
nc. sc. 



. Violace^. The Violet Tribe. 

,. Marsh Violet e. — — 

.. Sweet Violet e. nc. sc. 

. Fragrant Violet e. — — 

,. Hairy Violet — 

,. Dog Violet e. 

.. Yellow- spurred Violet ... e. 

.. Cream-coloured Violet ... e. 

,. Pansy, or Heart's-ease ... e. 

,. Field Violet — 

Droserace^. TJie Sundew Tribe. 

.. Eound-leaved Sundew ... e. 

.. Spatliulate-leaved Sundew e. 

.. Great Sundew ... ... e. 

.. Grass-of-Parnassus ... e. 



nc. 
nc. 

nc. 
nc. 
nc. 



sc. 
sc. 



w. 
w. 

w. 
w. 
w. 

w. 
w. 

w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 



Polygalace^. 
... Milkwort 



The Milkwort Tribe. 



e. no. sc. w. 



Order XIV. 
Diantlius prolifer 

Armeria 

« Caryophyllus 

. deltoides ... 

Saponaria officinalis ... 

SUene anglica 

Otites 

^inflata 

maritima 

noctiflora 

Lychnis Flos-cuculi ... 

vesper tinaf ... 

diurnaf 

Githago 

Sagina procumbens ... 

apetata... 

maritima 

nodosa 

Honkeneja peploides... 

Alsine tenuifolia 

Moehringia trinervis... 
Arenaria serpylHfolia 
Holosteum umbellatum 

Stellaria media 

Holostea 

glauca ... . * . 



■ graminea 
-uliginosa 



Frankentace^. The Sea Heath Tribe. 
... Smooth Sea Heath ... e. nc. 

Elatinace;E. ITie Waterwort Tribe. 

Caryophyllace^. The PinTc Tribe. 

.. Proliferous Pink 

.. Deptford Pink 

.. Clove Pink 

.. Maiden Pink 

.. Soapwort ... 

.. English Catchfly 

.. Spanish Catchfly ... 

.. Bladder Campion 

.. Sea Campion 

.. Night-flowering Catchfly ... 

.. Ragged Robm 

.. White Campion 

.. Red Campion 

.. Corn Cockle 

.. Procumbent Pearlwort 

.. Small- flowered Pearlwort... 

Sea Pearlwort 

.. Knotted Spurrey ... 

Sea Pimpernel 

... Fine-leaved Sandwort 

.. Three-nerved Sandwort ... 

.. Thyme-leaved Sandwort ... 

.. Jagged duckweed... 

.. Common Chickweed 

.. Greater Stitchwort 

.. Glaucous March Stitchwort 

.. Lesser Stitchwort ... 



— w. 



Moenchia erecta 
Malachium aquaticum 
Cerastium glomeratum 

triviale 

semidecandrum.. 

tetrandrum 



— arvensfi 



Bog Stitchwort 

Upright Moenchia... 
Water Chickweed... 
Broad-leaved Mouse-ear ... 
Narrow-leaved Mouse-ear... 

Little Mouse-ear 

Four-cleft Mouse-ear 
t^ield Chickweed 



— 


nc. 


— 


— 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


___ 


— 


— 


— 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


— 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


— 


— 


w. 


— 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 
e. 
e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


— 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


— 


— 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


— 


w. 


e. 


— 


— 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


— 


sc. 


— 


8. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


— 


— 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


— 


— 


w. 


— 


— 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


— 


— 


w. 


e. 


— 


— 


:. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 



Oeder XV. 
Malva moschata ... . 

sylvesti-is . . . 

rotundifolia ... . 

Althaea officinalis ... . 



FLO WEEING PLANTS. 

Malvace^. The Mallow Tribe. 

Musk Mallow 

, Common Mallow 

Dwarf Mallow 

Marsh Mallow 



73 



e. — 

e. nc. 

e. nc. 

e. — 



— w. 
sc. w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 



Order XVI. Tiliace.e. The Lime Tree Tribe. 

Tilia Europaea Common Lime-tree ... e 

parviflora Small-leaved Lime-tree ... e. — 

grandiflora Broad-leaved Lime-tree ... e. nc 

Order XVII. HYPERiCACEiE The St. Johns-wort Tribe. 



nc. sc. w. 



sc. — 



Hypericum Androsaemum 

quadrangulum 

perforatum 

dubium 

• humifusum 

hirsutum 

montanum 

pulchrum 

elodes ... .". 



Tutsan 

Square- stalked St. John's-wort 
Perforated St. John's-wort 
Imperforate St. John's-wort 
Traihng St. John's-wort ... 
Hauy St. John's-wort 
Mountain St. John's-wort... 
Upright St. John's-wort ... 
Marsh St. John's-wort 



e. 
e. 
e. 

e. 
e. 
e. 

e. 

e. 



nc. 
nc. 
nc. 



sc. w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 

— w. 



Order XVIII. 

Acer campestre 

Pseudo-platanus 

Order XIX. 
Geranium sylvaticum 

pyrenaicum 

jiusillum ... 

' dissectum ... 

columbinum 

molle 

lucidum ... 

Robertianum 

Erodium cicutarium ... 
moschatum ... 



-maritimum 



AcERACEyE. The Maple Tribe. 

... Common Maple e, 

... Sycamore-tree e 

Geraniacete. The Cranes-bill Tribe 

.. Wood Crane's-bill 

,.. Mountain Crane's-bill 

.. Small- flowered Crane's-bill 

.. Jagged-leaved Crane's-bill 

.. Long-stalked Crane's-bill 

.. Dove's-foot Crane's-bill ... 

.. Shining Crane's-bill 

.. Herb Robert 

.. Hemlock Stork's-bill 

.. Musky Stork's-bill 

.. Sea- side Stork's-bill 



nc. 
nc. 



nc. 
nc. 



e. — 



nc. 

nc. 
nc. 
nc. 



sc. w. 

— w. 

sc. w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 

sc. w. 

— w. 

— w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 
sc. w. 
sc. w. 



Order XX. Linages. The Flax Tribe. 



Linum angustifolium.. 
usitatissimum 



perenne ... 

catharticum 

Radiola millegrana 



Narrow-leaved Flax 
Common Flax 
Perennial Flax 
Purging Flax 
Flax Seed 






— nc. 



e. — 
e. — 
e. nc. 



— w. 

— w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 



Order XXI. Balsaminace^. The Balsam Tribe. 



Order XXIL 
Oxalis AcetoseUa 

Order XXIII. 
Euonymus europaeus... 

Order XXIV 
Rhamnus catharticus 

Frangula 

Order XXV. 

Ulex Europseus 

nanus 

Genista tinctoria 

anglica 

Sarothamnus scoparius ... 



Oxaltdace^. The Wood-sorrel Tribe. 
.. Wood-sorrel e 

Celastrace.e. The Bladder-nut Tribe. 
.. Spindle-tree e. 

Rhamnace^, The Buckthorn Tribe 



— — w. 



— — w. 



Common Buckthorn ... e. nc. sc. w. 

Alder Buckthorn e. — — w. 

Leguminos^. The Pea Tribe. 

Common Furze e. nc. sc. w. 

Dwarf Furze e. nc. — — » 

Dyer's weed e. — — w. 

Needle-Whin e. nc. — w. 

Common Broom e. nc. sc. w. 



74 



BOTANY OF NOEFOLK. 



Ononis arvensis... 
Medicago sativa... 

■ sylvestris 

falcata 

■ lupulina 

. maculata 



. minima 

denticulata 

Melilotus officinalis ... 
■ arvensis 

• leucantlia ... 

Trifolium pratense ... 
medium ... 

ocliroleucum 

. arvense 

striatum ... 

scabrum ... 

maiitiinum 

• subterraneum 

glomeratum 

suffocatum 



— — repens ... ^ .. 

■ ornithopodoides 

fragiferum 

procumbens .. 

minus ... 

filiforme 

Lotus comiculatus 

tenuisf 

major 

Antliyllis Vulneraria 
Astragalus hypoglottis 

glycyphyllos .. 

Vicia liirsuta 

tetrasperma 

Cracca 



sepium 

sativa... 

angustifoliaf .. 

latliyroides .. 

Latbyrus Apbaca .. 

Nissolia.. 

pratensis 

• sylvestris 

palustris 

macrorhizus 

Ornithopus perpusillus ... 
Hippocrepis comosa 
Onobrycbis sativa... 

Order XXVI 
Prunus domestica 



spmosa 
instititia 
Padus 
Cerasus 



Spiraea Ulmaria ... 

Filipendula 

Poterium Sanguisorba 



Common Rest-liarrow 
Purple Medick, or Lucerne 

Wood Medick 

Yellow Sickle-medick 
Black Medick, or Nonesuch 
Spotted Medick 
Little Bur-medick ... 
Reticulated Medick 
Common Yellow MelUot ... 

Field Melilot 

Wliite-flowered Melilot . . . 

Purple Clover 

Zigzag Trefoil 

Sulj)hur-coloured Trefoil ... 
Hare's-foot Trefoil 
Soft-knotted Trefoil 
Rougli-ridged Trefoil 
Teasel-headed Trefoil 
Subterraneous Trefoil 
Round-headed Trefoil 

Suffocated Trefoil 

Dutch Clover, or White Clover 

Bhd's-foot TrefoH 

Strawberry-headed Trefoil 

Hop TrefoU 

Lesser Trefoil 

Lesser Yellow Trefoil 
Common Bird's-foot Trefoil 
Slender Bhd's-foot Trefoil... 
Greater Bml's-foot Trefoil.. . 

Lady's-Fingers 

Purple Milk- vetch 

Sweet MUk- vetch 

Hairy Tare... 
Smooth Tare 

Tufted Vetch 

Bush Vetch 

C ommon Vetch ... ... 

Narrow-leaved Vetch 
SiDring Vetch 

Yellow Vetchhng 

Grass Vetchhng 
Meadow Vetchling ... 
Narrow-leaved Everlasting Pea 

Marsh Vetchling 

Tuberous Bitter Vetch 

Bu'd's-foot 

Horse-shoe Vetch 

Saintfoin 

. RosACEiE. TJie Rose Tribe. 

WndPlum 

Sloe, or Blackthorn 

WildBuUace 

Bird Cherry 

Wnd Cherry 

Meadow-sweet 
Dropwort ... 
Common Salad-bumet 



e. 


— 


— 


w. 


e. 


no. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


— 


— 


e. 


no. 


sc. 


— 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


— 


w. 


— 


— 


— 


w. 


— 


nc. 


— 


— 


e. 


— 


— 


w. 


e. 
e. 
e. 
e. 


— 


sc. 


— 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 
e. 

6. 


— 


— 


w. 


— 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


— 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


— 


w. 


e. 
e. 
e. 
e. 

e. 


— 


— 


w. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


nc. 


— 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


— 


— 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


— 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


— 


w. 
w. 

w. 


. — 


— 


sc. 


e. 


— 


— 


w. 


e. 


— 


— 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


— 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 
e. 


-— 


sc. 


w. 


— 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


— 


— 


— 


e. 


— 




w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 


e 


— 


sc. 


e. 


— 




e. 

e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


— 




w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


— 




w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 
w. 

w. 


__ 


. ■_ 


.—. 



FLOWERING PLANTS. 



75 



Agrimonia Eupatoria 
Alchemilla arvensis 
Potentilla anserina 

argentea 

reptans . . . 

Tormentilla 

' procumbens 

fragariastrum 

Comarum palustre 
Fragaria vesca 

elatior . . . 

Rubus Idseus 
suberectus 

discolor 

leucostachys 

Koebleri ... 

coiylifolius 

caesius 

Gemn urbanum ... 

intermedium 

livale 

Rosa spinosissima 
villosa 

tomentosa ... 

rubiginosa ... 

eglanteriaf ... 



camna 
arvensis 



Crataegus Oxyacantlia 
Mespilus germanica 
Pyrus communis 
Malus 



Common Agrimony ... e. no. 

Parsley Piert e. no. 

Silver-weed e. no. 

Hoary CinquefoU e. nc. 

Creeping Cinquefoil ... e. nc. 

Common Toi-mentil ... e. nc. 

Creeping Tormentil ... e. — 

Barren Strawberry e. — 

Marsh Cinquefoil e. nc. 

Wood Strawberry e. nc. 

Hautboy Strawberry ... e. — 

Raspberry e. — 

Upright Bramble 

Blackberry e. nc. 

Long- clustered Bramble ... 

Koehlers' Bramble — nc. 

Hazel-leaved Bramble ... e. nc. 

Dewbeny ... e. — 

Common Avens, or Herb Bennet e. nc. 

Wood Avens ... ... — — 

Water Avens e. — 

Bumet-leaved Rose ... e. — 

Villous Rose 

Downy-leaved Rose ... e. nc. 

Tnie Sweet-Briar e. — 

Eglantine ... 

Dog-rose e. nc. 

Trailing Dog-rose e. nc. 

White-Thorn e. nc. 

Common Medlar 

Wild Pear-tree e. — 

Crab-tree ... e. — 

Mountain-ash ... ... e. nc. 

White Beam-tree e. nc. 

Wild Service-tree e. — 

Lythrace.e. The Loose-strife Tribe. 

Purple Loose-strife e. nc. 

Water Purslane e. — 

Tamariscace^. The Tamarisk Tribe. 
Onagrace^. TJie Willow-herb Tribe. 

Great Willow-herb 

Small-flowered Willow-herb 
Broad-leaved Willow-herb... 
Square-stalked Willow-herb 
Marsh Willow-herb 
Evening Primrose ... 



aucuparia 

Aria... 

torminalis 

Order XXVII. 
Lythrum Salicaria 
Peplis Portula , 

Order XXVIII. 
Order XXIX. 
Epilobium hii'sutum 
parviflorum .., 

montanum 

tetragonum .., 

palustre 

CEnothera biennis 

Circaea lutetiana ... 

Order XXX. HALORAGACEiE, The Water Milfoil Tribe 
MyriophyUum verticiUatum Whorled Water IMilfoil ... e. — 



Enchanter's Nightshade 



e. 
e. 
e. 
e. 
e. 
e. 
e. 



nc. 
nc. 

nc. 
nc. 



sc. w. 

sc. w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 
sc. w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 
sc. w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 

— w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 
sc. — 
sc. w. 

— w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 

— w. 

— w. 
sc. — 

— w. 

— w. 
sc. w. 
sc. w. 
sc. w. 
sc. — 

— w. 
sc. — 
sc. — 
sc. — 

sc. w. 
sc. w. 



sc. w. 
sc. w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 

— w. 



— — w. 



spicatum ... Spiked Water Milfoil ... ( 
Mare's-tail ( 

CucuRBiTACB^. The Gourd Tribe 
, Red Bryony 

PoRTDLACE^. The Pursluue Tribe 
. Water BHnks 



Hippuris Vulgaris 

Order XXXI. 
Bryonia dioica 

Order XXXII. 
Montia fontana 

Order XXXIII. Paronychiace^. The Ktiaivel Tribe 
Hemiaria glabra Glabrous Rupture -wort ... — - 



sc. w. 

— w. 

— w. 



e. nc, sc. w. 
— w. 
sc. w. 



e. — 



76 



BOTANY OF NORFOLK. 



Lepigoniim rubrum 

marinuin 

Spergula arvensis 

Scleranthus annuus ... ., 
perennis 

Oeder XXXIV. 



Purple Sandwort ... e. — 

Sea-spurrey Sandwort ... e. — 
Corn Spurrey ... ... e. — 

Annual Knawel e. nc. 

Perennial Knawel ... e. nc. 

Crassulace^. The Houseleeh Tribe. 



Tillsea muscosa... 
Sedum Telephium 
album ... 



e. 
e. 



nc. 



angUcum 



acre 

reflexum 

rupestre 

Sempervivum tectorum 

Order XXXV. 
Ribes Grossularia 



nc. 



nigrum 
rubrum 



Mossy Tillsea 

Live-long, or Orpine 

White Stonecrop 

English Stonecrop 
, Wall Pepper 
, Crooked Stonecrop 

St. Vincent' s-rock Stonecrop 
Common Houseleek 
Grossdlariace^. The Currant and Gooseberry 

Common Gooseberry ... e. — 

Black Currant e. nc. 

Red Currant 



— w. 

— w. 

— w. 

sc. w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 
— — w. 

nc. 



e. 
e. 
e. 
e. 

e. 



e. — 

The Saxifrage Tribe. 
e. nc. 
Meadow Saxifrage ... e. nc. 



Saxifragace^, 



Rue-leaved Saxifrage 



Order XXXVI 
Saxifraga tridactylites 

■ granulata 

Chrysosplenium altemifolium Alternate Gold en- saxifrage 

— — oppositifoliumCommon Golden-saxifrage 

Order XXXVII. IJMBELLirERiE. The Parsley and Carrot Tn 



— w. 

— w. 

— w. 
Tribe. 

sc. w. 
sc. — 

— w. 

sc. w.* 
sc. w. 
sc. w. 
sc. — 
ibe. 



Hydrocotyle vulgaris 

Sanicula Europsea 

Eryngium maritimum 

Cicuta virosa 

Apium graveolens 

Petroselinum sativum 

— ■ — segetum 

Helosciadium nodiflorum ... 

■ repensf 

. inundatum . . . 

Sison Amomum 

^gopodium Podagraria 

Carum Carui 

Bunium flexuosum 

Pimpinella Saxifraga 

Slum latifolium 

angustifolium 

Bupleurum tenuissimum ... 

rotundifolium . . . 

CEnanthe fistulosa 

Lachenalii ... • • • 

. crocata 

' Phellandrium . . . 

-^thusa Cynapium 

Foeniculum officinale 

Silaus iDratensis 

Crithmum maritimum 

Angelica sylvestris 

Peucedanum palustre 

Pastinaca sativa 

Heraclium SphondyHum ... 

Daucus Carota 

Caucalis daucoid^a 



— — w. 

— — w. 
nc. 

— — w. 



nc. 
nc. 



nc. 
nc. 



Marsh Penny -wort ... e. nc. — 

Wood Sanicle e. 

SeaHoUy e. 

Water Hemlock, or Cowbane e. 

Wild Celery, or Smallage e. 

Garden Parsley ... ... e. 

Corn Parsley e. 

Procumbent Water-parsnep e. 

Creeping Water-parsnep ... e. 

Least Water-parsnep ... e. 

Honewort or Bastard Stone Parsley e. 

... Gout- weed ... ... e. 

... Common Caraway ... — 

... Common Earth-nut ... e. 

... Burnet- saxifrage ... ... e. 

... Broad-leaved Water-parsnep e. 

... Narrow-leaved Water-parsnep e. 

... Slender Hare's-ear ... e. 

Thorow-wax ... ... — 

Water Dropwort e. 

Parsley Water-dropwort ... e. 

Hemlock Water-dropwort. . . — 

Fine leaved Water-dropwort e. 

Fool's Parsley e. 

Common Fennel ... ... e. 

Pepper-saxifr'age ... ... e. 

Sea Samphire ... ... e. — 

Wild Angelica e. nc. sc. ■v\^ 

Marsh Hog's-Fennel ... e. — 

Wild Parsnep e. nc. — w. 

Hog-weed e. nc. sc. w. 

Wild Carrot e. nc. sc. w. 

Small Bur-parsley — — — w. 



nc. 
nc. 
nc. 



nc. 



nc. 



— w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 

— w. 

— w. 

— w. 

— w. 

— w. 

— w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 

— w. 
sc. w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 
-- w. 

— w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 

— w. 



Torilis Antliriscus ... 

infesta 

nodosa 

Scandix Pecten- veneris 
Anthriscus sylvestris 

Cerefolium 

vulgaris ... 

Chaerophyllum temuluin 
Conium maculatum ... 
Smyrniiun Olusatrum 



FLOWERING PLANTS. 

. Ui3riglit Hedge-parsley ..» 

. Spreading Hedg'e-parsley . . . 

. Knotted Hedge-parsley ... 

. Shepherd's Needle. 

. Wild Chervil 

. Garden Chervil 

. Common Beaked-parsley ... 

. Rough Chervil 

. Common Hemlock 

. Common Alexanders 



nc, 
nc. 



e. nc. 

e. nc. 

e. nc. 

e. nc. 



sc. 
sc. 

sc. 
sc. 
sc. 
sc. 



Order XXXVIII. Araliace^. The Ivy Tribe. 



Adoxa Moschatellina 
Hedera Helix 

Order XXXIX. 
Cornus sanguinea 



77 



■w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 

w. 
w. 

w. 
w. 



Tuberous Moschatel ... e. — — 
Common Ivy e. nc. sc. 

CoRNACEiE. The Dogwood Tribe. 

Wild Cornel, or Dogwood... e. — — w. 



Order XL. Loranthace.e. The Mistletoe Tribe. 
Viscum album Common Mistletoe ... e. nc. 

Order XLI. Caprifoliace^. The HoneysucUe and Elder Tribe. 



Sambucus Ebulus 

nigra 

Viburnum Lantana 

Opulus ... ... 

Lonicera Periclymenum ... 

Order XLII. 

Sherardia arvensis 

Asperula cynanchica 

odorata 

Galium cruciatum 

tricorne 

— aparine 

parisiense 

erectum 

Mollugo 

verum 

saxatile 

uhginosum 

palustre ... 

Witheringiif- 

Order XLIII. 

Centranthus ruber 

Valeriana officinalis 

dioica 

ohtoria ... ... 

• dentata 

Order XLIV 



Dwarf Elder 

Common Elder 

Wayfaring- tree 
Guelder-rose 
Common Honej^suclde 

P1UBIACE.E. The Madder Tribe 

Blue Sherardia 

Squinancy-v/orfc 
Sweet Woodruff ... 
Crosswort Bed-straw 
Rough-fruited Bed-straw ... 
Goose-grass, or Cleavers ... 

WaU Bed-straw 

Upright Bed-straw 

Hedge Bed-straw 



nc. 
nc. 



sc. 



nc. sc. 



e. — 

— nc. 
e. — 
e. nc. 

e. nc. 

— nc. 
e. nc. 

— nc. 
nc. 
nc. 
nc. 
nc. 



. Yellow Bed-sti'aw ... 

. Heath Bed-straw ... 

. Marsh Bed-straw 

. Water Bed-straw 

, Withering's Bed-straw 

Valerianace^. The Valerian Tribe. 
Red Valerian ... ... — nc. 

Wild Valerian ... ... e. nc. 

Marsh Valerian ... ... e. — 

Corn Salad ... ... ... e. — 

Narrow-fi'uited Corn Salad e. — 

. Dipsacage-e. The Teasel Tribe. 

Wild Teasel e. — 

Small Teasel e. nc. 

Field Knautia ... ... e. nc. 

Devil's-bit Scabious ... e. — 
Small Scabious 



sc. 

sc. 
sc. 
sc. 
sc. 
sc. 



w. 
w, 
w. 
w. 

w. 
w. 

w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 



sc. w. 

— w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 

sc. w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 

— w. 

— w. 

— w. 

sc. — 
sc. w. 



— sc. 



Dipsacus sylvestris ... 

j)ilosus 

Knautia arvensis 
Scabiosa succisa 
■ Columbaria 

Order XLV. Composite. Tlie Thistle, Daisy, and Chamomile Tribe. 

Eupatorium cannabinum... Hemp Agrimony e. nc. sc. w. 

Petasites vulgai-is Butter-bur ... e. — sew. 

Tussilago Farfara Colt's-foot — nc, sc. w. 

Asler Ti-ipolium , Sea Star-wort e. — — w. 



78 



BOTANY OF NORFOLK. 



Erigeron acris 

Bellis perennis 

Solidago Virgaiirea .. 
Inula Helenium 

Conyza 

crithmoides 

Pulicaria vulgaris 

dysenterica 



Bidens trijDartita 

cernua ... 

Anthemis arvensis . 

tinctoria 

— Cotula 

nobilis 

Achillea Ptarmica . 
:■ Millefolium 



Blue Flea-bane 
Common Daisy 
Golden Rod... 
Elecampane 
Plowman's Spikenard 
Golden Samphire ... 
Small Flea-bane 
Common Flea-bane 
Trifid Bur-marigold 
Nodding Bur-marigold 
Corn Chamomile ... 
Ox-eye Chamomile... 
Stinlang Chamomile 
Common Chamomile 
Sneeze- wort Yarrow 
Common Yarrow ... 



Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum. — Great Ox-eye 



segetum 
Matricaria Pai'thenium ... 

inodora 

Chamomilla ... 

Artemisia Absinthium 

campestris 

vulgaris ' 

m arithna 

gallicaf 

Tanacetum vulgare 

Filago germanica 

minima 

Gnaphalium luteo - album . . . 

uliginosum 

sylvaticum 

rectumf 

Antennaria dioica 



margaritacea 



Doronicum Pardalianches 
Senecio vulgaris ... ... 

viscosus 

sylvaticus 

erucifoHus ... .. 

Jacobaea 

aquaticus ... ,, 

palustris 

C arlina vulgaris , 

Arctium Lappa 

Centaurea nigra 



Cyanus 

Scabiosa ... 

solstitialis... 

Calcitrapa ... 

Onopordum Acantliium 
C arduus nutans 

acanthoidesf 

tenuiflorus ... 

. lanceolatus 

■ eriophorus... 

» arvensis ... 
palustris ... 



Corn-marigold 
Common Feverfew ... 
Corn Feverfew 

Wild Ch amomile 

Common Wormwood 
Field Southernwood 
Mugwort 

Sea Wonii wood 

Upright Sea Woimwood ... 
Common Tansy 
Common Cudweed ... 
Least Cudweed 
Jersey Cudweed 

Marsh Cudweed 

Highland Cudweed 
Upright Cudweed ... 
Mountain Cudweed 
Pearly Everlasting ... 
Leopard's-bane 
Groundsel ... 
Stinldng Groundsel 
Mountain Groundsel 
Hoary Rag- wort 

Common Ragwort ... 

Marsh Rag- wort ... 

Marsh Flea- wort 

Common Carline-thistle ... 

Common Burdock ... 

Black Knap-\\>eed ... 

Corn Blue-bottle 

Great Knapweed ... 

Yellow Star- thistle 

Common Star-thistle 

Common Cotton-thistle 

Musk Thistle 

Welted Thistle 

Slender-flowered Thistle ... 

Spear Plume -thistle 

Woolly-headed Plume-thistle 

Creeping Plume-tliistle . . . 

Marsh Plume-thistle 



e. 


— 


so. 


w. 


e. 


no. 


sc. 


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— 


w. 


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— 


— 


e. 


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w. 


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nc. 


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— 


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sc. 


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e. 


nc. 


— 


w. 


e. 


— 


— 


w. 


— 


nc. 


sc. 


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— 


■ — 


sc. 


— 


e. 


nc. 


PC 


w. 


e. 


— 


— . 


— 


e. 


nc. 


— 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


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— 


— 


w. 


e. 


— 


-^ 


w. 


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— 


— 


e. 


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sc. 


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sc. 


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— 


sc. 


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e. 


nc. 


sc. 


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— 


w. 
w. 
w. 


e. 


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— 


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nc. 


se. 


w. 


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sc. 


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e. 

e. 


nc. 


w. 


e. 
e. 


nc. 


— 


w. 
w. 


nc. 


— 


— 


e. 
e. 
e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


— 


— 


w. 


e. 


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— 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


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— 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


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e. 


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sc. 


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sc. 


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sc. 


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nc. 


sc. 


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nc. 


— 


w. 


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nc. 


— 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


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— 


w. 


e. 


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— 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


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— 


sc. 


w. 


6. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 



FLOWERING PLANTS* 



79 



Carduus pratensis ... 

acaulis 

heteropliylliis 

Silybum marianiim ... 
Lapsana conununis ... 
Amoseris pusilla 
Ciclioriiim Intybiis ... 
Hypoclioeris glabra ... 

racUcata ... 

Thrincia hirta 

Ap argia hispida 

autiunnalis ... 

Taraxacif 

Tragopogon majorf ... 
pratensis 

• porrifolius 

Picris hieracioides ... 
Helminthia echioides 
Lactuca virosa 

muralis 

Leontodon Taraxacum 

palustref . . . 

Sonchus oleraceiis ... 



arvensis 

palustris 

Crepis foetida 

virens 

tectorumf 

Hieracium Pilosella ... 

sylvaticum 

umbellatum 

paludosum 

subaudiim 



,.. Meadow Plume-thistle 

.. Dwarf Plume-thistle 

,.. Melancholy Plume-thistle 

,.. Milk-thistle 

,.. Nipple-wort 

... Dwarf Nipple- wort 

... Wild Succory 

Smooth Cat's-ear ... 

.. Long-rooted Cat's-ear 

.. Hauy Thrincia 

.. Rough Hawkbit 

,.. Autumnal Hawkweed 

.. Dandehon Hawkbit 

.. Greater Goats'-beard 

.. Yellow Goats'-beard 

.. Piu'ple Goat's-beard 

.. Hawkweed Picris 

.. Bristly Ox-tongue 

.. Strong-scented Lettuce ... 

. . Ivy-leaved Wall-lettuce . . . 

.. Common Dandelion 

. . Marsh D an delion ... 

.. Sow-thistle ... 

.. Corn Sow-thistle ... 

.. Marsh Sow-thistle... 

Stinking Hawkweed 

.. Common Hawk's-beard ... 

.. Smooth Hawk's-beard 

.. Mouse ear Hawkweed 

.. Wood Hawkweed 

. . Narrow-leaved Hawkv^^eed 

. . Succory-leaved Hawkweed 
Shrubby Broad-leaved Hawkweed 



Order XLYI. CAMPANULACEiE. The Bell-Flower Tribe 



Jasione montana 

Campanula glomerata 

latifoHa 

Trachehum . . . 

rotundifohum 

Rapunculus ... 

patula ,. 

Specularia hybrida 

Order XLVII. 

Andi'omeda polifoha 

Calluna vulgaris 

Erica Tetralix 

cinerea 

Vaccinium Oxycoccos 

Myrtillus 

Pyrola rotimdifoHa 
Monotropa Hypopitys 

Order XLVIII. 
Ilex AquifoHum 

Order XLIX. 

Ligustrum vulgare 

Fraxinus excelsior 



Sheep's Scabious 

Clustered Bell-flower 

Gre at B ell flower 

Nettle-leaved Bell-flower ... 

Hare-bell 

Bampion Bell-flower 
Spreading Bell-flower 
Com Bell-flower 

Ericaceae. The Heath Tribe, 
Marsh Andromeda 

Common Ling 

Cross-leaved Heath 
Fine-leaved Heath 
Cranberry 

Bilberry 

Round-leaved Winter-green 
Yellow Bu'ds'-nest 

Aquifoliace.e. The Holly Tribe. 
Common Holly e. 

Oleace^. The Olive Tribe. 

Common Privet e. no. 

Common Ash ... c.. e. no* 



e. 


— 


— w. 




nc. 


. — w. 




— 


sc. — 


e. 


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• — w. 


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— 


— w. 


e. 


— 


— w. 


e. 


nc. 


. sc. w. 




- nc, 


. — w. 


e. 


, — 


— w. 


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— 


— w. 


e. 


— 


— w. 


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— 


— w. 




- — 


— w. 




•nc. 


sc. w. 


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— w. 


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— 


— — 


e. 


— 


— w. 


— 


— 


sc. w. 


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— 


— w. 


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— w. 


e. 


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sc. w. 


e. 


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— w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. w. 


e. 


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sc. w. 


e. 


— 





— 


— 


— w. 


— 


— 


— w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. w. 


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— — 


e. 


nc. 


— w. 


— 


— 


— - w. 


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!>^ 


^~~ "~~ 


e. 


7e. 


— w. 


— 


— 


— w. 


e. 


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sc. — 


e. 


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— w. 


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nc. 


sc. w. 


e. 


nc. 


^ 


— 


nc. 


— — 


"^ 


—— 


sc. w. 


— 


__ 


sc. — 


e. 


nc. 


sc. w. 


e. 


nc. 


— W. - 


e. 


nc. 


sc. w. 


e. 


— 


sc. w. 


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— 


~ — 


e. 


— 


sc. w. 


6. 


— 


sc. — 



— — w. 



sc. w. 
sc. w. 



80 



BOTANY OF NORFOLK. 



Order L. 

Vinca minor 

•major 

Order LI. 



ApocYNACEiE. The Doys-hane Tribe. 
... Lesser Periwinkle ... e. 

... Greater Periwinkle ... c. 

GENTiANACEiE. The Gentian Tribe. 



nc. 



Perfoliate Yellow-wort ... e. 

Dwarf Centaury ... ... e. — 

Common Centaury ... e. — 

Autumnal Gentian ... — nc. 

Field Gentian — nc. 

Marsh Gentian ... ... e. nc. 

Fringed Villarsia ... ... 

Common Buckbean ... e. nc. 

Order LII. Polemoniace^. The GreeJc Valerian Tribe. 
Order LIII. ConvolvulaceyE. The Bindiveed Tribe. 



Clilora perfoliata 
Erythraja jDulchella 

' Centaurium 

Gentiana Amarella 

campestris 

Pneumonantlie 

Villarsia nympliseoides 
Menyanthes trifoliata 



sc. w. 

— w. 

sc. — 

— w. 

— w. 



— w. 

— w. 

— w. 



Convolvulus arvensis 

sepium 

. Soldanella . 

Cuscuta Eiiropaea ... . 

Epythymum 

Trifolii ... . 

Order LIV. 
Cynoglossum officinale . 

montanum 

Borago officinalis 
Anchusa sempervivens 
Lycopsis arvensis ... . 
Symphytum officinale 

tuberosum , 

Echium vulgare ... . 
Lithospermum officinale , 

arvense 

Myosotis palustris ... , 

caespitosa ... 

sylvatica 

arvensis 

colHna 

-— versicolor ... 

Order LV. 
Solanum nigrum ... , 

Dulcamara ... 

Atropa Belladonna ... 
Hyoscyamus niger ... , 
Datura Stramonium ... . 

Order LVL 
Orobanche Rapum .. 

elatior 

minor 

■ caerulea .. 



. Small Bindweed ... e. 

. Great Bindweed ... e. 

. Sea Bindweed ... ... e. 

. Greater Dodder ... ... e. 

. Lesser Dodder ... ... e. 

. Clover Dodder , — 

BoRAGiNACE.E. The Borage Tribe. 
. Hound's-tongue 

Green-leaved Hound's-tongue 



nc. 
nc. 



nc. 



sc. w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 
sc. 

— w. 
sc. — 



— — w. 



nc. 



— ramosa 



Order LVII. 
Verbascum Thapsus... . 

Lychnitis 

pulverulentum 

nigrum ... 

Blattaria ... . 

•> vii'gatum ... . 



... Borage 

... Evergreen Alkanet 

... Small Bugloss 

... Common Comfrey 

... Tuberous-rooted Comfrey 

... Viper's Bugloss 

... Gromwell 

... Com Gromwell 

... Forget-me-not 

... Tufted Scorpion-grass 

... Wood Scorpion-grass 

... Field Scorpion-grass 

... Early Field Scorpion-grass 

... Yellow & Blue Scoi-pion-grass 

SoLANACE^. The Nightshade Tribe. 

... Black Nightshade ... ... e. 

... Bitter-sweet ... ... e. 

... Deadly Nightshade ... e. 

... Henbane ... ... ... e. 

... Thorn-apple ... ... e. 

Orobanchace^. The Broom-rape Tribe. 
... Great Broom-rape... ... e. — 

... Tall Broom-rape ... ... — nc. 

... Lesser Broom-rape ... e. nc. 

... Purple Broom-rape ... e. nc. 

... Branched Broom-rape 

ScROPHULARiACEiE. The Fig-wort Tribe 
... Great Mullein ... ... e. 

... White Mullein — 

Yellow Hoary Mullein ... e. 

Dark Mullein e. 

Moth Mullem e. 

Primrose-leaved Mullein ... e. 



sc. w. 
sc. — 
sc. w. 

— w. 

BC. W. 

— w. 

— w. 
SC. w. 

— w. 

se. w. 

— w. 

SC. w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 

— w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 
sc. w. 
sc. w. 



— — sc. w. 



nc. 



nc. 



nc. 



nc. 
nc. 



nc. 
nc. 
nc. 
nc. 
nc. 



nc. 


sc. 


w, 


nc. 


sc. 


w, 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


— 


sc. 


w. 


— 


— 


w. 



FLOWERING PLANTS. 



Bl 



Digitalis pui'pui'ea ... 
Antirrhinum majus ... 

' Orontium 

Linaria Cymbalaria ... 
Elatine 



-spuria 
-minor 
-vulgaris 



Scrophularia nodosa... 

aquatica 

vemalis 

Melampyrum cristatum 

arvense 

pratense 

Pedicularis palustris... 

sylvatica. . . 

Rhinantlius Crista-galli 
Euphrasia officinalis 

Odontites 

Veronica scutellata ... 

Anagallis . . . 

Beccabunga 

Chamssdrys 

montana . . . 

officinalis . . . 

serpyllifolia 

arvensis 

vema 

triphyllos ... 

agrestis 

polita 

Buxbaumii... 

hederifolia ... 



Order LVIII. 
Mentha rotundifolia 

sylvestris 

viridis 

piperita 

aquatica 

Mentha citrataf 

gracilis 

gentilisf 

rubraf 

arvensis .. 

Pulegium 

Lycopus euroiDseus ... .. 
Salvia verbenaca 

pratensis 

Origanum vulgare 

Thymus Serpyllum 

Calamintha Nepeta ... .. 
*— — officinalis 

Acinos 

Clinopodium.. 

Scutellaria galericulata .. 

minor 

Prunella vulgaris 

Nepeta Oataha .. 



Purple Fox-glove 

Great Snap-dragon 
Lesser Snap-dragon 
Ivy-leaved Toad-flax 
Sharp-pointed Toad-flax ... 
Round-leaved Toad-flax ... 
Least Toad-flax 

Yellow Toad-flax 

Knotted Fig-wort 

"Water Fig-wort 

Yellow Fig-wort 

Crested Cow-wheat 
Purple Cow- wheat... 

Yellow Cow- wheat 

Marsh Louse-wort 

Pasture Louse-wort 

Yellow Rattle 

Common Eye-bright 

Red Eye-bright 

Marsh Speedwell 

Water Speedwell 

Brooldime 

Germander Speedwell 
Mountam Speedwell 
Common Speedwell 
Thyme-leaved Speedwell ... 

Wall Speedwell 

Vernal Speedwell ... 
Blunt-fingered Speedwell . . . 
Green Field Speedwell ... 
Gray Field Speedwell 
Buxbaum's Speedwell 
Ivy-leaved Speedwell 

Labtat^. The Dead-Nettle 
Round-leaved IVIint 
Horse-mint... 
Speer-mint ... 

Pepper-mint 

Capitate-mint ... ». 

Bergamot-mint 
Narrow-leaved Mint 

Bushy Red Mmt 

TaU Red ]\Iint 

Corn Mint 

Penny-roj'^al 

Gipsy- wort 

English Clary 

Meadow Clary 

Common Marjoram 

Wild Thyme 

Lesser Calamint 

Common Calamint 

Basil Thyme 

Wild Basil 

Common Skull-cap 

Lesser Skull-cap 

Self-heal , 

Cat-mint 



e. 


— 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


— 


— 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


— 


nc. 


8C. 


w. 


e. 


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— 


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sc. 


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e. 


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w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


— 


nc. 


— 


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— 


nc. 


— 


— 


— 


nc. 


sc. 


Vv^. 


e. 


— 


— 


— 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


— 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


— 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


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e. 


nc. 


sc. 


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e. 


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— 


w. 


e. 


— 


— 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


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— . 


— 


sc. 


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— 


nc. 


— 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


— 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


— 


— 


— 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


Trihe. 








— 


nc. 


— 


w. 


e. 


— 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


— 


— 


w. 


— 


— 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nCc 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


sc. 


w. 


— 


nc. 


— 


— 


e. 


— 


sc. 


— 


e. 


nc. 


— 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


— 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


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— 


w. 


e. 


— 


— 


— 


e. 


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— 


w. 


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nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


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sc. 


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e. 


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sc. 


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e. 


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sc. 


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e. 


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w. 


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— 


sc. 


— 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 

F 


sc. 


Yf' 



82 



BOTANY OF NORFOLK. 



Nepeta Gleclioma 
Lamium amplexicaule 

■ incisum 

purpureiim . . . 

album 

Galeobdolon 



Leoniu'us Cardiaca ... 
Galeopsis Ladamim ... 

Tetrahit ... 

versicolor ... 

Stachys Betonica 

sylvatica 

palustris 

ambiguaf 

arvensis 

Ballota foetida 

Marrubiiim vulgare . . . 
Teucrium Scorodonia 

Scordiiim ... 

Chamcedrys 

Ajuga reptans 

Order LIX. 
Verbena ofi&cinalis ... 



Ground-ivy e. nc. BC. w. 

. Henbit-nettle e. — — w. 

. Cut-leaved Dead-nettle ... e. nc. sc. w. 

. Red Dead-nettle e. nc. sc. w. 

. White Dead-nettle e. nc. sc. w. 

. Weasel- snout e. — — w. 

. Motherwort e. nc. sc. w. 

. Red Hemp -nettle e. — sc. w. 

. Common Hemp-nettle ... e. — — w. 

. Large-flowered Hemp-nettle e. — sc. w. 

. Wood Betony — w. 

. Hedge Woundwort ... e. nc. sc. w. 

. Marsh Woundwort ... e. nc. sc. w. 

. Ambiguous Woundwort ... e. — 

. Corn Woundwort e. — sc. w. 

. Stinking Horehound ... e. nc. sc. w. 

. "White Horehound e. — — w. 

. Wood Sage.. e. nc. sc. w. 

. Water Germander ... ... — w. 

. Wall Germander e. nc. sc. — 

. Common Bugle e. — — w. 

Verbenace.e. The Vervain Tribe. 

, Common Vervain c. nc. sc. w. 



Order LX. 
Pinguicula vulgaris 
Utricularia vulgaris 
minor 



Lentibulartace;e. The Butter-tvort Tribe. 
. ... Common Butter- wort ... e. — 

Greater Bladder- wort ... e. nc. 

. ... Lesser Bladder-wort ... e. nc. 



Order LXI. Primulace^. The Primrose Tribe. 



Primula vulgaris 



vens 
elatior 



Hottonia palustris ... 
Lysimacliia vulgaris ... 

nummularia 

nemorum 

Anagallis arvensis . . . 

CDBruleaf ... 

tenella 

Centunculus minimus 

Glaux maritima 

Samolus Valerandi . . . 

Order LXII. 
Statice Limonium 

reticulataf 

spathulata 

Armeria maritima 

Order LXIH. 
Plantago Coronopus ... 

maritima ... 

lanceolata ... 

media 



nc. 



e. nc. 
e. — 
e. — 
e. 
e. 
e. 
e. 
e. 



nc. sc. 



e. 
e. 
e. 
e. 



nc. — 



major 



Littorella lacustris ... 

Order LXIV. 

Order LXV. 
Suseda fruticosa * : . ... 



. . . Common Piimrose , . . 

... Common Cowslip ... 

. . . Oxlip Primrose 

... Water- violet 

... Great Loosestrife ... 

... Creeping Money- wort 

... Yellow Pimpernel 

... Scarlet Punpernel ... 

... Blue Pimpernel 

... Bog Pimpernel 

... Bastard Pimpernel... 

... Sea Milk- wort 

... Water Pimpernel ... 

PlUMBAG INACE^ 

... Sea Lavender 

... Matted Thrift 

... Upright- spiked Thrift 

... Sea Gilliflower 

Plantaginace^. The Plantain Tribe. 

... Buck's-horn Plantain ... e. nc. 

... Sea-side Plantain ... ... e. nc. 

... Ribwort Plantain ... ... e. nc. 

... Hoary Plantain ... ... e. nc. 

... Greater Plantain e. nc. 

... Shore- weed e. nc. 

Amaranthace^e. The Amaranth Tribe. 

Chenopodiace^. The Goose-foot Tribe. 

... Shrubby Sea Blite... .. — nc. 



— w. 
sc. w. 
sc. w. 

sc. w. 

— w. 



sc. 
sc. 



The Thrift Tribe. 
e. 



nc. 

— nc. 

— nc. 

— nc. 



w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 

w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 



sc. w. 
— w. 
sc. w. 
sc. w. 
sc. w. 



— IV. 



FLOWERING PLANTS, 



8S 



Susecla maiitima 

Salsola Kali 

Chenopodium oliclum 

polyspermum ... 

urbicum... ... 

' album 

ficifolium 

■ murale 

hybridum 

rubrum 

botiyoides 

glaucum 

Bonus-Henricus 



Beta maritima 

Salicornia lierbacea 

procmnbensf ... 

'— radicans 

Atriplex littoralis ... ... 

angustifolia 

patiila 

laciniata 

Obione pedimculata 

portiilacoides 

Order LXVI. 

Ruinex maritimus 

palustris 

acutus 

sanguinea 

viridisf 

pulcher 

obtusifolius 

crispus 

aquaticus 

Hydrolapathum ... 

alpinus 

Acetosa 

Acetosella 

Polygonum Bistorta 

ampMbium ... 

■ lapatliifolium . . . 

Persicaria 

Hydropiper ... 

' minus 

aviculare 

maritimum . . . 



Annual Sea BUte e. — 

Prickly Saltwort ... ... e. — 

Stinldug Goosefoot ... e. nc. 

Many-seeded Goosefoot ... 

Upright Goosefoot... ... e. nc. 

White Goosefoot e. nc. 

Fig-leaved Goosefoot ... e. — 

Nettle-leaved Goosefoot ... e. nc. 

Maple-leaved Goosefoot ... e. — 

Red Goosefoot ... e. nc. 

Many-spiked Goosefoot ... e. — 

Oak-leaved Goosefoot ... 

Good King Henry ... e. nc. 

Sea-Beet ... e. — 

Jointed Glasswort ... e. — 

Procumbent Glasswort ... e. — 

Creeping Glasswort ... — nc. 

Grass-leaved Sea Orache e. — 

Narrow-leaved Sea Orache e. nc. 

Halbert-leaved Sea Orache e. nc. 

Frosted Sea Orache ... e. — 

Sea Purslane ... ... e. — 

Stalked Sea Purslane ... e. — 

The Dock Tribe. 



Convolvulus 



PoLYGONACEiE. 

Golden Dock e. 

Marsh Dock e. 

Sharp Dock e. 

Bloody- veined Dock ... e. 

Green- veined Dock ... e. 

Fiddle Dock e. 

Broad-leaved Dock ... e. 

Curled Dock ... ... e. 

Grainless Water Dock ... — 

Great Water Dock ... e. 

Monks' Rhubarb — 

Common Sorrel ... ... e. 

Sheep's Sorrel e. 

Snakeweed... ... ... e. 

Amphibious Persicaria ... e. 

Pale-flowered Persicaria ... e. 

Spotted Persicaria e. 

Water-pepper e. 

Small Creeping Persicaria e. 

Knot-grass e. 

Sea Knot-grass ■ — 

Climbing Buck- wheat ... e. 

Buck-wheat e. 



nc. 
nc. 



nc. 
nc. 
nc. 
nc. 
nc. 
nc. 



nc. 
nc. 
nc. 
nc. 
nc. 

nc. 



El^agnace^. The Oleaster Tribe 
Sea Buckthorn 



Fagopyi'um esculentum ., 

Order LXVII. 
Hippophae rhamnoides .. 

Order LXVIII. Thymelaceje. The Spurge- Laurel Tribe 

Daphne Mezereum Common Mezereon ... 

. Laureola Spurge-laurel e. — 

Order LXIX. Santalace^. The Sandal-ivood Tribe. 
Thesium linophyllum ... Bastard Toad-flax... 



— w. 

— w. 

— w, 

— w. 
~ w. 
sc. w. 

sc. w. 

— w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 

— w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 

— w. 

— w. 

— w. 

— w. 
sc. W- 
sc. w» 

— w. 

— w. 

— w. 

— w. 
sc. w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 

— w. 

— w. 

— w. 
sc. w. 
sc. — 
sc. w. 

sc. w. 
sc. w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 
sc. w. 
sc. w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 



e. nc. 



— w. 
sc. — 



— w. 



Order LXX. 
Aristolochia Clematitis 



ARIST0L0CHIACE.E. 

... Bii'thwort ... 



The Birthwort Tribe. 



sc, — 

r2 



84 



BOTANY OF NORFOLK. 



Order LXXI. Empetrace^. The Growherry Tribe. 
Order LXXII. Euphorbiace^. The Spurge Tribe. 

Buxus sempervivens Common Box-tree e. — — 

Sun Spurge e. nc. so 

Wood Spurge e. — — 

... Petty Spiu'ge e. nc. sc 

... Dwarf Spurge e. — — 

... Caper Spiu'ge — 

... Dog's Mercury e. 

... Annual Mercury e. 

Ceratophyllace^. The Hormvort Tribe. 



Euphorbia Helioscopia . . . 

amygdaloides ... 

Peplus 

• — exigua 

Lathyris 

Mercurialis perennis 

annua 



w. 
w. 
w. 



nc. 
nc. 
nc. 



sc. 
sc. 
sc. 



Order LXXIII. 
Ceratophyllum demersum . . . 
submersum 



Common Hornwort 
Unarmed Hornwort 



— — w. 



Order LXXIV. Callitrichace/e. The Water-stanvort Tribe. 
Callitrlche verna Vernal Water- starwort ... — nc. sc. w. 

platj^carpa ... Broad-fruited Water-starwort sc. — 

autumnalis ... Autumnal Water-starwort... 



— — w. 



Order LXXV. 


Urticace^. The Nettle Tribe. 








Parietaria officinalis 


Wall Pelletory 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


Urtica pilulifera 


Roman Nettle 


e. 


— 


— 


— 


Dodartiif 


Dodart's Nettle 


— 


• — 


sc. 


— 


urens 


SmaU Nettle 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


dioica 


Great Nettle 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


Humulus Lupulus 


Common Hop 


— 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


Order LXXVI. Ulmace^. The Elm Tribe. 










Ulmus campestris 


Common Small-leaved Elm 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


Order LXXVII. 


Amentifer^. The Willow Tribe 








Salix decipiens ... ... ... 


White Welsh WiUow 


e. 


— 


— 


— 


fragilis 


Crack WiUow 


e. 


— 


— 


• — 


alba 


White Willow 


— 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


vitellina 


Golden Osier 


e. 


— 


sc. 


— 


imdulata 


Sharp-leaved Willow 


e. 


— 


— 


— 


triandra 


Long-leaved Willow 


e. 


— 


sc. 


— 


amygdalina 


Almond-leaved Willow 


— 


nc. 


— 


— 


purpurea 


Bitter Purple Willow 


e. 


— 


— 


— 


Lambertiana 


Boy ton Willow 


e. 


nc. 


— 


— 


Helix 


Rose Willow 


e. 


— 


— 


w. 


'■ Forbyana ... ... 


Fine Basket Osier 


e. 


— 


— 


w. 


=■ viminalis 


Common Osier 


6. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


stipularis 


Auricled Osier 


— 


nc. 


sc. 


— 


cmerea 


Gray Sallow 


— 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


aquatica 


Water Sallow 


e. 


— 


— 


w. 


oleifolia 


OHve-leaved Sallow 


— 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


aurita 


Round-leaved Sallow 


e. 


— 


— 


— 


Caprea 


Great Round-leaved Sallow 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


cotinifolia 


Quince-leaved Sallow 


— 


nc. 


sc. 


— 


mgricans 


Dark-leaved Willow 


— 


— 


— 


w. 


liirta 


Hahy-branched Sallow ... 


— 


nc. 


sc. 


— 


bicolor 


Two-coloured Willow 


— 


nc. 


sc. 


— 


Croweana 


Crowe an Willow 


— 


— 


— 


w. 


rosmarinifolia 


Rosemary-leaved Willow ... 


e. 


— 


— 


— 


repens 


Creeping Silky Willow ... 


— 


nc. 


— 


w. 


fusca 


Dwarf Silkv Willow 


e. 


— 


— 


w. 


ascendensf 


Upright Silky Willow ... 


e. 


— 


— 


— 


prostrataf 


Prostrate Silky Willow ... 


— 


— 


— 


w. 


foetidaf ,,. 


Fetid Silky Willow 


c. 


— 


— 


w. 



FLOWEEING PLANTS. 



85 



Salix argenteaf 

ambigua ... 

spathulataf 

hastata 

Populus alba 

canescens 

tremula 



nigra 



Myrica Gale 
Betula alba 
Alnus glutinosa 
Fagus sylvatica 
Castanea vulgaris 
Quercus Robur 

sessilifloraf 

Corylus Avellana 
Carpinus Betiilus 



Silvery Silky Willow 
Ambiguous Willow 
Spathulate Ambiguous Willow 
Apple-leaved Willow 

White Poplar 

Gray Poplar 

Aspen 

Black Poplar 
Sweet Gale 

Common Birch 

Common Alder 

Beech-tree 

Sweet Chestnut 

Common British Oak 
Sessile-fruited Oak 
Hazel-nut ... 
Hornbeam 



— w. 



Order LXXVIII. Conifers. 

Taxus baccata Common Yew 

Pinus sylvestris ] Scotch Fir ... 



The Fir Trihe. 



nc. sc. — 
nc. sc. w. 
nc. sc. — 

— — w. 
nc. sc. w. 

— — w. 
nc. sc. w. 
nc. sc. w. 
nc. sc. w, 
nc. sc. w. 
nc. sc. w. 
nc. sc. w. 
nc. sc. w. 

— — w. 



nc. 

— sc. w. 



CLASS II.— MONOCOTYLEDONES. 



Order LXXIX. 
Paris quadrifoHa 

Order LXXX. 
Tamus communis 



Trilliace^. The Herb Paris Tribe. 
Herb Paris — nc, 

D10SCOREACE.E. The Yam Tribe. 
Black Bryony e. nc. 



Order LXXXI. Hydrocharidace^. Tlie Frog-bit Tribe 
Common Frog-bit 



Hydrocharis Morsus-ran* 
Sti'atiotes aloides ... . 
Anacharis Alsinastrum 



Water Soldier 
Water Thyme 



nc. 



Order LXXXII. ORcniDACEiE. TJie Orchis Tribe. 



Orchis Morio 

mascula 

ustulata 

maculata 

latifoHa 

pyramidaHs 

Gymnadenia conopsea 
Aceras anthropomoiT^ha 
Habenaiia viridis 

bifoha 

chlorantha 

Ophi'y s apifera 

muscifera 

Herminium Monorchis 
Spkanthes autumnahs 

Listera ovata 

Neottia Nidus-avis ... 
Epipactis palustris . . . 
Malaxis paludosa 
Sturmia Looselii 



Green- winged Meadow Orchis e. — 

Early Purple Orchis ... e. — 

Dwarf Dai'k-winged Orcliis 

Spotted Palmate Orchis ... e. — 

Marsh Orchis e. — 

Pyramid Orchis e. nc. 

Fragrant Gymnadenia ... e. nc. 

Green Man- Orcliis ... 

Green Habenaria ... e. — 

Smaller Butterfly Habenaria e. nc. 

Butterfly Habenaria ... e. — 

Bee-orchis ... ... e. — 

Fly-orchis ... ... e. — 

Musk-orchis ... ... e. — 

Lady's Tresses ... ... e. — 

T way-blade ... ... e. — 

Common Bird's Nest ... e. -- 

Marsh Helleborine ... e. nc. 

Bog-orchis e, nc. 

Two-leaved Stui'mia ... — nc. 



Order 
Iris Pseud- acorus 

foetidissima 

Crocus vemus ... 



LXXXIIL Iridace^. The Flag Tribe. 

Yellow Flag 

Gladdon 

Purple Spring Crocus 



nc. 
nc. 



sc. — 
sc. w. 



sc. w. 
— w. 
■— w. 



— w. 

sc. w. 

— w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 

— w. 
sc. w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 

— w. 

— w. 
sc. — 

sc. w. 
sc. — 



86 



BOTANY OF NORFOLK. 



Oeder LXXXIV. 

Narcissus poeticus 

Pseudo-narcissus 



AMARYILLIDACEiE. 

Poetic Narcissus 

Common Daffodil 

Snowdrop ... .. ... 

AsPAEAGACE^E. The Asparagus Tribe. 

e. - 
e. 
e. 
e. 



The Daffodil Tribe. 

e. nc. 

e. nc. 

Galantlius nivalis ... . 

Oedee LXXXV. 

Asparagus officinalis Wild Asparagus 

Convallaria majalis Lily of the Valley e. nc. 

Polygonatum multiflorum... Solomons' Seal 

Ruscus aculeatus Butcher's Broom ... 

Oeder LXXXVI. Liliacete. The Lily Tribe. 

Tulipa sylvestris ... ., 
Fritillaria Meleagris ... ., 
Ornithogalum umbellatum 
nutans 



sc. 



w. 



sc. 
sc. — 
— w. 



Allium vineale 

oleraceum 

ursinum 

Endymion nutans 
Muscari racemosum ... 

Order LXXXVII. 

Order LXXXVIII 

Order LXXXIX 



,. Wild Tulip 

,. Common Fritillary 

Star of Bethlehem 

,. Droox^ing Star of Bethlehem — 

.. Crow Garlick ... ... sc. 

.. Field Garlick — 

.. Ramsons ... e. — — 

.. EngHsh Blue-bell e. nc. sc. 

.. Grape Hyacinth ... ... — nc. — 

CoLCHicACE^. The Meadow Saffron Tribe. 

ERiocAULAGEiE. The Pipe-wort Tribe. 

JuNCAGE^. The Rush Tribe. 



c. — sc. — 

— nc. 

e. — sc. — 



w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 



Narthecium ossifragum 
Juncus maritimus 

acutus 

effusus 

-^- ~ - conglomeratus 

■^^ giaucus 

obtusiflorus ... 

acutiflorus 

lampocarpus ... 

' . .-. — uliginosus 
-r — r— subverticillatusf 
—^r— squarrosus .,. 
-^^ — — - compressus ... 
-r-- — ^ — co^nosusf 

— bufonius 

Luzula sylvatica 

- — :?— pilosa ... ... 

campestris 



congesta 



Order XC. 



Alisma Plantago 



ranunculoides 



Sagittaria sagittifolia 
Butomus umbellatus 
Triglochin maritimum 
palustre ... 

Order XCI 

Typha latifolia 

angustifolia ... 

. ^parganium ramosum 

■^ simplex... 

•=' — ^^ — - natans ... 



... Bog Asphodel 

... Lesser sharp Sea Rush ... 

... Great sharp Sea Rush 

... Soft Rush 

... Common Rush 

... Hard Rush 

... Blunt- flowered Jointed Rush 

... Sharp-flowered Jointed Rush 

... Shining-fruited Jointed Rush 

... Lesser Bog Jointed Rush... 

... Whorl-headed Rush 

... Heath Rush 

... Round-fruited Rush 

... Mud Rush 

... Toad Rush 

... Great Hairy Wood Rush... 

. . . Hairy Wood Rush ... 

... Field Wood Rush 

... Many-headed Bog Wood Rush 

Alismace^. The Water Plantain Tribe 

... Greater Water Plantain ... 

... L e sser W ater Plantain 

... Common Arrow-head 

... Flowering-rush 

... Sea-side Arrow-grass 



, Marsh AiTow-grass 
TypHACEyE. The Bull-rush Tribe. 

Great Reed-mace ... 

Lesser Reed-mace 
. Branched Reed-bur 

. Upright Reed-bur 

. Floating Reed-bur 



— 


— 


— 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


— 


w. 


— 


nc. 


— 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


— 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


- • 


w. 


— 


— 


— 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


— 


w. 


e. 


— 


— 


w. 


e. 


— 


— 


w. 


e. 
e. 
e. 


— 


— 


w. 


— 


— 


w. 


e. 


— 


— 


w. 


e. 

•7 


— 


~— 


w. 


ibi 

e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


— 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


— 


— 


w. 


e. 


— 


— ■ 


w_ 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


— 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


— 


— 


w. 


e. 


— 


— 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


— 





FLOWEKING PLANTS. 



Okdek XCII. Arace^. The Arum Tribe. 



Acorus Calamus 
Arum maculatum 

Order XCIII 

Xiemna trisulca 

minor 

polyrliiza 

gibba 



Sweet Flag e. — sc. ■ — 

Cuckoo-pint ... ... e. — — w. 

Lemnace^. The Duckiveed Tribe. 
Ivy-leaved Duckweed ... e. no. sc. 

Lesser Duckweed e. nc. sc. 

Greater Duckweed e. nc. sc. 

Gibbous Duckweed ... e. nc. sc. 

Order XCIV. Potamogetonace^. The Pond-weed Tribe. 

Potamogeton natans Broad-leaved Pond-weed ... 

plantagineus Plantain-leaved Pond-weed 

rufescens ... Reddish Pond-weed 

heterophyllum Various-leaved Pond- weed 



w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 



-lucens 

-prselongus 

-perfoliatus 

-crispus 

-acutifolius 

-gramineus 

-compressus. 

-pusillus 

-triclioides 

-pectinatus . 

-densus... , 



e. w. 

sc. — 

sc. — 

sc. 



Ruppia maritima 
Zannichellia palustiis 

Order XCV, 
Zostera marina , 

Order XCVI. 

Schoenus nigricans 

Cladium Mariscus , 

Rhynchospora alba ... .,, 
Eleocbaris palustris 

multicaulis 

— acicularis 

Scirpus maritimus 

triqueter 

lacustris 

glaucus 

— ceespitosus 

pauciflorus 

. = fluitans ... 

setaceus 

Blysmus compressus 
Eriophorum vaginatum ... 

angustifolium 

■- polystacliion..r 

Carex dioica 

pulicaris 

divisa 

intermedia 



,. Shining Pond-weed ... e. nc. 

. Long-stalked Pond-weed ... e. — — 

. PerfoKate Pond- weed ... e. nc. — 

. Curled Pond- weed e. — — 

. Sharp-leaved Pond- weed ... nc. 

. Grassy Pond-weed e. nc. sc. 

. Compressed Small Pond- weed e. — — 

Small Pond- weed ... ... e. — 

. Hah'-Hke Pond- weed ... e.' nc. 

. Fennel-leaved Pond- weed... e. — 

. Opposite-leaved Pond- weed e. — 

. Tassel Pond- weed e. — 

,. Horned Pond- weed ... e. — 

Naiadace^. The Grass-ivracJc Tribe. 

,. Grass- wrack e. — 



sc. 
sc. 



w. 

w. 

w. 

w. 

w. 

w. 
w. 
w. 

w. 



— w 



arenaria ... 
vulpina ... 
muricata 
divulsa .,. 
teretiuscula 



Cyperace^. The Sedge Tribe. 

Bog-rush e. 

Common Sedge e. 

White Beak-rush ... e. 

Creeping Spike-rush ... e. 

Many-stalked Spike-rush e. 

Least Spike-rush ... e. 

Salt-marsh Club-rush ... e. 

Triangular Club-rush ... e. 

Lake Club-rush ... ... e. 

Glaucous Club-rush ... — 

Scaly-headed Club-rush ... e. 

Chocolate-headed Club-rush e. 

Floating Club-msh .*. e. 

Bristle-stalked Club-rush e. 

Broad-leaved Blysmus ... e. 

Hair's-tail Cotton-gi*ass ... — 
Common Cotton-grass 

Broad-leaved Cotton-grass — 
Creeping separate-headedCares e. 

Flea Carex e. 

Bracteated Marsh Carex ... e. 

Soft-brown Carex ... e. 

Sea Carex e. 

Great Carex e. 

Great prickly Carex ... e. 

Gray Carex e. 

Lesser panicled Carex ... e. 



nc. sc. 
nc. sc. 
nc. sc. 
nc. sc. 
nc. — 



nc. — 



nc. — 
nc. — 

— sc. 



e. — 



nc. sc. 

— sc. 
nc. — 
nc. sc. 

— sc. 
nc. sc. 

— sc. 
nc. — 



w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 

w. 

w. 
w. 
w. 

w. 
w. 

w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 



88 



BOTANY OF NORFOLK. 



Carex paradoxa ... 

paniculata 

axillaris 

remota 

stellulata 

— — curta 

— — ovalis 

striata 

acuta 

csespitosa 

panicea 

limosa 

strigosa 

pendula 

praecox 

pilulifera 

■ recurva 

flava 

CEderi 

extensa 

fulva 

distans 

binervis 

sylvatica ... 

Pseudo-cyperus 

filiformis 

liirta 

ampuUacea 

vesicaria ... 

paludosa 

riparia 

Okder XCVII. 
Digitaria sanguinalis 

humifusa 

Setaria viridis 

■ verticillata 

Phalaris canariensis 

arimdinacea 

Anthoxanthum odoratum... 
Phleum Boehmeri 

arenarium , 

pratense. 



Alopecurus pratensis . . . 

geniculatus 

■ fulvus ... 

— ^ bulbosus... 



agrestis 



Nardus stricta 

Milium effusum 

Phragmites communis 

Psamma arenaria 

Calamagrostis lanceolata ... 

■ Epigejos ... 

Apera spica-venti 

interrupta 

Agrostis canina 

- — ' — vulgaris 



Paradoxical Carex... 
Great panicled Carex 
Axillary clustered Carex ... 
Remote Carex 
Little pricldy Carex 

AVhite Carex 

Oval- spiked Carex 
Straight-leaved Carex 
Slender-spiked Carex 
Tufted Bog-carex ... 
Pink-leaved Carex 
Mud Carex ... 
Loose pendulous Carex ... 
Great pendulous Carex 
Vernal Carex 
Round-headed Carex 
Glaucous Heath Carex ... 
Yellow Carex 
QCderian Carex 
Long bracteated Carex 
Tawny Carex 
Loose Carex 
Green-ribbed Carex 
Pendulous Wood Carex ... 
Cyperus-like Carex 
Slender-leaved Carex 
Hairy Carex 

Slender-beaked Bottle-carex 
Short-spiked Bladder Carex 
Lesser Common Carex 
Great Common Carex 

Gramine^. The Grass Tribe 
Hairy Finger-grass 
Glabrous Finger-grass 
Green Bristle-grass 
Rough Bristle-grass 
True Canary-grass ... 
Reed Canary- grass 
Vernal- grass 
Cat's-tail Canary-grass 
Sea Canary-grass ... 
Timothy-grass 
Meadow Fox- tail-grass 
Floating Fox-tail-grass ... 
Orange-spike Fox-tail-grass 
Tuberous Fox-tail-grass ... 
Slender Fox- tail-grass 

Mat-gTass 

Millet-grass 

Common Reed 
Common Sea Reed 
Purple-flowered Small-reed 
Wood Small-reed ... 
Silky Wind-grass ... 
Interrupted Wind-grass ... 
Brown Bent- grass... 
Fine Bent-grass 
Marsh Bent-grass 



e. 


— 


— 


— 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


— 


sc. 


— 


e. 


— 


— 


w. 


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sc. 


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sc. 


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e. 


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w. 


e. 


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— 


w. 


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e. 


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sc. 


w. 


e. 


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sc. 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 



PLOWEBING PLANTS. 



89 



Polypogon monspeliensis ... 

littoraHs 

Gastridium lendigerum ... 

Holcus lanatus 

mollis 

Corynephorus canescens ... 

Aira csespitosa 

flexuosa 

caryophyllea 

prsecox 

Trisetum flavescens 

Avena fatua 

■ pratensis 

pubescens 

Arrhenathenim avenaceum 

Triodia decumbens 

Koeleria cristata 

MeHca uniflora 

Molinia ccerulea 

Poa annua 

bulbosa 

nemoralis 

— — trivialis , ... 

pratensis ... ... ... 

compressa ... 

Glyceria aquatica 

fluitans 

Sclerochloa maritima 

■ distans 

procumbens 

rigida 

loHacea 

Briza media 

Catabrosa aquatica 

Cynosurus cristatus 

Dactylis glomerata 

Festuca bromoides 

Myurus 

ovina 

duriusculaf 

rubra 

sylvatica 

gigantea 

trifloraf 

elatior 

pratensis 

loliaceaf 

Bromus erectus 



asper 
steriKs 



Serrafalcus secalinus 

velutinusf 

racemosus 

mollis 

arvensis 

Brachypodium sylvaticimi 

— — pinnatum 

Triticum caninum 



Annual Beard-grass ... — nc. 

Perennial Beard-grass ... — nc. 
Awned Nit-grass ... ... e. nc. 

Meadow Soft-grass ... e. nc. 

Creeping Soft-gi*ass ... e. nc. 

Gray Haii*- grass e. nc. 

Turfy Haii'-grass ... ... — nc. 

Waved Hair-grass... ... — nc. 

Silvery Hair-grass... ... e. nc. 

Early Haii'-grass ... ... e. — 

Yellow Oat-grass e. nc. 

Wild Oat e. nc. 

Narrow-leaved Oat-grass ... 

Downy Oat-grass ... ... — nc. 

Oat-like-grass ... ... e. nc. 

Decumbent Heath-grass ... e. nc. 
Crested Haii'-grass ... e. — 

Wood Melic-grass ... ... — 

Piu'ple MeHc-grass... ... e. 

Annual Meadow-grass ... e. 

Bulbous Meadow-grass ... e. 

Wood Meadow-grass ... — 

Boughisli Meadow-grass . . . 

Smooth- stalked Meadow-grass 

Flat-stemmed Meadow-gi'ass 

Reed Meadow-grass 

Floating Meadow-grass ... 

Creeping Sea Meadow-grass 

Reflexed Meadow-grass . . . 

Procumbent Sea Meadow-grass 

Hard Meadow-grass 

Dwarf Sea Wheat -grass ... 

Common Quaking-grass ... 

Water Whorl-grass 

Crested Dog's-tail-grass ... 

Rough Cock's-foot-gi-ass ... 

Barren Fescue-grass 

Wall Fescue-gi'ass 

Sheep's Fescue-grass 

Hard Fescue-grass 

Creej)ing Fescue-grass ... 

Wood Fescue-grass 

Gigantic Fescue-grass 

Three-flowered Fescue-grass 

Tall Fescue -grass 

Meadow Fescue-grass 

Spiked Fescue-gi'ass 

Upright Brome-grass 

Haii-y Wood Brome-grass 

Barren Brome-grass 

Smooth Rye Brome-grass 

Downy Rye Brome-grass 

Smooth Brome-grass 

Soft Brome-gi'ass ... 

Taper Field Brome-grass ... 

Slender False Brome-grass 

Heath False Brome-grass 

Fibrous-rooted Wheat-gi'ass — w. 



nc. 
nc. 
nc. 



e. nc. 

e. nc. 

e. nc. 

e. nc. 

e. nc. 

e. — 

e. — 

e. — 

e. nc. 

e. nc. 

e. nc. 

e. nc. 

e. nc. 

e. nc. 

e. — 

e. — 

e. — 

e. nc. 

e. — 

e. nc. 



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e. — 

— nc. 
e. nc. 
e. nc. 
e. — 

— nc. 
e. nc. 
e. nc. 
e. nc. 
e. nc. 
e. — 



sc. w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 

— w. 

sc. w. 

— w. 
sc. w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 

sc. w. 

— w. 

— w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 
sc. w. 

'sc. — 

sc. w. 

sc. w. 

sc. w. 

sc. w. 

sc. w. 

— w. 

— w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 
sc. w. 
sc. w. 
sc. w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 

— w. 

— w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 
sc. w. 
sc. — 

— w. 
sc. w. 

— w. 

sc. w. 
sc. w. 
sc, w. 
sc. — 
sc. — 
sc. w. 

sc. — 



90 



BOTANY OP NORFOLK. 



Triticum repens 

junceum 

Elymiis arenarius 
Hordeum pratense .. 

miirinum ., 

. ■ maritimiim 

Lep turns incurvatus ., 
Lolium perenne 

temulentum .. 

arvense 



Coiicli-grass 

Sea Eiisliy Wheat-grass ... 
Upright Sea Lyme-grass ... 
MeacloAv Barley 

Wall Barley 

Sea-side Barley 

Sea Hard-grass 

Hye -grass 

Bearded Darnel 

Short-awiied Annual Darnel 



e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


— 


— 


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e. 


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— 


w. 


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— 


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— 


— 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 


— 


— 


— ^ 






II.— CRYPTOGAME^, or FLOWERLESS PLANTS. 
CLASS III.— ACOTYLEDONES. 

Order I. Filices. Ferns. 



Polypodium vulgare 

Lastrsea Thelypteris 

Oreopteris 

Filix-mas 

— cristata 

uliginosa 

■ spinulosa 

dilatata 

Polystichum aculeatum ... 
lobatumf 

angulare 

Cystopteris fragilis 
Athyrium Filix-foemina . . . 
Asplenium Adiantum-nigrum 

Trichomanes... 

■ Ruta muraria 

Scolopendrium vulgare 

Ceterach officinarum 

Blechnum boreale 

Pteris aquilina 

O smunda regalis 

B otrichium lunaria 

Ophioglossum vulgatum ... 
Lycopodium clavatum 

Selago ... ... 

inundatum ... 

Pilularia globulifera 

Equisetum arvense 

• Telmateia 



-sylvaticum 
-lunosum ... 
-palustre ... 
-hyemale ... 



Phascum serratum . . 

crispum 

— subulatum ... 

-— axillare 

— patens 

• muticum . . . 



— cuspidatum 



Common Polypody 
Marsh Shield-fern 
Heath Shield-fern 

Male Shield-fern 

Crested Shield-fern 
Bog Shield-fern 
Prickly-toothed Shield-fern 
Broad Sharp-toothed Shield 
Prickly Shield-fern 
Close-leaved Prickly Shield- 
Angular-lfd. Pricldy Shield- 
Brittle Bladder-fern 
Female Spleenwort 
.Black- stalked Spleenwort 
Wall Spleenwort ... 
Wall-rue Spleenwort 
Common Hart's-tongue ... 

Scaly Spleenwort 

Northern Hard-fern 
Common Brake 
Flowering-fern 
Common Moon- wort 
Adder's-tongue 
Common Club-moss 
Fir Club-moss 

Marsh Club-moss 

... CreexDing Pill- wort 

... Corn Horse-tail 
... Great Water Horse-tail ... 
... Branched Wood Horse-tail 
... Smooth Naked Horse-tail 
... Marsh Horse-tail ... 
. ... Rough Horse-tail ... 

Order II. Musci. Mosses. 

... Serrated Earth-moss 

. . . Curly-leaved Earth-moss . . . 

... Awl-leaved Earth-moss ... 

. ... Lateral-fruited Earth-moss 

... Spreading Earth-moss 

, ... Common Dwarf Earth-moss 

... Cuspidate Earth-moss 



e. 


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sc. 


w. 


e. 


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— 


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w. 


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__ 


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3 e. 


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sc. 


>^ 



Phascum piliferumf ... 

■ rectum 

Spliagmmi obtiisifoliiim 

■ squaiTosum 

acutifoliiim 

cuspid atnm 



FLOWERLESS PLANTS. 

,.. Piliferous Earth-moss 
. . Straight-stalked Earth-moss 
.. Blunt-leaved Bog-moss ... 
.. Spreading-leaved Bog-moss 
.. Slender Bog-moss ... 

Long-leaved Floating Bog-moss 



91 



|- GjTnnostomum viiidissimum Green-tufted Beardless-moss e. — 



nc. 
no. 
nc. 



sc. 



w. 
w. 



Splachnum ampuUaceum ... 

Encalypta vulgaris 

Weissia Starkeana 

lanceolata 

cuTata 

curvirostra 

controversa 

Grimmia apocarpa 

■ pulvinata 

Didymodon purpureus 
Trichostomum canescens ... 
Dicranum bryoides ... 

— adiantoides 

■ — taxifoHum... 

glaucum ... 

cerviculatum 

flexuosum... 

' nigro-vuidef 

— crispum ... 

scoparium... 

varium 

■- — heteromailum 

Tortula enervis 

rigida 

revoluta 

■ muralis 

riu'alis 

• subulata 



unguiculata 



cuneifolia 

fallax 

Polytrichum undulatum 
piliferum 



, jumpermum:.. 

— commune 

attenuatumf . . . 

urnigerum ... 

■ aloides 

Dicksonif 

nanum 

Funaria hygrometrica 
Orthotrichum cupulatum ... 

^ aflfine 

' diaphanum. . . 



ovatum ... Hairy-leaved Beardless-moss 
truncatulum Lit. Blunt-fLiiited Beardless-m. 
intermediumf Larger B . -fruited Beardless-m. 
Heimii ... Long- stalked Beardless-moss 
conicum ... Blunt-lidded Beardless-moss 
fasciculare.. . Blunt Pear-shaped Beardless-m 
pyriforme . . . Sharp Pear-shaped Beardless-m. e 
Flagon-fr'uited Splachnum 

... Common Extinguisher-moss 
Starkean Weissia ... 

... Lance-leaved Weissia 

. . . Cuii-leaved Weissia 

... Curved-beaked Weissia ... 

... Green-cushioned Weissia... 

... Sessile Grimmia ... 

... Gray-cushioned Grimmia... 

... Purple Didymodon 
Hoary Fringe-moss 

...Lesser Pinnated-leaved Fork-moss e 

... Adiantum-like Fork-moss 

... Yew-leaved Fork-moss 

... White Fork-moss ... 

... Red-necked Fork-moss ... 

... Zigzag Fork-moss 

... Dark-green Zigzag Fork-moss 

... Curl-leaved Fork-moss 

... Broom Fork-moss ... 

... Variable Fork-moss 

... Silky-leaved Fork-moss ... 

,.. Nerveless Rigid Screw-moss 

... Aloe-like Screw-moss 

.. Revolute Screw-moss 

... Wall Screw-moss ... 

.. Great Haiiy Screw-moss ... 

.. Awl-shaped Screw-moss ... 

.. Bird's-claw Screw-moss ... 

.. Wedge-shaped Screw-moss 

.. Fallacious Screw-moss 

.. Undulated Haii'-moss 

.. Bristle-pointed Hair-moss 
Juniper-leaved Hair-moss 
Common Hair-moss 
Slender Haii'-moss 
Urn-headed Hair-moss ... 
Dwarf Long-headed Hair-moss 
Dwarf Short- stalked Hair-moss e. — 
Dwarf Round-headed Hair-m. e. nc. 
Hygrometric Cord-moss ... e. nc, 
Single-fringed Bristle-moss e. -^ 
Pale Straight-leaved Bristle-m. e. — 
Diaphanous pointed Bristle-m. e. -— 



sc. 
sc, 
sc. 



sc. 
sc, 
sc. 



e. nc. 

sc. — 

e. 
e. 



— — w. 



nc. sc. 
e. nc. — 

sc. 

• sc. 

e. — — 

e. — ~ 

e. — — 

e. — — 

e. 

e. — — 

e. — — 

e. nc. sc. 

e. nc. sc. 

e. nc. sc. 
e. 



— w. 



w, 



sc. 



e. 

e. 

e. 
e. 

e. 

e. 
e. 
e. 



nc. 
nc. 
nc. 



sc. 

sc. 



w. 
w. 



w. 



— — w, 



sc. 
sc. 
sc. 



92 



BOTANY OF NORFOLK. 



Ortliotrichum striatum 
Hutchinsia.. 



crispum 



Bryum androgyniim 
palustre ... 

dealbatum 

carneum 

argenteum 

capillare 

caespititium 

minusf ... 

turbinatuin 

nutans ... 

ventricosum 



roseum 

ligulatum ... . 

punctatum ... . 

hornum 

cuspidatum ... 

Bartramia pomiformis 

fontana ... . 

Buxbaumia aphylla ... . 
Leucodon sciuroides ... . 
Anomodon curtipendulum 

viticulosum 

Daltonia heteromalla 
Fontinalis antipyretica 
Hookeria lucens ... . 
Hypnuni trichomanoides . 

complanatum . 

ripariuin ... . 

— denticulatum 

tenellum. ... 

serpens ... . 

strainineum 

' purum 

piliferum ... . 

plumosum 

sericeum ... 

lute scens . . . 

nitens ... . 

— — — albicans ... . 

alopecurum 

dendroides 

curvatum ... , 

' splendens ... . 

■ proliferum 

prselongum 

rutabulum 

velutinum 

ruscifolium 

striatum 

■ confertum 

cuspidatum 

cordifolium 

polymorphum 

steUatum ... 

— ^ — ■■ triquetrum 



Common Bristle-moss 

, Miss Hutcliins' Bristle-moss 

. Curied Bristle-moss 

Narrow-leaved Thread-moss 

Marsh Thread-moss 

Pale-leaved Thread-moss ... 

Soffc-leaved Thread-moss ... 

, Silvery Thread-moss 

, Greater Matted Thread-moss 

. Lesser Matted Thread-moss 

. Two-coloured Thread-moss 

. Turbinate Thread-moss ... 

, Sillcy Pendulous Thread-moss 

. Swelling Bog Thread-moss 

, Rosaceous Thyme Thread-moss 

. Long-leaved Thyme Thd.-moss 

. Dotted Thyme Thread-moss 

. Swan's-neck Thyme Thd.-moss 

. Pointed-leaved Thyme Th. -moss e 

. Common Apple-moss 

. Fountain Apple-moss 

. Leafless Buxbaumia 

. Squirrel- tail Leucodon 

Pendulous Anomodon 

. Cylindrical Anomodon 

. Lateral Daltonia ... 

. Greater Water-moss 

. Shining Hookeria ... 

. Blunt Fern-like Feather-moss 

. Flat Feather-moss 

. Short beaked Water Feather-m, 

. Sharp Fern-like Feather-moss 

. Tender Awl-leaved Feather-m. 

. CreepingWhite-veiledFeather-m.e 

. Straw-lilie Feather-moss 

. Neat Meadow Feather-moss 

. Hair-pointed Feather-moss 

. Rusty Feather-moss 

. Silky Feather-moss 
Rough-stalked Yellow Feather-m. 

. Sliining Featlier-moss 

.. Whitish Feather-moss 

,. Fox-tail Feather-moss 

,. Tree-hke Feather-moss ... 

, . Curved Feather-moss 

. Ghttering Feather-moss ... 

. Prohferous Feather-moss 

. Very long Feather-moss 
Com. Rough-stalked Feather-m. 
.. Velvet Feather-moss 

. . Long-beaked Water Feather-m. 

,. Com. Striated Feather-moss 

,. Clustered Feather-moss ... 

. . Pointed Bog Feather-moss 
.. Heart-leaved Feather-moss 

.. Variable -leaved Feather-moss 

. , Yellow Starry Feather- moss 
.. Triquetrous Feather-moss 



e. 


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e. 
e. 
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— 


— 


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sc. 


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e, 


, nc, 


, sc. 


w. 



jFLOWERLESS PLANTS. 



93 



Hypnum sqiiarrosiim 

filicinum ... 

palustre 

adimcum ... 

imcinatum 

rugulosum 

scorpioides 

cupressiforme 

moUuscum 

Order 

Riccia crystallma 

fluitans 

natans 

Sphasrocarpus terrestris ... 
Marchantia polymorplia ... 

' conica 

• hemisphferica 

Jungermannia asplemoides 

lanceolata ... 

Sphagni 

crenulata . . . 

excisa 

biciispidata 

byssacea ... 

connivens . . . 

pusilla 

• nemorosa . . . 

undulata ... 

resiipinata ... 

complanata 

anomala 

scalaris 

= — viticiilosa . . . 

Trichomanis 

bidentata . . . 

obtusataf ... 

Francisci . . . 

reptans 

' setacea 

. platyphylla . . . 

dilatata 

Tamarisci ... 

pingiiis 

multifida . . . 

epiphylla . . . 



, . . Drooping-leaved Feather-moss 

. . . Lesser GoldenFern Feather-m. 

,.. Marsh Feather-moss 

.. Claw-leaved Feather-moss 

,.. Sickle-leaved Feather-moss 

.. Yfiinkle -leaved Feather-moss 

.. Scorpion Featlier-moss ... 

.. Cypress-leaved Feather-moss 

.. Plumy-crested Feather-moss 

III. Hepatic.e, Liverworts. 

.. Chrystalline Riccia 
.. Narrow Floating Riccia ... 
. . Broad Floating Riccia 
.. Ground Sphaerocarpus 
. . Polymorphous Marchantia 
.. Conical Marchantia 

Hemisphserical Marchantia 

Spleenwort Jungermannia 

Lance-leaved Jungermannia 

Bog-moss Jungermannia ... 

Crenulated Jungermannia 
Small Ejaotched-leaved Jungerm. 

Forked Jungermannia 

Byssus-Uke Jungermannia 

Forcipated Jungermannia 

Dwarf Jungermannia 

Wood Jungermannia 

Wavy-leaved Juggermannia 

Curled Jungermannia 

Flat Jungermannia 

Various-leaved Jungermannia 

Ladder Jungermannia 

Stragghng Flat Jungermannia 

Fern Jungermannia 

Triangular- sheathed Jimgerm. 

Blunt Tri. -sheathed Jungerm. 

Holt Jungermannia 

Creeping Jungermannia ... 

Bristly Jungermannia 



Order 

B^eomyces rufus 

Calicium sessile 

' microcephalum . . 

tympanellum 

ferrugineum 

■■ clavellum , 

hyperellum 

chrysocephalum 

pheeocephalum .. 

curtum 

debile 



Flat-leaved Jungermannia 
Dilated Jungermannia 
Tamarisk Jungermannia ... 
Shppeiy Jungermannia ... 
Many-lobed Jungermannia 
SHppery Jungermannia ... 

IV. Lichenes, Lichejis. 
Brown Mushroom Bseomyces 
Parasitic Sessile Calicium 
Small-headed Short- Stalked C. 
Sooty-fruited Calicium 
Rusty Caliciimi 
Gray-crusted Cahcium 
Bright yellow Calicium ... 
Gold-headed Cahcium 
Brown-headed Cahcium ... 
Short-stalked Calicium 
Slejider Cahcium ... 



e. nc. sc. — 
e. nc. sc. w. 

sc. — 

e. nc. sc. — 

e. nc. sc. w. 

e. — sc. — 

e. — sc. — 

— nc. 

e. — sc. — 
e. nc. sc. w. 

— nc. sc. — 

— nc. sc. — 

— nc. — — 

e. nc. sc. — 
e. nc. sc. — 

— nc. 

e. nc. sc. — 

— nc. 

e. nc. sc. — 

— nc. 

e. — — w. 

e. nc. 

e. nc. 

— nc. 

— nc. 

e. — — w. 

e. nc. sc. w. 

e. nc. sc. — 



e. — 
e. — 
e. — 
e. — 
— nc. 
e. — 



e. 



nc. 

nc. 

— sc. — 

— — w. 



94 



BOTANY OF NORFOLK. 



Calicium spliseroceplialum 
Opcgraplia lyncea ... .. 
Opegraplia epipasta ... 

rubella 

rufescens ... . 

atra 

vulgata 

— ' betulina 



— varia ... 

— saxatilis 
scripta 



Vernicaria niticla 

piinctiformis 

olivacea 

gemmata ... 

biformis 

■ aplianes 

■ leiicocephala 

• viridula 

muralis 



— nigrescens ... 

epigfea 

Endocarpon Hedwigii 

. sorediatum 

— fuscellum 

Pertusaria communis 

fallax 

Lepraria viridis 

murorum ... 

— ocliracea 

flava 

-alba 



-virescens 
-nigra... 



Spiloma microscopiciun 

murale 

dispersum ... 

nigrum 



versicolorf 

erubescensf 

fuliginosum 

decolorans 

punctatum 

gregarium 



Variolaria Vitiligo 

griseo-virens 

conspurcata 

discoidea ... 

faginea 

aspergilla ... 

argena 

^ — agelcea 

Uroeolaria scruposa ... 
calcarea ... 



— cmerea 

• Acliarii 

rufescens 

Lecidea fusco-atra 



w. 
w. 



— w. 



Round-lieaded Calicium ... — nc. 

Gray-speckled Opegraplia... e. — 

Small Dotted Opegraplia ... c. — 

Heddisli Opegraplia ... e. — 

Ptusty Opegrapba e. — 

Black Opegraplia e. — 

Common Opegraplia ... e. — 

Bircli-bark Opegraplia ... e. — 

Variable Opegraplia ... e. — 

Stone Opegraplia e. — 

Black-letter Opegraplia ... e. — 

"Wax-like Bark Verrucaria o. — 

Brownish Bark Vernicaria e. — 

Olive-crusted Bark Verrucaria e. — 

Large-fruited Bark Verrucaria e. — 

Deceptive Bark Verrucaria e. — 

Inconspicuous Bark Verrucaria e. — 

Wlute-fruited Bark Verrucaria e. — 

Mosaic Bock Verrucaria ... e. — 

Wall Verrucaria ... ... e. — 

Dark-stained llock Verrucaria e. — 

Greenish Ground-lichen ... — nc. sc. — 

Hedwigian Endocai*pon ... — nc. 

Powdery-speclded Endocarpon sc. — 

Dark-gray Endocarpon ... e. nc. 

Common Pertusaria ... e. — — w. 

Doubtful Pertusaria ... e. — 

Common Green Lepraria ... e. — 

Wall Lepraria ... ... e. — 

Ochry Lepraria e. — 

Bright-yellow Lepraria ... e. — — 

White Lepraria ... ... e. — — 

Dull- green Lepraria ... e. nc. — 

Black Lexn'aria ... ... e. — — 

Microscopic Spiloma ... e. — — 

Wall Si^iloma e. — — 

Dispersed Spiloma ... e. — — 

Black Spiloma ... ... e. — — 

Variegated Spiloma ... e. 

Reddish Spiloma ... ... e. 

Sooty-fruited Spiloma ... e. 

Staining Spiloma ... ... e. 

Dotted Spiloma ... ... e. 

Red Clustered Spiloma ... e. 

Leprous Variolaria ... e. — 

Grayish- green Variolaria ... — nc. 

Dusty Variolaria ... ... e. nc. sc. — 

Insipid Zoned Variolaria ... e. — — w. 

Bitter Zoned Variolaria ... e. — — w. 

Sprinlded Variolaria ... e. — 

Silvery Variolaria .. . ... e. — 

Inelegant Variolaria ... e. — 

Common Urceolaria ... e. — 

Calcareous Urceolaria ... e. — 

Gray Urceolaria ... ... e. — 

Acharian Urceolaria ... e. — 

Reddish Urceolaria ... e. — 

Brownish-black Lecidea ... — nc. sc. — 



w. 
w. 



w. 



nc. 



— — w. 



FLOWERLESS PLANTS, 



95 



Leeidea lapicida 

parasema 

Leeidea pinicola 

dubia 

GriffitMi 

aromatica 

miisconim ... 

scabrosa 

iiliginosa ... 

abietina... ... 

albo-atra 

■ saxicolaf 

'■ quernea 

'■ viridescens ... 

sulpliiirea ... 

expallens 

quadricolor ... 

coronata 

escaroidesf ... 

anomala 

effusaf ... ... 

rupestris 

— vernalis 

pineti 

icmadopliila . . . 

mamiorea ... 

Ehrhartiana.,. 

iilinicola 

aurantiaca ... 

Lecanora atra 

exigua 

coarctata ... 

sophodes ... 

subfusca ... 

cEesio-rufa 

Hsematomma 

— carina 

varia 

— '■ albella 



... Continuous- shielded Leeidea 

... Common Blk.-shielded Leeidea 

... Pine-bark Leeidea... 

... Doubtful Board Leeidea ... 

... Griffithian Leeidea 

... Aromatic Leeidea ... 

... Moss Leeidea 

... Eugged- shielded Leeidea... 

... Earthy Marsh Leeidea ... 

... Spruce-bark Leeidea 

... Black and wliite Leeidea ... 

... Silvery-gray Leeidea 

... Oak Leeidea 

. . . Greenish Horny-tubereled Leeidea — 

... Sulphureous Leeidea 

... Pale Yellow-gi-een Leeidea 

... Four- coloured Leeidea 

... Crenate-shielded Leeidea... 

... Coralline-crusted Leeidea... 

... Tumid Brown-shielded Leeidea 

... Spreading Green Leeidea... 

... Rock Leeidea 

... Vernal Leeidea 

... Waxy-shielded Leeidea ... 

... Heath Leeidea 

... Salmon-coloured Leeidea... 

... Ehrhartian Leeidea 

... White and Yellow Leeidea 

Saffron- coloured Leeidea . . . 

... Black- shielded Lecanora ... 
Diminutive Blk.-shielded Lecanora 

Contracted Lecanora 

... Obscure Blk.-shielded Lecanora 

... Brown- shielded Lecanora... 

... Gray and Red Lecanora ... 

... Blood-specked Lecanora 

... Waxy Lecanora ... 

... Variable- shielded Lecanora 

... Cream-coloured Lecanora 



w. 



nc. 
ne. 



nc. 
nc. 
ne. 

ne. 



tartarea Upsaliensisl...Upsal Lecanora 



Turner! 

eitrina 

vitellina 

Psora sealaris 

Squamaria hypnorum 

candelaria 

polyearpaf 

murorum 

• c£esia 

elseina ... 



Placodium canescens 
Parmelia caperata 

' Borreri 

saxatilis 

perlata 

olivacea 

corrugata ., 

— pulverulata 



Mealy-flesh-eoloured Lecanora 
Lemon- coloured Wall Lecanora 
Yolk of Egg Lecanora 
Ohve & Black Imbricated Psora 
Spreading Ground Squamaria 
Yellow Candle Squamaria 
Yellow Many-fruited Squamaria 
Yellow Wall Squamaria 
Gray-warted Squamaria ... 
Orbicular Olive Squamaria 
Gray Tree Placodium 
Wrinkled Sulphur Parmelia 
Borrerian Parmelia 
Gray Stone Parmelia 
Pearly Parmeha ... 
Olive -coloured ParmeHa 
Wrinkle -shielded Parmeha 
Green Powdery Parmelia 



se. — 



se. — 



nc. 



nc. — 



nc, 
ne. 



— — w. 



w. 



nc. 



nc. 



nc. 



— w. 

— w. 
se. — 



nc. 

— — w. 



e. — 



se. — 
— w. 



96 



POTANY OF NORFOLK. 



Parmelia pit.yrea 

stellaris 

■ cycloselis .. 

virella... 

aleiirites .. 

. • parietina .. 

^ pliysodes .. 

Collema cristatuin .. 
. palmatum .. 

nigrescens .. 

crispum 

sinuatum 

lacerum 

subtile .., 

tenuissimiim 

. Sclu-aderi ., 

muscicola 

Peltidea caiiina ... . 

■ sjpuria ... . 

. mfescens . 

polydactyla 

Cetraria juniperina . 

sepincola 

glauca ... 

Borrera ciliaris ... . 

tenella 

furfuracea . 

Evernia prunastri 
Ramalina fraxinea . 

fastigiata . 

farinacea . 

. pollinaria . 

Usnea florida 
Cornicularia aculeata 
Isidium lutescens 

coccodes 

Cladonia tincialis 
rangiferina . 



-furcata 



Scypliopliorus amomaBUS . 

. endivifolius 

. pyxidatus . 

fimbriatus . 

radiatus 

— cornutus . 

• digitatus . 

cocciferus , 



Pycnothelia Papillaria 

Chara translucens 

flexilis 

nidifica 

prolifera ... 

. vulgaris ... 

hispida 

Sargassum vulgare 



. . Scurfy Imbricated Parmelia 
Black- shielded Stellated Parmelia 
,.. Orbicular Dusky Parmelia 
Little Green Imbricated Parmelia 
.. Mealy Spreading Parmelia 
.. Yellow Wall Parmelia 

,.. Inflated Parmelia 

,.. Crested Collema 

.. Palmatcd Collema 

.. Bat's-wing Collema 

,.. Curled Collema 

.. Sinuate d Collema... 

.. Jagged Collema 

.. Fine-spun Collema 

.. Fine-cut Collema 

.. Scliraderian Collema 

... Moss Collema 

,.. Canine Peltidea ... ^ ... 
... Imperfectly-veined Peltidea 
... D ark- coloured Ground Peltidea 
,.. Many-fingered Peltidea ... 

,. Golden Cetraria 

... Fence Cetraria 

... Glaucous Cetraria 

,.. Large Ciliated Borrera ... 

... Lesser Ciliated Borrera ... 

... Branny Borrera ... 

. . . Ragged Hoary Evernia . . . 

... Ash Ramahna 

... Fastigiate Ramalina 

... Narrow Mealy Ramalina ... 

... Broad-leaved Mealy Ramalina 

... Flowery Usnea 

... Aculeated Corniculaiia 

... Yellowish Isidium 

... Granulated Isidium 

... Short Perforated Cladonia 

... Rein- deer Moss 

... Forked Cladonia ... 

... Brown Cup-lichen 

Eudive-leaved Cup-lichen 

Common Cup-lichen 

Fringed Cup-hchen 

Radiated Cup-lichen 

Horny Cup-hchen 

Fingered Cup-lichen 

Scarlet Cup -lichen 

Papillary Pycnotheha 

Okder V. Chaeace/e. Ohar<^, 

Translucent Chara 

Flaccid Chara 

Clustered Chara 

Proliferous Chara , 

Common Chara 

Hispid Chara 

Order VI. Alg^e. Sea-weeds. 

Common Sargassum 



e. 
e. 
e. 


— 


sc. 


— 


— 


so. 


— 


e. 
e. 
e. 


— 


■ — 


— 


— 


— 


w. 


e. 

e. 


— 


__ 





e. 
e. 
e. 
e. 
e. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


e. 
e. 
e. 


nc. 


sc. 


— 


e. 
e. 


... 


__ 


w. 


e. 


— 


— 


— 


e. 
e. 


__ 


.^— 


w. 


e. 
e. 


— 


■"— * 


__ 


— 


nc. 


— 


— 


e. 


— 


— 


— 


e. 
e. 
e. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


w. 


e. 


— 


— 


w. 


e. 


— 


— 


w. 


e. 


— 


— 


w. 


e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 


e. 
e. 
e. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


e. 


— 


— 


— 


e. 


— 


— 


w. 


e. 


— 


— 


w. 


e. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


sc. 


— 


e. 


— 


— 


w. 


e. 
e. 

e. 


nc. 


— 


w. 


nc. 


— 


— 


e. 


— 


— 


— 


— 





— 


w. 


e. 
e. 


— 


- 


w. 


e. 






_ 


e. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


nc. 


— 


— 


— 


nc. 


— 


— 


e. 


— 


— 


w. 


e. 


— 


— 


— 






FLOWERLESS PLANTS. 



97 



Cystoseira ericoides 

granulata 

bai'bata 

fibrosa 

Halidrys siliquosa 

Fiicus vesiculosus 

ceranoides 

serratiis 

nodosiis 

caniculatus ... ... 

Himantlialia lorea 

Laminaria saccliaiina 

latifoliaf 

Phyllitis 

Desmarestia ligulata 

Dichloria viridis 

Sporochnus pedunculatus . . . 

villosus 

Chordaria flagelliformis ... 

Chorda Filiim 

Punctaria plantaginea 

latifolia 

Dictyota dicliotoma 

■ atomaria •.. 

Cutleria multifida 

Furcellaria fastigiata 

Polyides rotundus 

Delesseria sangiiinea 

sinuosa 

Hypoglossum ... 

ruscifolia 

Nitophyllum Gmelini 

laceratiim . . . 

iincinatumf . . . 

Rhodomenia bifida 

■ ciliataf 

laciniata 

Palmetta 

ciliata 

palmata 

Plocamium coccineuin 
Rliodomela Lycopodioides 

subfusca 

scorpioides 

Bonnemaisonia asparagoides 
Laurencia pinnatifida 

— dasyphylla 

Chylocladia clavellosa 

ovalis 

kaliformis 

articulata 

Gigartina purpurescens ... 

confervoides 

plicata 

Chondrus crispus 

■ membrardfolius . . . 

Phyllopbora mbens 

Gelidium corneiim 



Heath-like Cystoseira 
Granulated Cystoseu'a 
Bearded Cystoseu-a 
Fibrous Cystoseu-a 
Podded Halidiys ... 

Bladdered Fucus 

Homed Fucus 
Serrated Fucus 

ICnotted Fucus 

Channelled Fucus 

Strap-shaped Himanthaha 
Sugary Laminaria... 
Broad-leaved Laminaria ... 
Thin-leaved Laminaria ... 
Ligulate Desmarestia 
Green Dicliloria ... 
Pedunculated Sporochnus 
Hairy Sporochnus 
Common Sea "\\Tiip-cord ... 
Common Sea Whip-lash ... 
Plantain-leaved Punctaria 
Broad-leaved Punctaria ... 
Dichotomous Dictyota 
Sprinkled Dictyota 

Multifid Cutleria 

Fastigiate Furcellaria 
Cylindrical Polyides 
Oak-leaved Delesseria 
Sinuous-leaved Delesseria 
Proliferous Delesseria 
Ruscus-leaved Delesseria 
Marginal-fruited Nitophyllum 
Lacerated Nitophyllum . . . 
Hooked Nitophyllum 
Bifid PJiodomenia... 
Bristly Rdodomenia 
Laciniated Ehodomenia ... 
Small Palmated Rhodomenia 
Cihated Pthodomenia 
Larger Palmated Ehodomenia 
Scaiiet Plocamium 
Club-moss Rhodomela 
Brownish Bhodomela 
Scorpion's-tail Pthodomela 
Asparagus-like Bonnemaisonia 
Pinnatifid Laurencia 
Thick-leaved Laurencia ... 
Clavellated Chylocladia ... 
Oval-leaved Chylocladia ... 
Salsola-Hke Chylocladia ... 
Ai'ticulated Chylocladia ... 
Purplish Gigartina 
Conferva-hke Gigartina ... 
Entangled Gigartina 

Curled Chondrus 

Membranous-leaved Chondrus 
Red Phyllophora ... 
Horny Gelidium 



e. — 
e. — 
e. — 
e. — 
e. no. 
e. nc. 
e. — 
e. — 
e. — 
e. — 
e. — 
e. nc. 
e. — 
e. — 
e. — 
e. — 
e. — 
e. — 
e. — 
e. nc. 
e. — 
e 

e. — 
e. nc. 
e. — 
e. — 
e. — 
e. — 
e. — 
e. nc. 
e. nc. 
e. — 
e. — 
e. — 
e. — 
e. — 
e. — 
e. — 
e. — 

e. nc. 
e. — 
e. nc. 
e. nc. 
e. nc. 
e. nc. 
e. nc. 
e, — 
e. — 
e. — 
e. — 
e. — 
e. — 
e. nc. 
e. — 
e. — 
e. — 
— nc. 

G 



W. 
W. 

W. 

w. 



w. 



— w. 



nc. 



w. 



w. 



— w. 



w. 



— w. 



— w. 



98 



BOTANY OF NORFOLK. 



Gclidium crinalc^ 

Chfctogpora Wiggii 

Halymcnia ligiilata 

— — : f urcellata 

Porpliyra laciniata ... ... 

vulgaris 

Ulva latissima 

Lactuca 

Linza 

.Tetraspora lubrica 

Enteromorplia Coriuicopiae 

■ — -- intestinalis 

■ ; — — compressa ... 

Bryopsis plumosa 

Vaucheria dichotoma 

■_ Dillwynii 

— : — : terrestris 

ornitliocepliala 

geminata 

cosspitosa 

Cladosteplius verticillatus 

. — -— — spongiosus ... 

Spliacelaria scoparia 

cirrliosa 

— velutina 



Ectocarpus littoralis 

siliciilosus 

tomentosus . . . 

Mertensii 

——: bracliiatus 

Polysiplionia stricta 

— . urceolata . . . 

■ atro-rubescens 

. nigrescens ... 

■ . fiircellata . . . 



-fastigiata 

-elongata 

-byssoides 



Dasya coccinea 
Ceramhim rubrum ... 

— diaplianiim 

GrifFithsia equisetifolia 

— — — setacea 

Calitliamiiion Plumnla 
Turneri 



roseum 
tetricum . . . 
fasciculatiim 
Borreri 

• thuyoides . . . 

• Botliii 
reiDens 



Bulbocliaete. setigera 
Conferva ericetorum . . . 

bombycina . . . 

zonata 

rivul aris . . . 

-— ' : — capillaris . . . 



Crinitc Horny Gclidium 
AVigg's Cli.Ttospora _ ... 
Strap -sbaped Halymenia ... 
Forked Halymenia 
Laciniated Purple Lavcr ... 
Common Purple Laver ... 
Broad Green Laver 
Lettuce Green Laver 
Ribband Green Lavcr 
Lubricous Tetraspora 
Cornucopia-like Enteromorpha 
Intestinal Enteromorpha ... 
Compressed Enteromorpha 
Feathered Bryopsis ... _ 

Large Dichotomous Vaucheria 
Dillwyn's Vaucheria 

Ground Vaucheria 

Bird's-head Vaucheria 
Twin-fruited Vaucheria . . . 

Tufted Vaucheria 

Whorled Milfoil Cladosteplius 
Spougc-likc Cladostephus 
Broom-like Spliacelaria ... 

Small Pinnate Spliacelaria 
Velvct-hke Spliacelaria ... 

Common Ectocarpus 
Pod-fruited Ectocarpus ... 

Prostrate Ectocarpus 
Merten's Ectocarpus 

Brachiate Ectocarpus 

Straight Polysiplionia 

Pitcher-fruited Polysiplionia 

Dark- red Polysiplionia . . . 

D ark Polysiplionia 

Forked Polysiplionia 

Fastigiate Polysiplionia ... 

Lobster-horn Polysiplionia 

Byssoid Polysiphonia 

Scarlet Dasj^a 

Pted Ceramium 

Variegated Ceramium 

Embricated Griffithsia 

Setaceous Griffithsia 

Pectinated Calithamnion ... 

Turner's Calithamnion 

Rosy Calithamnion 

Rope-like Calithamnion ... 

Tufted Calitliamnion 

Borrer's Calithamnion 

Ai-bor-vitee Calithamnion... 

Roth's Calithamnion 

Creeping Calithamnion ... 

Setigerous Bulboch?ete ... 

Moor Conferva 

Silky Conferva 

Banded Conferva ... 

Ptiver Conferva 

Capillary Conferva 



— no. 
c. — 
c. nc. 
c. nc. 
e. — 
0. — 
c. — 
c. — 
e. — 

— nc. 
e. — 
e. — 
e. — 
c. 
c. 
e. 
e. 
c. 
e. 
c. 
e. 
e. 

0. 
G. 

e. 
e. 
e. 
c. 
e. 
e. 
e. 
e. 
e. 
c. 
e. 

e. 
e. 
e. 
c. 
e. 
e. 
e. 
e. 
e. 
e. 
e. 
e. 
e. 
e. 
e. 
e. 
e. 
e. 
e. 
e. 
e. 
e. 



w. 
w. 



nc. — 



nc. — 



w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 



nc, 



PLOWERLESS PLANTS. 



99 



Conferva Liuum 

crassa 

tortiiosa 



— £erea ... 

— collabens 

— Yoimgana 

— flacca ... 

— fucicola 

— scutulata 

— flavescens 

— fracta 

— flexuosaf 

— glomerata 

— X)eUucida 

— rupestris 

— albida 
~ lanosa 

— arcta ... 
riparia 



Hydroclictyon utriculatum 

Mougeotia genuflexa 

Tyndaridea cruciata 

pectinata 

Z Ygnema nitidum 

deciininum 

quininum 



Oalothrix confer vicola 

scopulosum 

distorta 

Lyngbya muralis 

OsciUatoria cbthonoplastes 

limosa 

tenuis 

decorticans ... 

nigra 

fontinalis^ 

autumnalis ... 

ochracea 



Flax-like Conferva 
Tliick Conferva 
Twisted Conferva 
Harsh Verdigris Conferva 
Flaccid Verdigi'is Conferva 
Young's Conferva 
Small Flaccid Conferva 
Lai'ge Parasitic Conferva 
Target Conferva ... 
Yellowish-branched Conferva 
Broken-fruited Conferva 
Green Zigzag-branched Conf. 
Green-clustered Conferva 
Pellucid Thi'ee-branched Conf. 
Green Rock Conferva 
"WTiitish Cottony Conferva 
Woolly Green Conferva 
Close Green ConfeiTa 
Entangled Shore Conferva 
Common Water-net 
Knee-bent Mougeotia 
Cross-like Tyndaridea 
Comb-like Tyndaridea 
Shining Zygnema 
Two-spired Zygnema 
One-spired Zygnema 
Glaucous Parasitical Calothrix 
Simple Rock Calothrix ... 
Lai'ge Yerdigiis Calothrix 
Wall Lyngbya 
Sheathing Oscillatoria 
Great Mud Oscillatoria ... 
Lesser Mud Oscillatoria ... 
Ribband Oscillatoria 
Blackish Oscillatoria 
Fountain Oscillatoria 
Autumnal Wall Oscillatoria 
Fragile Oscillatoria 
Parasitical Chroolepus 
Parasitical Protonema 



Chroolepus lichenicolus 

Protonema Orthotrichi 

Batrachospermum moniliforme.. .MoniliformBatrachospermum 



Draparnaldia plumosa 

^-glomerata 

tenuis ... 



Rivularia atra 

angulosa ... 

Palmella cruenta 
NostoG commune 

sph^ericum ... 

Meloseira nummuloides 
Fragilaria pectinalis 
Diatom a striatulum 

flocculosum 

Schizonema Dillwynii 

' comoides 

■ Smithii 



Agaricus asper 



Feathery Draparnaldia 
Clustered Draparnaldia 
Slender Draparnaldia 
Black Rivularia 
Plum-like Rivularia 
Pui-ple Palmella ... 
Comiidon Nostoc ... 
Small Globous Nostoc 
Oval -jointed Meloseira 
Pectinated Fragilaria 
Banded Diatoma ... 
Flocculous Diatoma 
Dillwyn's Schizonema 
Tufted Schizonema 
... Smith's Schizonema 

Order VII. Fungi. Mushrooms. 
Rough- warted Agaric 



e. 


— 


e. 


— 


e. 


— 


e. 


— 


e. 


— 


e. 


— 


e. 


— 


e. 


— - 


e. 


— 


e. 


nc 


e. 


nc 


e. 


nc 


e. 


— 


e. 


— 


e. 


— 


e. 


— 


e. 


— 


e. 


— 


e. 


— 


— 


nc. 


e. 


— 


e. 


— 


e. 


— 


e. 


— 


e. 


— 


e. 


•— 


e. 


— 


e. 


— 


e. 


— 


e. 


— 


— 


nc. 


e. 


— 


e. 


— 


e. 


— 


e. 


— 


e. 


— 


e. 


— 


e. 


— 


e. 


— 


e. 


— 


e. 


nc. 


e. 


— 


e. 


— 


e. 


— 


e. 


nc. 


e. 


— 


e. 


— 


e. 


— 


e. 


— 


e. 


— 


e. 


— 


e. 


nc. 


e. 


nc. 


— 


nc. 



e. 



sc. — 



— — w. 



nc. 






q2 



100 



BOTANY OF NORFOLK. 



Agaricus liypotliejus 

• ■ rutilaus 

• deliciosus 

■ subdulcis 



virgmeus ... 

laccatus 

peronatiis ... 

galericulatus 

setosus 

pyxidatus ... 

dryiniTS 

mastrucatus 

bulbosus ... 

cucumis 

variabilis ... 

campestris ... 

semiglobatus 

— radians 

glutinosiis ... 

rutiliis 



Merulius lacrymans ... , 

pulverulentiis . 

Schizophyllum commune. 
Deedalea betiilina ... . 

■ nnicolor 

Pol3T3orus perennis 



giganteus ... 

sulphureus 

betiilimis ... 

' ■ versicolor... 

fraxineus ... 

Boletus luteus 

scaber 

Hydnum compactiim 

auriscalpium 

coralloides 

Clavaria stricta 

Spatliularia flavida ... 
Mitrula x^aludosa 
Morcbella esculenta 
Helvella lacunosa 
Peziza onotica 



coccmea 

scutellata 

cj^atboeidea ... . 

Tremella ferruginea 
Sclerotium durum ... , 
Pballus impudicus ... 
Nidularia campanulata 

crucibulum 

SpliJBria entomoniiiza 

capitata 

opbioglossoides 

• alutacea 

' stercoraria 

Rbytisma Acerinum 
Batarrea Phalloides 
Geaster coliformis 



no. 
nc. 

nc. 
nc. 
nc. 

nc. 

nc. 

nc. 
nc. 



sc. — 



sc. 



sc. 
sc. 
sc. 
sc. 



w. 



w. 



Yellow Slimy Agaric ... — nc. 

Crimson-red Downy Agaric e. nc. 

Orange-milked Agaric ,.. — nc. 

Subacrid Rufus Agaric ... — — 

"White Field Agaric ... 

Lake Agaric ... ... 

Spatterdash Agaric . . e. — 

Helmet Agaric ... ... 

Bristly Pin-head Agaric ... — 

Box-like Agaric ... ... — 

Oak Agaric... ... ... e. 

Furred Agaric ... ... — 

Bulbous Agaric ... ... — 

Cucumber- scented Agaiic... — 

Variable Sessile Agaric ... — 

Mushroom c. 

Hemisphaerical Agaric ... — 

Radiating Wall Agaric ... — 

Glutinous Agaric ... ... e. 

Purplish-red Agaric ... — 

Dry-rot ... ... ... e 

Pulverulent Merulius ... e. 

Common Schizophyllum ... — 

Pale Straight-gilled D^edalea — 

Self-coloured Dsedalea ... — 

Perennial Cinnamon Polyporus — nc. 

Giant Polyporus ... ... — w. 

Sulphur- coloured Polyporus — w. 

Birch-tree Pol}^orus ... — nc. 

Party-coloured Polyporus... — w. 

Ash-tree Polyporus ... — w. 

Dingy Yellow Boletus ... — w. 

Scurfy Boletus ... ... — w. 

Thick-fleshed Hydnum ... e. — 

Hairy- stalked Hydnum ... — w. 

Coral Hydnum • — w. 

StraigTit-branched Clavaria — w. 

Common Spathularia ... — nc. 

Marsh Mitrula — w. 

Common Morell ... ... — w. 

Cinereous Helvella ... e. nc. — w. 

Ear-shaped Peziza ... — nc. 

Carmine Peziza 
Shield-Hke Peziza 

Cup-like Peziza 

Plated Rusty Tremella ... 
Common Black Sclerotium 
Common Stinkhorn 
Bell-shaped Bird's-nest Nid. 
Cylindrical Bird's-nest Nidularia- 

Round-headed Insect Sphseria - 
Yellow-stemmed Sphssria 
Adder's-tongue Sphferia ... 
Pale Tan- col cured Sph£i3ria 
Simple Dung Sphaeria 

Sycamore Rhytisma ... — 

Pliallus-lilie Batarrea ... e. nc. — 

Cullender Starry Puff ball e. — — 



— w. 

— w. 

— w. 

sc. — 



— nc. 

— nc. 

— nc. 

— nc. 

— nc. 
e. — 



e. 
e. 


nc. 


sc. 


— 


— 


— 


w. 


e. 


uc. 


— 


— 


e. 


— 


— 


w. 
w. 
w. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


w. 
w. 

w. 




nc. 


— 


e. 
e. 


nc. 


sc. 


w. 



PLOWERLESS PLANTS. 101 

Geaster fornicatus Turreted Starry Puff ball 

striatus minorf ... Lesser Grooved StaiTy Puff ball 

mammosus Mamniillaiy Starry Puff ball 

rufescens Reddish-brown Starry Puff ball 

Lycoperdon gemmatum ... Studded Puff ball 

echinatuml' ... Spinous Studded Puff ball 

Scleroderma vemicosum ... Warty Scleroderma 

Lycogala Epidendrum ... Scarlet Lycogala ... 

Arcyria punicaea Splendid iVrcyria ... 

Sporendonema Casei Red Cheese-mould , 

Podisoma Juniperi-Sabin^e Savine Podisoma ... 

.^cidium Ari Wake-robin ^cidium 

Uredo effusa Vermilion Uredo ... 

Etymology of Norfolk Names of Places. — Flegg Hundreds. — Most of 
the parishes in these hundreds have names terminating in hij ; b. proof of 
thek Danish origin — " hij" in Danish signifying a village. Of 24 parishes 
and hamlets in Flegg, foui-teen have this termination. Two others, Repps 
(which signifies a parish or district) and Bastwick are likewise undoubtedly 
Scandinavian. Martham and Runham should probably be Martholm and 
Runholm — " Mart" being the Icelandic " Mord" a ram, and " Run" the Ice- 
landic "runn," or "hrunn," a bush; "holm" signifying an island or low flat 
ground surrounded by water. A part of Martham is still called " the holms." 
Runhall andRunton in this county may take their names from "ruim." And 
perhaps Runnymede, where the Palladium of our Uberties Magna Charta 
was granted, may simply signify " the bushy meadow." The initial sylla- 
bles of the names ending in "by" cannot always be accounted for so satisfac- 
torily. Ashby probably took its name from some large ash tree — a remark- 
able object in a district swept by the sea breezes — as Thume might from a 
thorn. Billockby may come from the Danish " bilag," an enclosure, or from 
some word connected with the Anglo-Saxon form " baelg," a bulging or belly. 
Rollesby may be from "Hrolf" or RoUo, the celebrated Norse king ; Thrigby, 
from " Tryggve," the father or son of King Clave the Saint ; Crmesby from 
" Gorm," the Danish Idng — the Guthrum of our Enghsh histories — or from 
the Danish "Orm," a worm or serpent, a common name of a Viking's ship. 
The word Stoke has been a subject of much discussion, some think it 
signifies the same as Stow, a place, others a stockade, while Ihre, the great 
Swedish lexicogi-apher, says that it signifies a ferry. Caister is from the 
Latin "castrum," a camp, while Bui'gh in Anglo-Saxon like^vise signifies a 
place of defence. The name Flegg is probably from the Dutch " Vlak" or 
" Vlakke," flat. 

Acle.— Anglo-Saxon. — "Ac" an oak and "lea" a field or plain. Cld-fashioned 
people till recently called it Cakley, and its woods, with some very fine oaks, 
have been much reduced in the last few years. Smithdon-hundi-ed, for- 
merly Smethdun is from the word "smeeth," stiU retained in the Norfolk 
dialect to signify a place or a tableland, from the same root as smooth 
It contains some elevated plains of great extent. 

Humbleyard, from an old word humble, or hmnle, (Humulus) the hop, a 
hop-garden. There are places called Hiimble-toft in East Dereham and 
South Bui-hngham. In Swedish, Humlegaard is a hop garden. 

Weyland, perhaps from the Dutch " VN^eiland," pasture; but more probably 
from Weland or Weyland, the Vulcan of Northern mythology. Indeed the 
Scandinavian mythology has given us Grimshoe (" hoe" meaning hill, a 
sepulchral tumulus, or one used for judicial meetings) and Grimston 
Thui'sford, Thurton, &c., from the God Thor, from whom the fifth day of 
the week is named. Aylesham (anciently yEglesham) is perhaps from iEgel 
or Eigil, the brother of Weland. Palgrave, Kemble derives from Phal, who 
was the same asBaldur, the favoiuite son of Odin, who may also have given 



I 



102 ETYMOLOGY OF NORFOLK NAMES. 

his name to Palling ("■ ing" signifying a meadow in ancient Danish) . Horning, 
from "horn," "hyrn," or "hunn," an angular projectmg piece of land, and 
Snoring, probably from "Snorri," a Scandinavian personal name, have 
their terminal syllable from the word " ing," a meadow, as liliewise have 
Blickling Seething, Hiclding, Honing, although the meaning of their first 
syllables be not so obvious ; 'While for Beaming, we can find nothing but 
" skarn," dirt, or mud. Clavering-hundred may be clover-meadow. Hap- 
ping-hundred may take its first syllable from the Swedish "hap," a sepa- 
rated or isolated piece of land, from whence also Happisburgh and Hap ton. 

From the Latin we have two Caisters ("castrum"), two Strattons, and 
Stradsett ("stratum" a street). Colney ("colonia" a iurm or village), and 
Tacolnestone. The syllable " Sco," in Sco Ruston and Haddisco, is the 
Danish " Skew" or " Skogr," (pronounced "sko"), a shaw or coppice. In Run- 
ham and some other villages, are fields called Scow-fields, beyond doubt the 
sites of former thickets, and strongly confirming the derivation before given 
of Runham. 

Carbrooke and Carrow, (anciently Carhow or Carhoej from the word 
" Car," an osier car or alder car, a bog where osiers or alders grow (Isl. " kaer 
palus"). Haveringland and Halvergate (properly pronounced Havergate) , 
from "Haver," the old name for oats. The Rocklands may have taken their 
names from boulders, as between Mertou and Threxton a very large one is 
still to be seen, or from "roke" vapour, which prevails in those wet lands. 
In the Rotuli Hundredorum, the name is spelt Rokelaud. Mr. Haigh thinks 
that Fincham takes its name from " Fin," the Frisian king, commemorated 
in the ancient poem of Beowulf, while Hilborough takes its name from 
" Hildeburg," his wife, and Hockham, Hockwold, and Hockering, from her 
father, " Hoce," and Gooderstone from " Guthere," one of the heroes of the 
expedition. 

Heights of Places above the Level of the Sea. — The Geological 
survey by the Ordnance ofiicers has not been extended to Norfolk, and con- 
sequently the elevations of but few places have been correctly ascertained. 
But these measurements have been made along the road from Yarmouth, 
through Norwich, East Dereham, and Swafi'ham, &c.,to Lynn ; and, by the 
coast road from Yarmouth through Horsey, Happisburgh, Cromer, Hunstan- 
ton, &c., to Lynn. As these elevations are of considerable use (for reducing 
barometrical observations, &c.,) and otherwise interesting, we give some of 
the elevations marked on public buildings, churches, &c., along these lines 
with those on some lateral deviations. The " bolt" is a broad arrow, with a 
plug of lead at the apex, the arrow cliis elled in the masonry. 



and a hole about half an inch in diame 



ter filled with lead. 



lead) are cut on pri- 
we give only a very 



"Marks" (the broad arrow without the / 

vate property and less important places— X 

few of these latter. In the following list, B. means bolt, M. mark, C. "^Church, 

T. Tower. Thus N. E. of Honingham C. T. means, North-east of Honing- 

ham Church Tower. Thus the bolt in the west angle of Acle Church 

tower is 2 feet 1 inch above the surface of the ground, and 33 feet 9 inches 

above the level of the sea. 

Road from Yarmouth by Norwich to Lynn. 

Ab. Surf. Lev. of Sea. 

Great Yarmouth, bolt in south-west angle, at south side ft. in. ft. in. 

of door of St. George's Chapel 2 2 ... 20 9 

Acle Church, bolt in west angle of the tower 2 1 ... 33 9 

Nelson Inn, Beighton, mark on north-^vest angle ... 2 4 .,. 91 1 

Halvergate Church, bolt in south-west angle of tower 3 7 ... 54 2 

Burlingham, St. Peter, bolt in south-west angle of tower 3 ... 93 8 

Burlingham, St. Andrew, bolt in south-west angle of T. 3 8 ... 92 4 

Blofield Church, bolt in west angle of tower 2 10 ... 44 5 



HEIGHTS OF PLACES IN NORFOLK. 



103 



Ab. Surf, 
ft. in. 
Witton Churcli, bolt in west angle of tower ... 1 2 

Postwick Chui-ch, bolt in north-west angle of tower ... 1 9 
Thorpe Lunatic Asylum, B. in corner of ofiicers' quarters 2 6 
Thorpe Church, bolt in south-east angle of tower ... 2 10 
St. Matthew's Church, Thorpe Hamlet, B. in S.E. angle 2 C 
Norwich Cathedral, bolt in north side of pier, north side 

of door at west entrance ... ... ... ... 3 9 

Norwich Castle, bolt in angle of wall at west side of door 

43 inches from south entrance... 

Lakenham New Church, B. in stone jamb of N. door of T. 
Trowse Newton Cliurch, bolt in north-east angle of tower 

Easton Church, bolt in south-west angle 

Honingham Church, bolt in S.W. angle of tower 
Hockering Chui*ch, l3olt in south-east angle of toWer ... 
East Tuddenham Church, bolt in S.E. angle of tower 
North Tuddenham Church, bolt in S.AV. angle of tower 
East Dereham Churcli, bolt in N.E. angle of detached T. 
Scarning Grammar School, bolt in porch at south side 



Seaming Church, bolt in S.W. angle of tower 
Wendling Church, bolt hi north-east angle of tower ... 
Necton Church, bolt in north-west angle of tower 
Swaifham Church, bolt in S. side of N. entrance 
Narborough Church, bolt in nortli angle of tower 
West Bilney Church, bolt in south-west angle of tower 

East Winch Church, bolt in south-west angle 

Middleton Church, bolt in south angle of tower 
North iluncton Churcli, bolt in S.W. angle of tower 
King's Lynn Old Tower, bolt in S. side of arch in W. face 
West Lynn Church, bolt in north-west corner of tower 
Clenchwarton Chui'ch, bolt in west corner of tower ... 
Terrington St. Clement's Church, bolt in front of tower 
Cross Keys public house, bolt in gable at S. side of road 
Walpole Highway New Church, bolt in N.W. corner 
Walsoken Church, bolt in north-west corner of tower 
Tilney, St. Lawi'ence Ch., B. in buttress at S.W. corner 
St. John's Church, St. John'sHighway Tillage, bolt in 

centre of south face of tower ... 
Tilney All Saints' Church, bolt near window of stair- 
case at north-west corner 
Tilney-cum-IsUngton Church, bolt in buttress at north- 
west corner ... 

Coast Line from Yarmouth to Lynn 
Caistor Church, mark on south-west corner of tower 
Hemsby Churcli, bolt in north-east corner of tower 
Winterton Church, bolt m south-west corner of tower 
Wmterton Lighthouse, mark on south-west side 
East Somerton Church, mark on north-east corner ... 

Horsey Church, mark on south-west corner 

Waxham Chiu'ch, mark on north-west corner of tower 
Palhng Chiu'ch, bolt in north-east corner of tower 
Hempstead Church, mark on north-west corner of tower 
Lessingham Church, mark on south-east comer 
Happisburgh Church, bolt in south-west corner of tower 
Happisburgh High Lighthouse, mark on south-Vv^est side 
Happisburgh Low Lighthouse, mark on N.W. side ... 
Walcot Church, bolt on north-west corner of tower ... 



7 
4 
5 
4 
4 
2 

11 
5 

10 
6 
5 

10 
2 

10 
4 
7 
7 

11 




o 

11 

G 



11 



4 9 
2 9 

i G 

1 11 

2 6 

C 

1 4 

9 

2 3 

3 

7 

8 
7 


8 



Lev. cf Sea. 

ft. m. 

68 

47 3 

29 7 

15 5 
46 10 

28 2 

111 5 

126 4 

10 9 
139 
103 
103 
139 

143 5 

165 7 

169 5 

217 10 

187 3 

172 6 

238 7 

50 3 

54 4 

73 9 

117 11 

73 

16 2 
20 5 

15 5 

16 6 
15 6 

9 5 

13 5 

11 2 

12 6 
18 5 

14 4 

33 2 

20 7 
22 G 
62 
62 6 

8 11 

14 8 

17 9 
26 4 

21 11 
70 6 
66 2 
43 
40 2 



104 HEIGHTS OP PLACES IN NORFOLK. 

Ab. Sarf. Lev. of Sea. 

Paston Church, mark on north-west corner of tower ... 
Mundesley Church, mark on west side of entrance 
Trimingham Church, bolt in north-west corner of tower 
Sidestrand Church, mark on south-west corner 
Overstrand Church, mark on south-west corner of tower 
Cromer Church, bolt in south-west corner of tower ... 
Cromer Lighthouse, mark on end of step at entrance 
West Runton Church, bolt in west corner of tower ... 
Beeston Regis Church, mark on south-west corner 
Weybourn Church, bolt in south-west corner of tower 
Kelhng Church, mark on south-east corner of tower ... 
Salthouse Church, bolt in south-west corner of tower ... 
Cley Church, bolt in north-east corner of tower 
Wiveton Chiu'ch, bolt in south-west corner of tower ... 
Blakeney Church, bolt in north-west corner of tower 
Morston Church, mark on west side of north entrance 
Stiff key Church, mark on north-east comer of tower ... 
Warham All Saints Church, mark on north-east corner 
Warham St. Mary's Church, mark on S.W. corner of T. 
Wells Church, bolt in south-west corner of tower 
Holkliam Church, bolt in south-west corner of tower ... 
Burnham Overy Church, mark on south-east corner ... 
Burnham Norton Church, mark on west side of entrance 
Burnham Deepdale Chui'ch, bolt in south-west corner 
Brancaster Church, mark on south-west corner of tower 
Titchwell Church, mark on south east corner ... 
Thornliam Church, bolt in south-west corner of tower 
Holme Church, bolt in south-west corner of tower 
Hunstanton National School, mark on angle of wall ... 
Hunstanton Church, bolt in north-west corner of tower 
Hunstanton Lighthouse, mark on W. pillar at entrance 
Heacham Church, bolt in north-west corner ... 
Snettisham Grammar School, mark on S.E. corner ... 
Snettisham Church, mark on north- v>^est corner 
Ingoldisthorpe Church, mark on north-east corner of T. 
Dersingham Church, mark on north-west comer of T. 
Castle Rising Church, M. on east-side of north entrance 
North Wootton Church, bolt in north-west corner of T. 
South Wootton Church, mark on north-east corner of T. 
Gaywood Church, bolt in north-west comer of tower 
Elng's Lynn St. John's Church, M on south-west corner 
ling's Lynn St. Margaret's Church, bolt in south-east 
corner of east tower 3 ... 24 4 

Sanitary Condition.— The following table taken and simplified from the 
IGth Annual Report of the Registrar- General, discloses the melancholy fact 
that 1,700 lives are lost annually in the county from defective sanitary 
arrangements ; for no reason can be assigned why many of the districts 
should necessarily be more unhealthy than the Henstead district, or why 
even in that, the mortahty should not be reduced if attention was paid to 
the most obvious sanitary laws : and it has been amply proved by the 
experience gained from the admirable works executed in the city of Ely and 
elsewhere, that by efficient pipe drainage and constant water supply, small 
towns may be rendered even more healthy than the surrounding villages, 
where the most vigilant inspector can frequently not discover a nuisance till 
it has produced disease : — 



ft. 


in. 


ft. ill. 


1 





... 75 


1 


2 


... 115 1 


1 


3 


... 195 10 


2 


3 


... 201 10 


3 





... 137 5 


4 





... 08 G 





7 


... 248 10 





3 


... 104 1 


3 


C 


... 102 8 


1 





... 41 8 





9 


... 174 


1 





... G8 1 


1 


5 


... 33 9 


3 





... 36 1 





10 


... 115 5 





11 


... 20 9 


2 


4 


... 40 10 


1 


11 


... 58 3 


3 





... 68 8 


2 





... 24 


1 


11 


... 94 10 





4 


... 33 9 





9 


... 63 7 


2 





... 21 10 





10 


... 35 


1 


G 


... 27 8 





9 


... 29 9 


1 


3 


... 25 9 


2 


3 


... 50 3 


1 


G 


... 30 9 





6 


... 75 5 


1 


9 


... 55 4 


1 


7 


... 75 9 


2 


9 


... 93 6 


3 


G 


... 96 4 


3 


2 


... 56 10 


1 





... 74 1 





7 


... 33 10 


2 


4 


... 39 9 


3 





... 25 10 


1 


1 


... 16 4 



SANITAKY CONDITION OF NORFOLK. 



105 



SUPKRINTENDENT EeGISTRARS' 
DlSTBICTS. 


Density. 


Annual 
Mortality. 


Excess in the Number 
of Deaths over those that 
would Lave happened if 
the Mortalitj' had been 17 
in 1000 living. 




Acres to 

lOOpopu 

lation. 


Deaths to 
1000 living. 


Annually 
to 1000 
living. 


In the 10 years. 
1811. 1851. 


Yarmouth ....•••.. 


6 
360 
403 
343 
340 
412 

7 
279 
378 
399 
402 
280 
361 
438 
364 
408 
577 
603 

3 
416 
593 
644 
310 


23 
20 
20 
20 
21 
20 
24 
21 
17 
20 
18 
20 
21 
19 
20 
21 
20 
18 
23 
22 
19 
21 
21 


6 
3 
3 
3 
4 
3 
7 
4 

3 
1 

3 
4 
2 
3 
4 
3 
1 
6 
5 
2 

4 
4 


1529 


Flegg 


243 


TuDstead ••.. 


406 


Erpingbam 


633 


Avlsham ••.••«......• 


801 


St. Faith'a 


352 


Norwich 


4551 


Forehoe 


542 


Henstead 




Blofield 


332 


lioddon • • 


148 


Depwade 


780 


Guiltcross 


494 


Wayland .■•. 


233 


Mitford , 


863 




857 


DcckiDg 


526 




131 


Kin" 's lijun • >• 


1113 




1005 


S w£ff iiain 


274 




732 


Norfolk 


16777 



In endeavouring to ascertain the cause of tliis excessive mortalit}-, Tre are 
at once struck with the fact that density of population has apparently hut 
little to do -ftith it. Blofield and Henstead, with nearly the same acreage 
per 100, having 20 and 17 deaths per annum per thousand, respectively. 
Probably the great cause will be found in the neglect of arterial dramage. 
The mortahty in the parishes in the Loddon district bordeiing on the 
Waveney, is far greater than in those in the central parts, or in those border- 
ing on the Yare in the same district. And similarly the parishes in Blofield 
district, bordering on the Bure, are far more unliealthy than those on the 
Yare. This is explained by the fact that the Haven and Pier Commis- 
sioners of Yarmouth have effected gi-eat improvements in the Yare, by 
dredging shoals, setting back ferries, &c., v>^h]le they strenuously refuse to 
do anything for the other rivers. Hence the valleys of the Y/avene}' and 
Bure, and of the streams tributary to the latter, are fi-equently flooded, and 
the district through which they wind their sluggish courses, are subject to 
the miasma fi-om the w^ater-sodden marshes, which judicious drainage mea- 
sures would render healthy pastures. In the upper parts of thek coiu-ses 
these rivers, together with the Wensum, are made very pestilential by the 
water-mills, which hold up the water to obtain power to turn their wheels, . 
and thus destroy the di-ainage which the small but gradual fall of the streams 
would give. The town of Fakenham, we beUeve on good authority, to be 
rendered very unhealthy by the water-mills immediately below and above 
the town. The same thing we have observed in other parts of England — 
the city of Winchester we would especially point out as suffering much loss 
of life from the same obstacle to its natural drainage — viz., a water-mill im- 
mediately below the city. We subjoin some quaint remarks on this subject, 
made by Captain Walter Blyth, an ancestor of many eminent Norfolk 
agriculturists, some two hundred years ago, merely observing that the inven- 
tion of the steam engine has strengthened Ms iDosition, as regards the finding 
a substitute for water-power, and that, if the opportunity be takeu of pur- 



lOG SANITARY CONDITION OF NORFOLK. 

cliasing tlie mill and mill site when the former requires extensive repairs or 
rehuilcling, compensation could be made to the mill-owner by a very trifling 
rate comparatively on the lands so benefited : — 

" The eighth prejudice may be the many watermills, which destroy 
abundance of gallant land, by pounding up the water to that height, even 
to the very top of the ground, and above the naturall height, that it lyeth 
swelling and soaking and spewing, that it turneth very much land to a 
bogg, or to mire, or else to flagg or rush, or mareblab, which otherwise was 
as gallant land naturally as could be. I am confident many a thousand a 
year are thus destroyed. Some mills Vv^orth about 10 or 12 pounds per an. 
destroy lands worth 20, 30, or 40 per an. I know it of my own knowledge. 
I had, some few years since, a mill-dam in my land, which destroyed one 
half of a gallant meadov/; means were used that it was removed, and tliat 
very land is returned to his perfect purenesse again." 

The health of the Flegg disti-ict is most injuriously affected by the ex- 
halations from the " Broads," as the chain of lakes is called. They have 
a very bad outfall through the crooked and narrow " Muckfleet," and con- 
sequenih^ the " rands" or margins of the Broads are constantly under 
water during the winter and early spring. And when the waters are re- 
duced to their proper level, the miasma wliich exhales fi'om the rotten 
rands is blown upon some devoted village, according to the direction of the 
wind, and fever, rheumatism, neuralgia, and in the autumn diarrhoea and 
cholera are the results. We fear that little can be done for the sanitary 
improvement of this district till this prime source of corrupted air be re- 
moved by an efficient drainage, for many of the houses in Burgh, Filby, 
Hemsby, and Ormesby, being but a few feet above the level of the Broads, 
must, till then, remain damp and unhealthy. 

The state of the cottages is very bad, not worse than in other parts of 
England; but overcrowded cottages, with their attendant evils, j)hysicaland 
moral, are too common everywhere, and Mr. Clarke, the energetic Inspector 
of Nuisances at Norvrich, has recently shown that Norfolk has at least its 
share of them. We cannot at all account for the apathy which exists 
on this subject, for we know of overcrowded cottages in a wretched 
state of repair belonging to some of the wealthiest landowners; while, 
on the other hand, we know yeomen and even small cottage proprietors 
who keep their cottages in a far better sanitary state ; though we must 
confess that this is extremely rare xdth. the last-mentioned class. 
Of course some part of the evil rests with the cottagers themselves, 
few of them being sufficiently ar\'ake to the necessity of pure air and 
pure water. Most commonlj^ a small hole a foot or two deep, and about 
a square yard in area, is excavated near their doors. Into this " pulk 
hole," as it is called, all the hqmd refuse of the house is thrown, 
and a detestable stench, the evidence of foul gas emitted, rises from it, and 
fills the cottage with noxious effluvium. And in those cases where cottages 
are provided v\'itli windows which open, one may go through a whole village 
on a mild spring day without finding any use made of them. The compe- 
tition for cottages is very great, more especially in those parishes which 
have charities or fuel allotments, made under the local Act for inclosing 
the commons. Any cottage, hovrever ruinous or inconvenient, is eagerly 
hired where the favoured inliabitant obtains the dole of money or coals. 
The whole advantage of the ciiarity is lost in the increased rent x^aid to the 
cottage proprietor, and the first step in sanitary reform must be to drain 
away the charity, if, as we fear, it cannot be applied in a way which does 
not bring sucli evils in its train. 

The water supply of many cottages is dreadful. The inhabitants have to 
go a quarter of a mile or more in some parishes, to the nearest well, or obtain 
their water from some stagnant pond half full of mud and decaj^ed vegetation. 
This is chiefly the case in villages on a clay subsoil, or where wells are 



SANITAEY CONDITION OF NORFOLK. l07 

deep, and therefore expensive to sink ; but it is not uncommon in cases 
where spring water could be had at but little expense. Some cottagers in 
j)arishes favourably situated for pasture, keep a cow, and others a pfo-, and 
we wish tlieir number was multiplied. But, in many cases, the benefit is 
neutralised, or even turned to a positive injmy by the cowyard orjpigstye 
being close upon the cottage, and the stench from it filling the latter to the 
prejudice of the health of the inmates. Indeed, on many old fann premises 
the " par yard," as the cowyard is called, comes close under the windows, 
and we ai-e not therefore surprised that notwithstanding the apparent 
healthiness of their calling, the Registrar- General states that more farmers 
die at a comparatively early age than men of most other occupations.^j ^We 
would, in conclusion, merely point out tlie common error, of looking to the 
longevity of some of its inhabitants as a test of the healthiness of a place. 
The ti'ue test is the mortality of infants under five years of age. ^^^lere 
this is large the place is unhealthy, however many persons over four score 
years of age may be in it ; and if it be small, the place is healthy, even if 
there be none of such advanced age. The subject of PubKc Health ought 
to be interesting to the ratepayers and to the managers of Benefit Societies, 
as tlie one may save his purse — and the otlier diminish the claims upon 
the sick fund, by inculcating its maxims among their ueighboui's. We 
only wish we could name soine good tract or tracts which discussed it 
in reference to open villages and countiy places. 

Geology. — The County of Norfolk is nearly an oval, of which Yaiinouth 
at the east and Marshland on the west are the two exti'emities. It is 
bounded on the north side of the oval by the German Ocean and the Lymi 
and Wisbeach Washes ; and, on the south, by the Yare, the Waveney, and 
the Little Ouse, a few feet of the watershed at Lopham, from which the two 
latter take their rise, and by an irregular line, as marked upon the Ord- 
nance map, which, from its smuosities, appears to represent some ancient 
streams. Portions of these streams are now remaining, as the old Welney 
river and the Nen ; and other portions are diverted by new cuts from thek 
ancient beds, which still form the boundaiy of the county. Were such an- 
cient streams in existence, the county would be insulated, T\ith the exception 
of a few feet of the Lopham Fen. The strata of the county consist of part of 
the Oolite, viz. : — the Kimmeridge clay, the entire Cretaceous series, and the 
Norwich crag, with the Submarine forest. They crop out in succession 
from the west, and are more or less overspread by tlie upper boulder clay 
and other marine deposits ; but in the valleys, the area of which has been 
estimated at more than half the county, the more modern deposits of fresh- 
water and peat overlie all other foi-mations. The strata are tilted up at a 
slight angle h-om west to east ; but the denuding and scorning power of 
water has been exerted to such an extent that the streams, wliich would 
have flowed eastward down an inclined jAime, flow from the watershed 
to the vrest, as well as to the east ; and on the slopes and gorges of the sides 
to the north and to the south. 

In conformity with tliis arrangement, the Waveney and the Little 
Ouse, as already mentioned, rise at Lopham Fen, and run east and 
west; the one into the Yare, the otlier into the Ouse, on its way 
through the Bedford level to the Lynn Wash. The Wissey, or Stoke 
river, rising near Bradenham and Scoidton Mere, flows west into the Ouse ; 
and the Nar, rising near Mileham and Litcham, runs nearly in the same 
direction to join the Ouse at Lynn. The Gay wood river from Grimston, 
the Babmgley stream from Fiitcham, the Fleacham stream fi'om Fring, 
and the Ingold from Snettisham, all run westerly into the Lynn Wash. 
To the north, the Stifikey from Fakenham and Fulmodeston, and the 
Glaven from the north of Melton Constable and Whin Common fall into 
the German Ocean. To the east, the Bure from the south of Melton Con- 
stable, Edgefield, and East Beckham, togetlier mtli its tributaries, the An 



108 



GEOLOGY OF NORFOLK. 



and the Thiirnc, flows into the Yare ; and the Yare, rising near Shipdham, 
with its tributaries, the Wensum, which rises at East Kudham, and the 
Tese, flows into the sea at Yarmouth. On the south, the Thet, and many- 
smaller streams, run into the Waveney and the Little Ouse. An irregular 
line drawn from Lopham to Brancaster, near the sources of the principal 
rivers, will mark the direction and extent of the watershed ; the highest 
parts of which are about 250 feet above the level of the sea. Both in 
Marshland and East Norfolk there is a perfect level ; so much so, that in 
Marshland the flow of the waters is chiefly tidal ; and in East Norfolk 
the Tliurne is so sluggish that it seems undecided whether to run into the 
sea at Horsey, or into the Bure. The rivers are navigable upwards of 30 
miles, without any locks ; and it is stated on the authority of a mihtary 
engineer of high repute, that if a sufiicient number of hands were employed 
to open the Horsey Gat, the entire level of the valleys of the Waveney, the 
Yare, and the Bure, with those of their tributaries, might be inundated in 
24 hours, for the purpose of defence against the attack of an invading force. 
Such is the superficial distribution and arrangement of the strata, the 
rivers and the valleys, by means of which the drainage of the county is ad- 
mirably eff'ected, and extensive districts of barren sand and chalk are 
rendered fertile by the overspread of the boulder-formations and sedimentary 
deposits of clay. 

The following tabular series of geological formations shews their order of 
super-position, and their chronological relation where they are not sux^er- 
imposed. Intermediate strata, which occur elsewhere in their usual 
order of sequence, but are missing in Norfolk, are printed in italics. 



( 



Historic. 
Prehistoric. 



Glacial Series. 



Newer Pliocene. 



Older Pliocene. 



Recent. 



^ ^ 






)■ Kainozoi'c. 



> .1-1 
u 

H 



Marram hills 

Peat formations 

Lacustrine, " Flaviatile" 

Estnarine deposits 

Valley-formations 

Mundesley river bed 

Upper boulder clay 

Contorted and stratified sands. . . 

Lower boulder clay 

Laminated beds 

Forest bed 

Norwich crag 

Red crag 

Coralline crag , 

Upper & Lower Miocene 

London clay Upper^ Middle, & Lower Eocene.. 

Upper wbite cbalk ..-^ 

Lower white clialk, or hard chalk 

Chalk marl 

Upper green-sand c 

Gaalt > 

Lower green-sand 

Wealden 

PurhecTi beds 

Portland stone 

Kimmeridge clay 

Great facflities are offered for the study of the geology of Norfolk by the 
coast-section, which, with few interruptions to its continuity, is exposed 
from Hunstanton to Yarmouth, a distance of about 70 miles. By the action 
of the sea and land springs a new face is, from time to^time, given to the cliff's, 
with fresh and varying features for observation ; so that, by making excur- 
sions along the beach, and occasionally inland to well-borings, gravel, sand, 
brick, and marl pits, an acquaintance with the phenomena, and with many 
interesting but difficult geological problems may be readily gained. The 



Cretaceous Formation. 



Wealden, 
Jurassic or Oolitic. 



w. 



Mesozoic. 



GEOLOGY OP NORFOLK. 109 

route may be from Yarmouth to Hunstanton, and thence to Lynn and 
Marshland, i. e. from recent to ancient stratifications, or the reverse. The 
former has the advantage of affording instruction by observation of T\'hat is 
now passing on the surface of the eai-th ; the latter exhibits better the rela- 
tion between cause and effect, by tracing the formations in their natural 
order and sequence. For our present piu'pose the latter is preferred. 

The most useful Guide books are the following : — A treatise on " The Geo- 
logy of East Norfolk," containing a section of the Cliff at Hunstanton, and 
other valuable sections, by Richard C. Taylor, F.G.S., 1827, vide Philoso- 
phical Magazine, February, 1823. An " Outhne of the Geology of Norfolk," 
by the late Samuel AYoodward, 1833. Tliis work contains excellent illustra- 
tions of the organic remains, and much original matter. A " Sketch of the 
Geology of West Norfolk," by C. B. Rose, F.G.S., London and Edin- 
hurgh Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, January, 1836. A 
treatise "On the Cretaceous Group in Norfolk," by tlie same author. 
Geologists' Association, November 8, 1862. A treatise on " The Geology of 
Norfolk," as illustrating the Laws of the Distribution of Soils, by 
Joshua Trimmer, F.G.S., London, 1847 ; and also various papers in the 
Quarterly Journals of the Geological Society, by the same author. A 
"Manual of Mollusca, Recent and Fossil," 1853—1856, by S. P. Y/ood- 
ward, F.G.S., of tlie British Museum, an excellent " vade mecum," for 
geologists in the field ; and the splendid " Monogi-aph of the Crag Mol- 
lusca," &c., by Searles V. Wood, F.G.S., adapted for reference at home. 
London, 1848. These are some of the most useful general treatises ; others 
on particular strata, or limited objects, will be pointed out when the sub- 
jects are referred to. 

I. The Jueassic or Oolitic Formation. 

The oldest stratum in Norfolk is the Kimmeridge Clay. With reference to 
this it is deshable to notice a discrepancy among the above-mentioned writers, 
otherwise our readers might be perplexed. Mr. Rose was led, by the re- 
markable admixture of mollusca in the Kimmeridge clay, to infer the i)resence 
of the Oxford clay in this county ; and in this view he was supported by 
Mr. Joshua Trimmer; but subsequent researches have caused him to 
change [his opinion, and, in concurrence mth the honoiu'ed Father of 
English Geology, Mr. William Smith, and the late Mr. Samuel Woodward, 
to regard Kimmeridge clay (marked Oak-tree clay in Mr. Smith's Geological 
Map of Norfolk,) as the sole representative of the Oolite in the count}'. 
The Kimmeridge cla}' forms the substratum of Marshland; and it may be 
seen on the beach at Hunstanton, beneath the lov»'er green-sand. It was 
exposed at the Denver Sluice, and in sinking a well at Mr. Allen's brewery 
at Lynn. The following are the sections : — 

Denver Sluice. 



feet 

1. Light brown sandv Icam 14 

2. Peat .' 2 

3. Blue clay, enclosing roots and 

small nortions of peat, similar 
toNo/2 ; 2 

4. Peat, similar to No. 2 3 



feet 

5. Similar to No. 1, but somewhat 

more argillaceous, (a coin of 
Charles Il.found on the surface) 2 

6. Dark ferruginous sand 3 

7. Kimmeridge clay, containing 

Ammonites decipiens 5 1 



Mr. Allen's Well. 



1. Vegetable soil 7 

2. Loam, used for bricks 7 

3. Peat 2 to 2| 

4. Blue clay 8 

5. Peat, with alder and hazel . . 2 to 3 

6. Blue clay, with marine silt, con- 

taining testaceous exuvifc ; and 
blue clay enclosing nodnies of 

chalk 80 

8. Kimmeridge clay with Septaria ; 
and, from the lower bed?, Am- 



monites decipiens, Ammonites 
escavatus, and another very small 
species, undetermined ; Belem- 
nites abbreviatus, Gryphaea-bul- 
lata alias dUatata, Serpula tri- 
carinata, attached to Gryphaoa, 
Mya depressa, Venus? a fine 
cast in pyrites, with the impres- 
sion of a Pecten upon it, and mu- 
ricated spines of an Echinus . . 63Q 



110 GEOLOGY 01' NORFOLK. 

The Kimmeridgo clay was exposed also at Gaywood, near Lynn, in sinking 
a well fifty feet in depth. The first 18 feet were sand, succeeded by 14 inches 
of blue clay. Then follovrcd the Kimmerid,i^o clay, laminated, and containing 
septaria. In a brickyard in Soutliery, near Downhani, on the removal of I'S feet 
of brick earth, there appeared a floor of shale, which burnt readily, like cannel 
coal, and contained impressions between its lamince of an Ammonite, and a 
small Tellina. This corresponds with the descriptions given of the Kim- 
meridgo clay in other places. Sir C. Lycll (" Manual," page 200,) says 
that it consists of a " bituminous shale, sometimes formhig an impure coal, 
several hundi-ed feet in thickness. In same places in Wiltshii'e it much 
resembles peat ; and the bituminous matter may have been, in part at least, 
derived from the decomposition of vegetables. But, as impressions of plants 
are rare in these shales, which contain ammonites, oysters, and other 
marine shells, the bitumen may be of animal origin." The animal 
origin of the bitumen seems to be borne out in Norfolk, where no vegetable 
remains have at present been found in the Kunmeridge clay ; but, from the 
brick ground near Downham, Mr. Hose lias in liis collection the following 
organic remains, — Vertobrre of Ichthyosaurus, Plesiosaurus, and Teleosaurus; 
nearly an entire skeleton of Pliosaurus ; Asteracanthus ornatissimus ; 
Ostrea leviuscula and deltoidea; Ammonites biplex; and a large Belemnite. 

II. Cretaceous Formation. 
1. The Lower Green-sand. 
This formation, in tlie absence of the IVvi-tland stone of the Upper oolite 
and of the Wealden group, overlies the Kimmeridge clay. It consists of 
alternating beds of dark ferruginous sand, sandstone, and white sand. In the 
lower beds exposed in the Hunstanton cliff, quartzoze pebljles are sufficiently 
large to give it the character of breccia. The loose beds occasionally enclose 
thin strata of fullers' earth, and a tenacious green clay, which derives its 
colouring from the silicate of iron. It occupies the high ground between 
the Kimmeridge clay and the chalk-range ; and extends from Hunstanton 
on the north, to Hilgay on the south, which is the course of the strike. Its 
surface-width averages" nearly three miles. In some parts of its course it 
rises into hills of about the same height as those of the lower chalk, and is 
about 70 feet in thickness. Considerable areas are occupied by this sand, 
as at Dersingham heath, Castle Rising, Bawsey, Ashwicken, Black- 
borough in Middle ton, and Shouldham vx-arren ; and it supplies a valuable 
building material, locally called carstone, the upper part of which (the shell 
or shale carstone) Ues in tabular and frngnientary masses, and comes to 
hand readily. The lower is extensively quarried at Dersingham and Castle 
Rising common ; the white sand, which is nearly pure silica, is shipped in 
large quantities for the manufacture of glass. In many parts of this sand- 
stone-range springs of water occur with a chalybeate impregnation. Such 
is the case at Gaywood, where a Spa has been estabHshed. The water 
appears to resemble that of Tunbridge-weils, but the fame of its medicinal 
virtues has not at present extended far beyond its immediate vicinity. In 
many other places, as at Blackborough pit, Middleton, and Shouldham 
warren, this formation may be studied vdih advantage, and several interest- 
ing peculiarities are pointed out by Mr. Rose in his sketch of West Norfolk, 
to which the reader is referred. In a fine quarry at West Bilney fossil 
w^ood is found in a very pulverulent state. A specimen of the " Zamiostrobus 
Fittoni" has been obtained by Mr. Rose, indicative of an approach 
to the tropical flora of the Purbeck beds in which the Zamia abounds ; 
and a link is thus furnished between the Lower green-sand and the 
AVealden group, which latter is missmg in this county. The Nautilus radiatus 
from Dersingham; Ammonites furcatus from Middleton; Ammonites 
Deshayesi from Hunstanton; Thelis minor from Dersingham; andTrigonia 
clavellata and alseformis from Downham, are in Mr. Rose's collection. 



GEOLOGY OF NORFOLK. 



Ill 



■Z. The Gault. 

This formation succeeds the lo\Yer green-sand and reposes upon it. It 
occupies, with the lowest beds of the chalk above, the valley between the 
ranges of chalk and gi-een-sand, emerging from beneath the western edge of 
the chalk. This valley is nearly continuous, and extends from Wretton, 
through West Dereham, Shouldham, Marham, Pentney, Bilnej^ Gay ton, 
Grimston, Congham, and West Newton. The colour of the gault, which 
is usually blue, begins at Leziate to be tinged with red, most likely by 
per-oxide of kon. It is vaiiable as far as West Newton, and from that 
place to Hunstanton a biilliant red. It was exposed in a pit near San- 
dringham HaU, and in a field adjoining the road to West Newton. At 
Hunstanton it contains many dark -green siHcious pebbles, and is divided 
into two beds ; the uppermost of which is about seven inches in thickness, 
and abounds in organic remains. It is intersected throughout by a ramose 
zoophyte — a Syphonia. Characteristic species of belemnites are in great 
abundance. Terebratula biplicata and Inocerami are numerous, and a 
species of nautilus occurs. The lower bed is three feet five inches in tliick- 
ness, and contains less of the zoophyte and fewer fossils than the upper. A 
seam of dark red argillaceous matter, two or three inches thick, separates 
these beds from the superincumbent v/hite beds of challi marl. This seam, 
upon analysis, proves to be of the nature of fullers'-earth, so liighly coloured 
with the oxide of iron, that a pigment is made of it. Such is the descrip- 
tion of tliis beautiful band of red chalk, as it appears in the i)icturesque 
and abnoiTQal section at Hunstanton. Professor Sedgwick was among the 
first to recognize and establish its identity with the blue gault on the only 
dependable basis, namely — its fossil contents ; and its correspondence with 
the gault of Lincolnshire is shown in an interesting paper by the Rev. 
Thomas Wiltshire, F.G.S., (Geologists' Association, April, 1859). The red 
gault on the south side, and the blue gault on the north side, appear to 
have been dissevered by the scooping out of the intervening estuary. But, 
in the examination of the organic remains, another fact is brought to light 
with reference to the next formation, v.diich usually overlies the gaidt, 
namely — • 

3. The Upper Green-sand. 

This bed which, in the Isle of Wight, is 100 feet in thickness, is in a very 
abnormal state in this count}'. In the boring of Messrs. Colman's well, at 
Norwich, it is no more than six feet in depth ; and at Hunstanton it has 
no separate and independent exsistence, but is so interblended with the 
gault that it is only distinguishable by its characteristic fossils. This 
formation may be said generally to graduate into an argillaceous limestone 
called 

4. The Challi Marl 

This may be regarded as the lowest bed of the chalk. The following 
sections have been obtained by well-boring at Diss, and at Nor^\ich : — 



At Diss. 
feet 



1. Bonlder clay 50 

2. Sand 50 

3. Chalk without fliats (probably 

reconstructed) 100 

4. Chalk, with flints 330 



feet 
60 



5. Grey chalk, without flints. . . . 

6. Light bright blue chalk ap- 

proaching to clay, with chalk 
stones , 20 

7. Lower green-sand , . . . 5 



feet 

1. Alluviam 16 

2. Chalk with flints , . . 1050 

3. Chalk without flints 102 

4. Upper green sand 6 



At Messes. Colman's, Norwich. 



feet 



5. Gault, containing small Belem- 
nites, Ammonites lautus, A. sym- 
metricus, and fragments of Ino- 
ceramus 24 



112 GEOLOGY OF NOEFOLK. 



Section of Chalk at Hunstanton. 

By Mr. E. Taylor, Phil. Mag. vol. 61. 
feet 

1. Vegetable soil 2 

2. Hard chalk without flints, (very 

few traces of organic remains) 36 

3. Chalk marl 3 

4. White chalk, with a ramose zoo- 

phyte (the equivalent of the 
upper green-sand) Ij 

This section represents the greatest thickness attained by individual strata 
measured separately in different places. 

Tlie following section is given by Mr. Kose of the strata in their true 

position : — 



feet 

5. Gault or red chalk, containing 

the same ramose zoophyte. .. . 4^ 

6. Yellow sandy masa 10 

Dark brown 40 

Nearly black 22 

Lower green sand — 72 



feet inches 

5. Red zoophytic limestone, 
in two beds (the equiva- 
lent of the gault) ... - 3 10 

6. & 7. Lower green-sand and 
carstone 8 9 

8. Sandy breccia 14 



feet inches 

1. Vegetable soil and alluvium — 

2. Lower chalk o .... 28 

3. Chalk marl 3 

4. White zoophytic bed .... 1 4-6 
A thin seam of argillaceous 

matter occurs in this 

place 2-3 

59 

The animal remains of the chalk marl, upper green- sand and gault are 
singularly intermixed at Hunstanton. Mr. Kose has in his collection, Tur- 
rilites tuberculatus, and Pectin Beaveri, from the clialli marl. It may be 
seen to advantage in a large quarry at Stoke Ferry ; and also at West Dere- 
ham, in a pit between the Grange farm-house and the church. It does not 
appear to have been recognized at Mr. Coleman's well at Norwich,-.'' pro- 
bably on account of the shells being broken by the boring implements ; nor 
at the w^ell at Diss. The chalk marl, with its associated beds in the south 
of England, is thus described by Sir Charles Lyell, in the descending order. 
{Manual, page 218) : — " The lower chalk wuthout flints passes gradually 
downv/ards into an argillaceous limestone (the chalk marl) in which ammo- 
nites and other cephalopoda, so rare in the higher j)arts of the series, apx)ear. 
This marly deposit passes, in its turn, into beds containing green particles 
of a chloritic mineral, called the upper green-sand." In the beautiful but 
abnormal section, however, of the Hunstanton Cliff, these several beds, 
with their respective fossils, are still more confusedly intermixed. 

These strata are still further complicated by the elaborate researches of 
Mr. Harry Seeley,-j- who has discovered the ordinary fossils of the gault 
in the lower green- sand, and in the red limestone of Hunstanton a larger 
proportion of the fossils of the upper green-sand than of the gault. From 
this it may be inferred that the gault is principally represented in the 
lower green-sand, and the upper green-sand in the red limestone. But, 
how^ever complicated the stratifications may be, the mollusca are arranged 
according to the ordinary laws of nature, by which such forms of life 
gradually pass into each other, as will appear in the Crag-serise ; while some 
die out, others are continued, and new forms make their appearance in suc- 
ceeding strata, adapted to the changes of climate and other circumstances. 

5. The Louver Chalk. 
The chalk without flints next iDresents itself. It is extensively used in 
buildings, and for carved and monumental work, and is appropriately called 
by the late Mr. Woodward " hard challi." It may be traced from Hockwold, 

* Paper read by the Rev. J. Crompton at the British Association at Cambridge, 
1863, + Annals and Magazine of Natural History for April, 1861. 



GEOLOGY OF NORFOLK. 113 

thi'ougli Methwold, to Hunstanton ClifT. At Stoke Ferry, it hag been 
quarried largely, and also at Whittington, where the Holaster trecensis 
abounds, and several ammonites have been obtained. One of the species 
peramplus, two feet in diameter, is in Mr. Rose's collection. Also the 
Ammonites Austenii, of the same extraordinary size, Nautilus from 
Hunstanton, and the jaws and teeth of a large Saurian from the same 
place. This bed of lower or hard chalk averages 50 feet in tliiclmess. Its 
hai-dness is considered to be due to its consondation, before any arrange- 
ment or aggregation of the silicious particles took place, which are generally 
distributed thi-ough a homogenous mass, of which about 12 per cent, is 
silica. 

6. Upper Chalk tvith flints (Medial). 

In this division of the chall^ the separation of the silex and chalk forms 
a distinctive characteristic. The late Mr. Woodward divided the upper 
chalk into "upper" and "medial," a division which is justified by the organic 
remains ; for the uppermost bed at Norwich contains fossils, which are not 
found in the medial chalk ; for instance, the Inocerami, very rai-e in the 
Norwich crag, are abundant in this deposit. Belemnites, which are very 
rare in this medial chalk, are very abundant in the upper at Norwich. The 
medial chalk may be ti'aced from Thetford, thi'ough Weeting, Hilborough, 
Saham Toney, Swaffham, Castleacre, Litcham, Great-Massingham, and 
Dorking, to Wells on the coast. Its escai-pment may be said to form the 
Downs of Norfolk, the great sheep-walks of the western division of the 
county. This bed of chalk, although not so hard as that beneath it, is 
occasionally used for building purposes, and it is harder than the division of 
the upper chalk, which next presents itseK. 

7. The Upper ChalTc with Flints. 
This division of the chalk has more and larger horizontal layers of flint 
nodules than the medial ; and the paramoudra, or potstones, which are rai'e in 
the medial, are very abundant in the upper bed. They are placed one upon 
another in vertical lines, presenting the appearance, in some instances, of 
columns supporting the horizontal layers or bands of nodules. These para- 
moudrahavebeensupposedby sometobe fossilised sponges, called "Neptune's 
cups ;" but the lower part of them is formed with rounded edges, like the 
upper part, and without indication of any mode of attachment. They 
envelop, moreover, other organic remains common to the chalk, which is 
scarcely reconcileable with their being organized bodies themselves ; and, 
whenever they come in contact with the horizontal layers of nodules, they 
are found to throw out side branches, and to assimilate in form with 
the nodules; and, again, as their vertical lines rise above the horizontal 
layers, they re-assume their ordinary form. The origin of these singular 
bodies, whether due to chemical or mechanical causes, or to some phases 
of animal or vegetable life, is still a mystery. Another very remarkable 
phenomenon in the chalk consists of funnel-shaped holes of various 
dimensions, from one to forty feet in width, for the most part filled with 
sand and clay washed down from the supeiincumbent beds. They are both 
chemically and mechanically formed by the erosion of rain water, acting 
upon the carbonate of lime — a process continued from the earliest period 
of the original deposits to the present time. One consequence of this is that 
chalk is by no means a secure foundation for buildings ; and there are 
numerous instances on record of their sudden fall, and of their being par- 
tially engulphed by the caving in of the upper soil. Another result is, that 
the surface of the chalk is by no means level, but channelled and furrowed ; 
and the late Mr. Joshua Trimmer availed himself of this in the Keythorpe 
system of draining, by employing these natural channels to caiTy off super- 
fluous water from the soil above ; and, by boring through impervious clays, 
to let the water pass away by these self-formed water-courses. 

H 



114 GEOLOGY OF NORFOLK. 

The strike, or course, of this upper chalk in Norfolk is from Bungay, 
across the county, through Norwich, on its way to the sea coast, where it 
may be seen in a highly disturbed state at Trimingham, Cromer, and 
Sherringham. At Trimingham there are three bluffs or masses of chalk 
upon the beach, apparently resting upon the fundamental bed of chalk with 
flints, which forms the beach for about a mile in extent. A question 
has arisen as to whether they are detached boulders, or part of the 
solid bed below. If the latter, they are mere shells, or remnants of 
chalk hills, which are nearly washed away by the sea. But, whether they 
be boulders or not, they contain fossil sponges and tuberculated flints, such 
as are not common in the chalk below them, but abound in the upper beds 
of gravel in East Norfolk ; and these beds of gravel indicate that vast por- 
tions of the chalk have been denuded, from which they have been 
derived. The depths of the several beds of chalk may be seen by reference 
to the above sections. They may be considered portions of the outcrop of 
the range of chalk in this country, fi'om Yorkshire to Devonshire, and of the 
western margin of the great chalk-basin of Europe. The chalk may be 
traced, at intervals, from the north of Ireland to the Crimea, a distance 
of about 1140 geographical miles ; and from the south of Sweden to the south 
of Bordeaux, about 840 miles. In Southern Russia it is in some places 
600 feet thick ; and in all these districts it is of the same mineral charac- 
ter, with the same fossils, including Inoceramus Cuvieri, Belemnites muc- 
ronatus, and Ostrea vesicularis. 

With respect to the origin of chalk, it appears to be composed of a soft 
white mud, which has passed through the bodies of worms and the intestines 
of fishes. The stony masses of Coral reefs are known to be bored by worms ; 
" and certain gregarious fishes of the genus Sparus are visible through the clear 
water, browsing quietly in great numbers on living corals, hke grazing herds 
of graminivorous quadi'upeds." Mr. Darwin found their intestines to be filled 
with impure chalk.* It is evident from this, that Norfolk, during the for- 
mation of the chalk, must have been submerged beneath a tropical sea. 
The MoUusca and organic remains are too numerous for insertion. Mr. 
Robert Fitch, F.G.S., of Norwich, possesses a very fine collection of fossils 
from the chalk and Norwich crag, and also of flint implements, and imple- 
ments of the stone and bronze period. Mr. J.I^ing, of Norwich, has a good col- 
lection of fossils from the chalk. Mr. Rose als3, of the chalk and entire 
cretaceous series, and Kimmeridge clay from West Norfolk, and some 
good specimens of Elephantine, Cervine and Bovine remains from the forest 
and upper beds. 

III. Eocene Fokmation. 

The London Clay. 

The next stratum in order of succession, which, with the Woolwich and 
Reading series, overhes the chalk, is the London clay. Although not visible 
upon the surface, it was brought to light by an attempt made, in 1840, by 
Messrs. Clark of Tottenham, to bore an Artesian well at Sir E. H. K. 
Lacon & Co.'s brewery, at Yarmouth. A shaft was dug to the depth of 22 
feet, next about 50 feet of blown sand and shingle, 120 feet of recent 
estuarine deposits, 310 feet of London clay, 46 feet of the Woolwich and 
Reading series, and 57 feet of chalk were bored through ; when, from the 
obstruction caused by large flints, no further progress could be made, and 
the undertaking was abandoned. The labourers employed were of opinion 
that London clay was brought up by the boring apparatus, as they had been 
engaged in a similar work in that deposit ; but their opinion was disregarded, 
as this clay was not supposed to extend beyond Aldborough. Twenty years 
had passed over when >i< Mr. Prestwich examined the details on the spot ; 

* See LyelVs Elements, chapter svii. 



GEOLOGY OF NOEWICH. 115 

and ascertained tliat the bore passed through London clay, and the lower ter- 
tiaries, to the depth above named. He saw the true bearing of the discovery 
— that this bed of London clay was not an outlying mass deposited in a hollow 
of the estuary of the Yare ; but had a wider range than the present estuary, 
(which, as will be seen when we come to describe the valley formations, is of 
comparatively recent date,) and extends, probably, to Mundesley, where the 
chalk begins to rise to the surface of the beach. This view is in accordance 
with the fact that the anchorage off the coast at Bacton and other places is 
(8 or 10 fathoms deep) a stiff, tenacious clay, which corresponds rather with 
the London clay than with the forest bed. It would be superfluous to de- 
scribe the Fauna and Flora of the London clay, which is here liidden under 
land and sea; but it is important to bear in mind that they are of a tropical 
character, because this fact serves as an index to the change of climate, which 
is evidenced by the organic remains of subsequent formations. 

rV. Newer Pliocene Formation. 

1. Tlie Norwich Crag. 

The Norwich, or mammahferous crag, as it was called by Mr. E. Charles- 
worth, who first distinguished the several crags by their fossil remains, may 
be presumed to rest upon the London clay, so far as that deposit extends ; 
and, where it ceases, upon the chalk. The coralline crag and the red crag 
have not been discovered in Norfolk — unless indeed the red and the Norwich 
crags be identical ; for it is remarkable that no case of superposition has 
been pointed out, notwithstanding that the Norwich crag is extensively de- 
veloped in Suffolk ; and in some instances the one, and in some the other, 
lie upon the Coralline crag. The beds of shells, called crag, lie in patches 
at considerable intervals : one may travel several miles over strata of sand, 
gravel and clay, which contain the same mammalian remains as the crag, 
without meeting with any shells. At a pit in Horstead, they have lately 
broken out in great force, v/here none had appeared before. On examining 
these patches of shells, it is not uncommon to hear collectors observe that 
some bear the character of the Red crag more than others ; and this favours 
the opinion of their identity. The conclusion which we have come to is that 
they are one continuous formation, occupying a long period of time, during 
which the land has been gradually rising ; and that in the process of up- 
heaval, they may possibly bear to each other the same relation as the upper 
valley-gravels bear to the lower. The older would be the higher in position 
without its over-lying the other ; and, as the refrigeration of the climate was 
progressing, the differences that are observed between the mollusca in the 
Red and Norwich crags, are such as might be expected, and the deviations 
from preceding types are such as would occur under these circumstances 
during long periods of time. The result is, that the red crag, from the 
greater per centage of extinct mollusca which it contains, is placed by Sir 
Charles Lyell in the older Pliocene, whilst the Norwich crag is placed in 
the newer Pliocene. 

Such is the geological position of the Norwich crag. With respect to its 
geographical position, it first appears in the coast section in the cHff at 
Weybourn, about 15 feet above the sea, resting upon the chalk. It continues 
along the beach to Sherringham, and from that place to Cromer lies in 
patches, interblended with the forest bed. The chalk and Norwich crag 
then dip, at Cromer Jetty, beneath the beach, leaving the forest bed in sole 
possession, as far as Trimingham, where the chalk again rises and forms 
the beach for about half a mile. At Trimingham the Norwich crag was 
found by an assiduous collector, the late Rev. Charles Green, of Bacton, 
upon the isolated masses of chalk which rise above the beach. And, upon 

* Quarterly Journal of Geological Societyy November, 1860. 

H a 



116 GEOLOGY OF NORFOLK. 

these masses of clialk are layers of large flints, such as are invariably found 
where the Norwich crag rests upon the chalk. Thus from Weybourn to 
Trimingham, it occupies fourteen miles of tlic coast section, and forms an 
ii-regular belt, as described by Mr, Woodward iu his Geological Map of 
Norfolk; on the west, from We^ybourn, by Norwich, Saxlingham, and 
Bungay, to the Suffolli coast at Thorpe-ness and Aldborough ; and on the 
east side, from Trimingham, by Belaugh, near Wroxham, to Southwold. 
Within this belt many other places may be mentioned where the Norwich 
crag is exposed, as Salhouse, Wroxham, Horstead, and Marsham, in the 
valley of the Bure ; and Postwick, Thorpe, Bramerton, Trowse, Whitling- 
ham, and Kirby-Bedon, in the valley of the Yare. We are not to infer that 
the crag has any connexion with the formation of these valleys because it is 
found near them. It has been brought to light by their denudation ; and 
the escarpments of the crag deposits, which once extended across the valleys, 
may frequentl}^ be seen on their sides. The Norwich crag is flu vio -marine, 
as appears from the admixture of fi-esh-water and marine shells. It varies 
in height from two to twenty feet, and is sometimes found in successive 
strata of clay, sand, and gravel, with shells peculiar to the several strata, 
as at Weybourn, and sometimes in one homogeneous bed, as at Horstead 
and Coltishall. A mass of large stones almost invariably caps the chalk in 
the districts of the Norwich crag, and in this mass mammalian and other 
organic remains are most abundantly found. The surface of the chalk is 
occasionally bored by the Pholas, and much furrowed and eroded by currents 
of water, during the long interval which prevailed between the clialk and 
the deposition of the Norwich crag. Wood is frequently embedded in it, 
but so decayed and pulverulent as to defy any attempts to make out of what 
kind. Its Fauna consists of Mastodon arvernensis, Elephas meridionalis, 
Elephas (not determined). Hippopotamus major, Rhinoceros leptorhinus, 
Cervus of at least two species not determined, Equus, Bos, Sus, and Arvicola. 
Besides these, Trogontherium Cuvieri, Lion, Otter, Roebuck, and Hyaena, (?) 
are in the collections of Mr. R. Fitch, and Wild-cat, Fox, and Leopard, (?) in 
the late Mr. Middleton's. With respect to the MoUusca it may be observed 
that, as compared with those of the Coralline and Red Crags, some striking 
results present themselves indicative of a gradual and progressive decrease 
of temperature. From tabular* statements drawn up by Mr. S. P. Wood- 
ward, it appears that the proportion of recent to extinct species is, in the 
Coralline, 51 per cent; in the Red, 67; and in the Norwich, 85 ; the num- 
bers being, in the 

Coralline Crag Eecent 168 Extinct 159 Total 327 

Red Crag 130 95 225 

Norwich Crag 69 12 81 

Of recent species, not now living in British seas, in the 

Coralline Crag 2 are Northern, and 27 Southern 

Eed Crag 8 16 

Norwich Crag 12 

Thus, a continued refrigeration of chmate is indicated from the commence- 
ment to the close of the Crag series. 

The following List of SheUs is furnished by Mr. S. P. Woodward, F.G.S., 
of the British Museum, and is a very valuable supplement to his Father's 
work on the Geology of Norfolk. 

Shells of the Newer Pliocene or Norwich Crag. 
Including Bulchamp and Chillesford in Sufi"olk, and Bridlington, Yorkshire.! 

Authorities. 
G.N. Outline of the Geology of Norfolk, by S. Woodward, 8vo., Norwich, 1833. 

* From Searles Wood's Monogi-aph of the Crag. MoUusca (Palfeont Society's Tran- 
sactions) and published m the Supplement to Sir C. Lyell's "Manual of Geology." 
t More recent than the N. Crag, as also the Mundesley Crag. 



SHELLS OF THE NEWER PLIOCENE. 



117 



G.N. Lyell (Sir Charles), List of Shells of the Norwich Crag ; the species 

determined by G. Sowerby and S. V. Wood. Mag. Nat. Hist 

ser. 2, III. p. 313. 
E.F. Edward Forbes, Catalogue of Shells of the Glacial Epoch, in 

Memoirs of the Geological Survey. Vol. I. p. 406. 1846. 
Prestwich (J.) on some Fossiliferous Beds overlying the Red Crag at 

CliiUesford, near Orford, Suffolk. Geol. Journal, 1849, p. 345. 
CM. Wood (Searles V.) Monograph of the Crag Mollusca, 2 vols. 4to. 



published for the Palseontographical Society. 1847-1855. 
R. Wigham's Collection, in the British Museum. (Norwich Crag) 
Wm. Bean's Collection of Bridlington Shells, British Museum. 
Collection of the late John Middleton, preserved in Norwich. 
Capt. H. T. Alexander, F.G.S., (Crag of Bramerton, and Bulchamp, 

near Southwold) 
Mr. Fitch. W.K.B. Mr. Bridgman. T.G.B. Mr. Bayfield. 
Catalogue of Shells from the Glacial Deposits, by Jas. Smith, F.R.S., 

" Researches in Newer Pliocene and Post Tertiary Geology." 

8vo., 1862. 
a, abundant ; c, common ; r, rare ; u, unique ; indicated by the Geology of 

Norfolk. 



R.W 
W.B 
J.M. 
H.A. 

R.F. 



Pulmonifera. 

Helix hispida ... 

plebeia, Drap 

arbustorum?... 

Succinea putris ? ... 

oblonga 

Limnea palustris (tenuis? G.N.) 

peregra 

truncatula 

Planorbis marginatus, Drap (com- 

planatusC.M) 

spu'orbis... 

corneus ... 

Conovulus pyramidalis ... 

myosotis 

PectinihrancJiiata . 

Buccinum tenerum (cyaneum ?) ... 
Fusus antiquus, (despectus, E.F.J 

- var. pullus, G.N. (altus ?) 

carinatus 

contrarius ... 



norvegicus 

gracihs D.C. {Islandicus ?) 

var. ventricosus 

Spitzbergensis ? 



Trophon scalariformis 



-Gunneri? Loven 
-clathratus L. {Bamffiiis) 



Murex erinaceus 

Purpura lapillus (imbricata) 

var. elougata ... 

vulgaris ... 

incrassata 

angulata ... 



ThorpeT.G.B. (RW.)Bulchainp(H.A.) 
Norwich (R.W.) Bulc. (F. Woodward) 
Southwold (LyeU) Norwich (J.M.) 
Bramerton (r.) 
Bulchamp (CM.) 

Bramerton; Bulchamp [wold. 

Bramerton (R.W.)J.M.,T.G.B.,South- 
Bramei-ton (R.W.) J.M. 

Norwich (R.W.) J.M. Bulchamp. 
Noi-wich (R.W.) Bulchamp. 
Bulchamp (H.A.) 

Norwich (r) ; Southwold ; Aldboro'. 
Postwick (R.W.) Bramerton (H.A.) 

Norwich (a) ; Southwold ; Chillesford. 

Bramerton, Thorpe (r) ; Chillesford. 

Thorpe, Postwick, and Bramerton (r). 

Bramerton, Thorpe (r). 

Bramerton ; many fi'agments ; perfect 
examples rare and usually carinated. 

Norwich (J. M., R. F., and Norwich 
Museum). 

Norwich (R.W.) 

Bridlington. 

Postwick (R.W.) ; series of all ages. 

Norwich, (R.W.) Thorpe (J.M.) Brid- 
lington. 

Norwich (J.M.) 

Bridhngton. 

Bramerton (R.W.) ; the only example 
lost (CM.) 

Norwich (c.) Bulchamp. 

Bramerton, Postwick (c.) 

Thorpe (c.) 

(r.) 

(r.) 



118 



GEOLOGY OF NORFOLK. 



Purpura tetragona 

Nassa reticosa, var. elongata, Sby. 



var. rugosa 



incrassata (granulata E.F.) 
sp. (slender, pointed) ... 



Columbella sulcata 

Mangelia mitrula 

Bela im:Y\Gvl2i{Murexpimctatus, GN.)Bramerton ; Thorpe ; (r.) 



Norwich (R.F.) ; in fresh condition. 

Thorpe (u.) G.N. ; perfect condition 
(R.F.) 

Norwich (R.W.) 

Norwich (R.W.) 

Norwich (R.W.) ; examples in all col- 
lections. 

Bramerton (R.F.) 

Norwich (R.W.) 



Trevelliana 
rufa 

Defrancia linearis ? 

Voluta Lamberti 

Erato Isevis 

?Cassidaria bicatenata 

Cypreea Euroi3£ea ... 

Ovulum Leathesii 

Natica monilifera (catena, M.) 

occlusa, S.V.W 

Bowerbanldi, E.F 

Natica helicoides 

pusilla, G. (Groenlandica) 

hemiclausa (nitida?) 

■• — clausa 

Velutina Isevigata, L , 

zonata, Gould 

Trichotropis borealis 

Cancellaria (Admete) viridula O.F.M. Norwich (R.W.) Bridlington 



Bramerton (R.W.) Bridlington. 

Norwich (R.W.) Thorpe (E.F.) Brid- 
lington. 

Norwich (R.W.) R.F. 

Norwich (R.W.) 

Norwich (R.W.) 

Thorpe (r) ; fragments only (G.N.) 

Thorpe (R.F.) ; one good specimen. 

Bramerton (u) R.F. 

Norwich (c) Bulchamp ; Cliillesford ; 
Bridlington. 

Bridlington. 

Bridlington. 

Norwich (S.W.) Bridlington. 

Norwich (R.W.) Bridlington. 

Norwich (R.W.) common. 

Norwich (R.W.) com. ; Bridlington. 

Thorpe (R.W.) 

Bramerton (R.W.) 

Bridlington. 



Chemnitzia elegantissima ... 

internodula, S.V.W. 



Scalaria 



Groenlandica 

- foliacea ... 

- Trevelliana 



Norwich (R.W.) rare. 

Norwich (R.W.) large. 

Norwich (r) Cromer ; Southwold. 

Norwich (R.W.) fragments. 

Norwich (R.W.) " Two Crag speci- 
mens dredged on the Norfolk coast 
by Lieut. Thomas," (E.F.) Bul- 

?clathratula (minuta, G.N.) Norwich (r) [champ (F.W.) 

Cerithium punctatum Norwich (c) Bulchamp (F.W.) 

reticulatum Norwich (R.W.) W.K.B. 

Turritella communis ... ... Norwich (r) Bulchamp ; Chillesford. 

incrassata Thorpe (R.W.) water- worn. 

erosa Couth, (clathratula, CM.)... Bridlington. 

Norwich (a) Bulchamp; Chillesford; 
Bridlington. 

(Varieties of growth, probably in- 
fluenced by freshets ; some speci- 
mens are quite discoidal.) 



Litorina litorea 



var. elongata 

ventricosa 

carinata .. 

— - bicarinata 
sulcata 



rudis Norwich (c). 

tenebrosa Norwich (R.W.) slender var. 

Lacuna vincta ... ... ... Norwich (R.W.) 

Rissoa inconspicua, Alder (semicostata? G.N.) ...Bramerton (r). 

Hydrobia Ulvas, L Norwich (R.W.) rare. 

ventrosa, Mont, (minuta, G.N. subumbihcata, CM.)... Norwich (c) 

Paludina media, G.N. (parilis, CM.) Bramerton ; Thorpe ; Bulchamp (F W) 



SHELLS OF THE NEW PLIOCENE. 119 

Paludina media var. obsoleta, G.N Nonvicli (R.W.) Whirls quite flat. 
Bithynia tentaculata, Mont Norwich ; Bramerton (R.W.) W.K.B . R.F. 

Valvata piscinalis ... Bramerton (R.W.) W.K.B. 

Pileopsis Hungaricus (Sigaretiis 

similiSjQ.'N.J Bramerton (very rare) small (R.W.) 

Calyptraea Sinensis finfundibulum clypeum, G.N.)...Postwick (r) small 

Trochus zizyphinus Norwich (R.W.) R.F. 

granulatus, BovnfsimiUs SbyJBrmrton. & Thorpe (r) GN. TGB. JM. 

tumidus fniferts, G.N.J ... Bramerton; Thorpe 

Mai-garita undiilata Norwich (R.W.) T.G.B. R.F. 

elegantissima. Bean ... Bridhngton. 

Cemoria Noachina ... ... ... Bridlington. 

Patella vnlgata ? ... ... ... Norwich (R.W.) Small, thui variety. 

parvula, G.N. ... ... BramertonfYoungofP. i'wZ^a^a.'CM.) 

Acm?sa YU'ginea ? ... Norwich (R.W.) unique. 

Dentahum Tarentimim (entale, C.M.)Bridlington. 
Chiton sp. (octovalvis, G.N.J ... Thoi'pe (u). 

Tectlhrancliiata. 
Tornatellatornatihs(4c^f^o;2i\"(9^,GN)Postwick (r.) Bulchamp (F.W.) 

subulata... Bramerton (u.) R.F. 

Ringicula ventricosa ... ... Bramerton (r.) 

Cyhchna cyhndracea, var. ... Norwich (R.W.) unique. 

obtusa, Mont. (miwMi«, G.N.) Bramerton, Postwick (r.) 

PallioljrancMata. 
Rhynchonella psittacea .., Thorpe; Postwick (rarely with valves united; 

Lamellihrancliiata. 
Anomiaephippiumvar. sg'Ma??!?^?^?... Norwich. Bridlington 

aculeata ... Norwich (R.W.) 

Placunomia patelliformis Norwich (J.M.) T.G.B. 

Ostrea edulis Norwich (T.G.B.) a single sml. valve. 

(Thorpe, both valves in the IMiddleton 
collection, " fi'agments abundant," 
(G.N.) R.F. 

pusio Norwich, T.G.B. 

opercularis fsulcatus <& r^con-Lakenliam, Thorpe, Bramerton, Bul- 

ditus,S'hj.'> champ (F.W.) Chillesford (a) 

Gerardi Bramerton, (R.F.) two pairs. 

tigiinus Bramerton (R.W.) W.K.B. RF. 

?Hinnites Dubuissoni, G.N. {Gortesyi, CM.)..." Thorpe (r.) fragments." 

Pinna pectinata Mundesley, Rev. J. Gunn. 

Mytilus edulis (aniigrworzort G.N.) Bramerton; Thoi-pe (forming a dis- 
tinct layer, a). 
— \QxalcefQrmis,Shj. ... Bulchamp (F.W.) Chillesford, Brid- 
lington, Bramerton, & Thorpe (a) 

Modiola modiolus Postwick (in paks, in a particular 

layer J.M.), Bridlington. 

Crenella discors ? (^?scr^j9«ws, Mnt Chillesford. 

Pectunculiis glycimeris Thorpe (r) small, or imperfect. Brid- 
lington 

Nucula Cobboldiffi Thorpe, Bramerton, Postwick (r) , Bul- 
champ ; Chillesford (a) Bridhngton. 

tenuis Norwich (R.W.) ; Southwold (E.F.) ; 

ChiUesford. 

Leda lanceolata (oblonga, G.N.) ... Norwich (R.W.) very rare; Chilles- 
ford (c) ; Saxlingham (fragments). 

oblongoides, S.V.W.r7<2/»er&orm.^)... Postwick & Bramerton (r) ; Bul- 

champ (F.W.); ChiUesford (c). 



120 



GEOLOGY OF NORFOLK. 



Leda semistriata 

Lucina borealis fmitisd antiquata, G 

divaricata (undularia) ... 



Kellia ambigua 
Montacuta bidentata 
Diplodonta dilatata 

astartea 

Corbicula fluminalis 

Cyclas cornea 

Pisidium amnicum, var sulcatum 
Cardium ediile 



— var obliquum G.N. 
■ venustum? 
• Parkinsoni G.N. 

Groenlandicum ... 



Cardita scalaris 



corbis 

analis? {borealis ?) 



Astarte borealis {plana) 



— var. semisulcata Leach 

mutabilis 

Omalii 



Burtinii {pisiformis, Wood) 

gracilis 

compressa (angulata, G.N.) 

striata ... 

sulcata, var Danmoniensis 



crebricostata ? 

elliptica 

Cyprina Islandica 

Cytherea rudis 

Artemis Hncta ? 

Venus fasciata 

Tapes virginea 

aurea 

Mactra stultorum (magna, G.N.) ... 

■ arcuata 

solida 

ovalis (including dubiaj . . . 

subtruncata (cuneata) 

Scrobicularia piperata (Listeri, G.N 
Syndosmya alba 

obovalis, f tenuis? J ... 

Donax anatinus 

Tellina crassa {obtusa, G.N.) 
obliqua {ovalis, G.N.j 



Norwich (J.M.) single valve. 

.N.) Postwick & Thorpe (c) Bramerton, 

Chillesford. 
Thorpe; Bramerton. 
Chillesford. 
Bridlington (E.F.) 
Thorpe (J.M.) several valves. 
Bramerton (R.W.) J.M. 
Bramerton & Postwick, (J.M. &R.W.) 

Bulchamp and Wangford (H.A.) 
Normch (R.W.) ; Bulchamp (H.A.) 
Thorpe (R.W.) ; Bulchamp (H.A.) 
Bramerton, Postwick (c) Thoi-pe, 
Cromer (r) ; Bulchamp (F.W.) Chil- 
lesford. 
Postwick (c). 
Thorpe (R.W.) 

Thorpe, in fragments. (R.F.) 
Postwick (J.M. & R. W.) ChiUesford. 
Norwich (R.W.) R.F. single valves. 

Chillesford (single valve.) 
Norwich (R.W.) single valve. 
BridUngton. 
Bramerton; Thorpe (r.) Postwick (in 

pairs) Bridlington. 
Bridlington. 
BridUngton. 

Bramerton (R.F.) single valve in good 
condition. 

Bramerton (R.W.) single valve. 

Thorpe (R.F.) one valve. 
Thorpe (r) Bridlington. 
Norwich (R.W.) Bridlington. 

Bramerton; Thorpe (r), young more 
frequent. Bridlington. 

Bridlington. 

Bramerton (J.M.) Bridlington. 

Norwich ; Bulchamp ; Chillesford ; 
Bridlington. 

Norwich (R.W.) unique. 

Norwich (R.W.) imperfect. 

Norwich (r). 

Bramerton (R.W.) 

Bramerton (R.W.) 

Postwick ; Bramerton. 

Postwick (r) R.F. large valve. 

Thorite ; Bramerton. 

Norwich (r) Chillesford. 

Norwich (c) Bulchamp (a). 
.)Bramerton (r) Cliillesford. 

Thorpe (R.W.) Bulchamp (E.F.) 
ChiUesford. 

Norwich (R.W.) several valves (South- 
wold E.F.) 

Bramerton ; Postwick ; Bulchamp. 

Thorpe and Postwick (r) Chillesford. 

Norwich (a) Postwick, in pairs (J.M.) 

Bulcliamp (a) Chillesford, in pairs. 



SHELLS OF THE NEWER PLIOCENE. 



121 



Tellina lata {ovata, G.N.) ... 
solidula, var. Balthica 



praetenuis 

fabula 

Soleu siliqua 

Corbula nucleus 



var. oblong small. 



Mya arenaria (lata, subovata) 



truncata 



Thracia inflata 
Panopaea Norvegica 
Saxicava arctica 



var. suhtruncata) 



Norwich (a) Bulchamp (a) Chillesford. 

Postwick (top bed) Weyboume ; Brid- 
lington. 

Norwich (a) Bulchamp (a) Chillesford. 

Bulchamp (H.A.) Norwich (R.W.) 

Thoi-pe (r) fragments only; Bramer- 
ton (E.F.) 

Bramerton (R.W.) 

Norwich (R.W.) many valves. 

Norwich (a) Cromer; Bulchamp; 
Bridlington. 

Cliillesford (in pairs) Bridlington. 

Bramerton. 

Bramerton (R.F.) 

Chillesford (in pairs) ; Bridliagton. 

Bridlington. 

Bramerton: Thoi-pe (small), Bridlgtn. 

(Postwick, E.F.) Hasboro.' (Rev. J. 
Layton) Bridlington, WhitHugham 
(Mr. Clowes.) 

Of the 172 species above enumerated, 15 are only found at BridHngton, 
in Yorkshii'e ; 19 others are land and fresh- water shells ; and 28 are either 
" extraneous fossils" derived from the Red and Coralline Crag, or else some 
doubt attaches to them because they are unique, or have not been found a 
second time. 

Setting aside all these, there remain 110 marine shells, of which 

3 ai-e common to the Coralline 80 species are still living in the 



rugosa 

Pholas crispata 



crag only, 
46 are common to the Red crag only, 
32 are found in both Red and Cor- 
alline crag, 
29 are peculiar. 

110 



British seas, 
13 are only found north of Britain, 
2 occur on the north coast of 

Spain, 
15 are unknown as living shells. 



110 



These numbers are different from those given by the writer in the Supple- 
ment to Sir Charles LyeU's " Manual of Geology," and repeated in the same 
author's " Antiquity of Man ," but the modern and comparatively northern 
character of this division of the Crag is still more sti'ongly shown by the 
additional data now published. 

2. The Forest Bed. 
The Mastodon, which has been found in the Norwich crag, in neaily 
equal numbers with the Elephant, disappears altogether in the forest-becl. 
Hundreds of elephant's teeth have come to light from the latter, but not 
one of the mastodon. Near Southwold, at the junction of the Norwich crag 
and the forest-bed, two teeth of the mastodon have been picked up on the 
beach ; and we may expect to find similar remains at the other extremity of 
the forest-bed at Sherringham, or at Cromer, or wherever the Norwich crag 
Hes upon the beach; but it is not probable that any will be found at interme- 
diate places. The magnificence and profusion of the elephantine, cervine, 
and other mammaUan remains are such as to render this deposit one of the 
highest interest to geologists ; and the bed itself, from the remarkable changes 
it has undergone, is scarcely less so. It consists of two materials : a blue 
argillaceous sand, which constitutes the soil in which the trees grew ; and 
an indurated gravel, which, from the quantity of elephantine remains found 
in it, is called "the eleiDhant bed." This forest may be traced at intervals 
from Easton-Bavent near Southwold, along the beach and coast section, to 



122 GEOLOGY OF NORFOLK. 

Sherringham, north-west of Cromer, about 50 miles. Its extent inland and 
seaward has not been ascertained. It is evidently fluvio-marine, as appears 
from its organic remains. It is supposed to have been deposited in an 
estuary, into which, Mr. Woodward suggests, rivers from various directions 
poured their contents, and which opened to the sea, as is proved by the 
admixture of cetacean with the terrestial mammalian remains ; not neces- 
sarily a deep sea, for such cetaceans are generally found to have been 
stranded on shoals and in shallow waters. The substratum of the forest 
was probably thus formed, and then gradually raised above the waters; first, 
it may be presumed, where the Normch crag is visible, for the two appear 
to be continuous fonnations, and at the points of junction are singularly 
interblended. When the forest soil was raised to the surface and became 
subaerial, the trees began to grow, except where the pan of indurated gravel 
appears to have been too hard and barren to permit of their growth. No 
stools or roots of trees are consequently found m situ in the gravel, but 
only in the sandy clay, or where both are so blended as to admit of vege- 
tation. Broken fragments of stems and branches are abundantly found 
throughout both the gravel and clay ; and rounded nodules of clay, occa- 
sionally containing embedded leaves, are very characteristic of these com- 
ponent parts of the forest-bed. Animal remains also of the same description 
are contained in both, but far more abundantly in the gravel. In both ahke 
the bones are fractured in situ, with sharp angular edges, and are very 
rarely waterworn. These facts appear to indicate the action of powerful 
currents, by which the bed itself was partially broken up and nodules 
formed, and the whole gradually raised above the surface. This may 
be regarded as the second stage of this formation. Lakes, swamps, and 
morasses remained in some parts for the hippopotamus, and rivers for the 
trogontherium, or gigantic beaver. To judge by the depth of carbonized 
wood, and the abundance and variety of the animal remains, the forest must 
have flourished for ages, while this part of the earth was stationary. Then, 
the third and last period of the forest ensued, when a subsidence com- 
menced. The waters, marine and fresh, resumed their sway ; and they 
have left behind them many traces of their erosive and denuding power. 
After the northerly gales of Christmas, 1862, the shore was uncovered, 
and the forest-bed laid bare. The cliffs were washed away to an unpre- 
cedented extent, varying in some places from 2 to 20 yards. The forest- 
bed was then disclosed in the condition in which it had been left by de- 
nuding currents. The indurated gravel and occasionally the argillaceous 
sand, hardened by the oxide of iron, were found to lie in low ridges, or undu- 
lations, 5 or G feet above the ordinary level of the forest-bed, and at unequal 
distances. The forest soil on the beach was seen to be twisted and con- 
torted in the most remarkable manner, lying, in the space of twenty yards, 
in every possible direction, and occasionally broken into fragmentary 
masses. Such is the effect produced by powerful currents to which this 
bed appears to have been subjected at different levels, and at different 
periods of its formation. The fracture of some of the bones embedded, and 
the leaving of others denuded upon the forest-bed, to be partly enveloped 
in the next beds which are presented to our notice, seem due to this cause, 
whether in the ascending or descending process. One singular result of 
this very complex series is, that the oldest organic remains are to be found 
in the highest levels of the forest-bed, which first emerged from the waters 
of the Norwich crag period, as, for instance, at Trimingham, Cromer, and 
Runton. Hence the adoption by many of the relative depths at which 
specimens are found, as a criterion of their age, seems to be fallacious. 
On examining the specimens, a marked difference is observable between 
the teeth of the Elephas meridionalisfound in the older from those found 
in the later portions of the deposit. The mastodontic character of the 
ridges is diminished, and the enamel is thinner and less rugged. Another 



THE FOREST BED. 123 

species (considered by Dr. Falconer to be an old type of tlie Elephas pri- 
migenius), is found together with the Elephas meridionalis throughout the 
forest-bed. The enormous bones of the elephant in the Norwich Museum 
and in the collection of the Rev. J. Gunn, of Irstead, are supposed to belonf^ 
to one or other of these two species. A magnificent tusk, dug out of the 
beach at Runton, near Cromer, in 1862, now in the possession of Sir T. F. 
Buxton, 9 ft. 7 in. in length, and 2 ft. 8 in. in girth, probably belongs to the 
same species as the largest specimens in Mr. Gunn's collection ; and the 
living animal, Dr. Falconer is of opinion, stood at least 16 or 17 ft. high. The 
Elephas antiquus (Falconer) chiefly prevails at Happisburgh, and seems to 
have been inti-oduced into the forest-bed at a later period than the former, 
A tooth resembling those of the Elephas prisons, and two other varieties, 
in the opinion of Mr. Lartet, as yet undetermined, are in Mr. Gunn's col- 
lection also. Besides these elephants, the following list of fossil mam- 
maha may be added : — Rhinocerus megarhinus and R. etruscus. Hippo- 
potamus major, Equus fossilis. Bison prisons. Bos (rare), Sus, Ceiwus 
martiaHs, C. dama Poligniacus, C. elephus, C. Sedgwickii, a magnificent 
honi lately found at Bacton, with the antlers nearly perfect, and a fourth 
antler obtained fi'om the same spot 20 years ago, probably belonged to the 
same horn. When perfect, its dimensions were about 4 ft. 6 in. by 3 ft. 
Fragments of antlers have, since the discovery of this specimen, been iden- 
tified with it from various collections in England, in Paris, and Florence. 
Six other species of Cervus (according to IMr. Lartet) unknown, Ursus arve- 
nensis, Trogontherium Cuvieri, Mygale moschata, a lai'ge species of Shrew, 
Mole, two species of ^Miales, Vertebrae of fish. Elytra of beetles of several 
species, Scotch and spmce firs, yew, sloe, alder, oak, hazel, buckbean, 
white water lily, yeUow water lily, seeds of the ceratophyllum demersum, 
homwort, pondweed, rhizomes, and fronds of ferns. 

The Norfolk and Norwich Museum has a magnificent collection of Ele- 
phantine and other remains, principally from the collection of the late Miss 
Gurney, of North Repps, and a valuable one of crag fossils and flint imple- 
ments. The small Museums at the Priory and the Sailors' Home, at Yar- 
mouth, contain some valuable specimens of elephant's tusks and rhinoceros's 
teeth. The Rev. S. Y/. King, F.G.S., of SaxHngham Rectoiy, has an interest- 
ing collection of the Mammalia, and of the Fauna and Flora generally of the 
Norwich crag. Forest-bed, and other deposits. The Rev. J. Gunn, F.G.S., 
has a large general collection, but particularly of the Elephantine and 
Cervine remains from the Forest-bed. Mr. Owles, chemist, of Yarmouth, 
has some fine specimens of Mammalian remains from the forest-bed, and 
obtained by dredging off the Yarmouth coast. ]\lr. Steward, chemist, of 
Yarmouth, has a good collection of elephant's teeth ; and Mr. Nash, leather 
cutter. Chapel street, has also some interesting specimens of Mammalian 
remains. 

3. The Laminated Beds. 

These deposits, marked 3, in fig. 27 of "Antiquity of Man," and called 
" Fluvio-marine Series," had previously obtained the name of " Laminated 
beds," from the very fine and repeated laminations of clays and sands 
which compose them, especially at Happisburgh. They form a striking 
contrast to the water-worn suiiace of the forest-bed below, and the un- 
stratified boulder-clay above, and appear to have been caused dui-ing the 
gradual subsidence of the land, by the no less gradual gathering of water 
upon it. They present a nearly continuous and extensive formation, from 
Weybourn to Eastou Bavent, in Sufiblk, overlying both the Norwich crag 
and the forest-bed, and varying in height from 20 feet, near Cromer, to 1 or 
2 feet at Happisburgh. In the lowest part of them is the debris of the forest : 
leaves, branches, and wood}^ fibres matted together. Large bones of mam- 
malia are occasionally found here, which appear to have been washed out 
of the denuded eleiDhaut-bed ; then a succession of fresh water and mai'ine 



124 GEOLOGY OF NOKFOLK. 

deposits occur : at Walcot, for instance, there is an extensive lacustrine bed, 
containing elytra of beetles. At Mundesley there is a marine bed containing 
the Cardium in close contact with broken fronds of ferns ; a black fresh- 
water bed succeeds, with shells of the Unio, Cyclas, and Pisidium, similar 
to a still larger bed at West Runton ; and above this are strata with sea- 
shells. Very few teeth of the eleiDhant have been found in these beds. Only 
one, of the Elephas antiquus, a rolled specimen, has come to our notice. The 
Rev. S. W. King has obtained from them remains of the narwhal and walrus, 
very indicative of the commencement of the glacial series ; but, before we 
proceed to it, we vnll endeavour to reply to certain questions which are 
asked by nearly every person who sees the magnificent organic remains 
of the f(Drest-bed, viz. : — How could such animals as now inhabit warmer 
countries have lived in this ? and, How can the changes of climate be 
accounted for ? It is very difficult to assign a satisfactory cause for so high 
a temperature as prevailed during the cretaceous series, and the London and 
plastic clays, but the elevation of mountain ranges and the consequent 
glaciers, ice-bergs, and shore-ice account for the refrigeration of the tem- 
perature, and the gradual destruction of the mammalia. 

V. Glacial Series. 
The Loiver Boulder-Clay or Till. 
When the waters attained a sufficient depth, icebergs, charged with 
granitic and other boulders, drifted hither, and dropped their muddy and 
unstratified cargos upon the level surface of the laminated beds. Thus, 
the lower boulder bed, called the Till, was formed. The discovery of the 
origin of the Till, and its identification with similar beds in northerly lati- 
tudes, is due to Sir Charles Lyell, and may be regarded as one of the most 
important benefits conferred by him on the science of geology. The boulders 
are frequently scratched and striated by the action of glaciers, which, de- 
scending from their native heights into the sea, became icebergs, and tran- 
sported rocks to the Norfolk coast ; the chalk and flint also are found 
scratched by masses of ice, which have passed over them, or were stranded 
upon them. As nearly every description of rock may be collected from the 
lower boulder-clay ; it is not worth while to specify any. The larger por- 
tions of them are trap ; generally supposed to have been transported from 
Scandinavian districts, from which circumstance the till is called the 
Northern drift. It is mostly a greyish blue, but occasionally of a reddish 
tinge, and is composed of tlie debris of the Lias, Kimmeridge and Oxford 
clay, and contains the Gryphoea incurva, fragments of belemnites and of 
shells of a northern character. It is an extensive formation in Norfolk, 
and may be traced at intervals from Weybourne into Suifollc, and inland 
beyond Norwich. It is impossible to ascertain to what height it may have 
been raised, as its surface has been denuded. At Walcot it is altogether 
removed, and at Bacton it is partially and faintly represented; whereas 
at Mundesley and at Cromer, it reaches in places nearly to the sum- 
mit of the clifis, and within a few hundred yards of its greatest eleva- 
tion, it is worn down by currents, and left in bluffs upon the beach to the 
north-west of Cromer jetty. The beds beneath are also much disturbed or 
washed avs^ay on this spot, which, from the disarrangement and contortions 
of the ui^per beds, as well as of those below, demands the study of the 
geologist more, i^erhaps, than any ip the entire coast section. At the old 
Hythe, Sherringham, large masses of boulder clay are so altered in their 
position, that vertical layers of shells quite perfect and unbroken, together 
with layers of sand, all of which were once horizontal, are placed between 
them. These masses of clay appear to liave been shifted very quietly, other- 
wise the layers ^ of shells and sand must have been disturbed. But these 
belong to a series of beds above the lower boulder clay, which are next 
presented to our notice. 



GEOLOGY OF NOEFOLK. 125 

2. Stratified Clays, with Sands and Gravel 
intermixed, lie upon tlie denuded surface of tlie Till, generally with a thin 
layer of beach-shingle intervening. The strata of clay first, and then of 
sand or gravel, but sometunes reversed, vary from a few feet to 100 feet in 
thickness. They are, in many places, especially to the north-west of the 
town of Cromer, twisted in the most fantastic manner. A good section of 
these contorted strata is given in Mr. Eichard C. Taylor's " Geology of East 
Norfolk," to which excellent w^ork the reader is referred, and also to the 
description of them in Sir C. Lyell's " Princii^les " and the -'Elements of 
Geology," and " Antiquity of Man." The contortions in part are due to 
the deposition of the clay and sand on uneven surfaces, and in gorges of the 
lower beds, and to huge masses and pumacles of boujdered chalk embedded 
in the strata. The agency of sti'ong currents and of lateral pressure is also 
evident; and a most ingenious mode of accounting for then* contortions, 
where they occur in connection with horizontal stratifications, is suggested 
by Mr. Joshua Trimmer, ^;= namely, a subsidence of alternate layers of sand 
and clay, occasioned by the melting of masses of ice, which were imbedded 
in the strata. With respect to the height to wliich these deposits of sand 
may have been raised, it is impossible to fonn a right conjecture ; but Mr. 
Trimmer shows that they once extended fi-om the summit of Beeston hill to 
that of the Beacon hill, south-east of Cromer, and that they have since been 
denuded, or entu-ely removed. Upon these strata rests in some places an 
upper bed of unstratified boulder-clay. 

3. Upper Boulder Clay. 

It contains chiefly oolitic boulders, flint, and chalk, together with more 
ancient rocks. All of these are frequently scratched and grooved. At 
Merton, there is a boulder of the oolitic series 14 feet in length, which Sir 
R. Mm-chison considers may probably have been transported from theorem 
district of Sutherland. The glacial sea seems to have attained its greatest 
depth during the deposition of this upper boulder- clay, for it caps the high- 
est hills in Norfolk. It may be seen to advantage throughout the Flegg 
hundreds, in the Hemsby CHfl", and near Cromer, in the coast section, and 
in pits at Castle Rising Common, where an immense boulder of chalk, 20 
yards in length, is imbedded ; and at South V/ooton, and HilHngton. It is 
developed also near North Walsham, and at Witton, near B acton, where a 
fine upper molar of the Elephas primigenius was found in a pocket or cavity 
of the bouldered chalk. It is possible and probable, that there may have 
been a partial alternation of dry land and water between the deposition of 
the lower and upper boulder-clays, for wood is found in the intermediate 
sands, and in the lignite bed in the contorted sands, near Cromer. But we 
will pass on to the undoubted return of vegetation, and the subsidence of 
the glacial sea, which are evidenced in the 

4. Mundesley Fluvio -lacustrine Bed. 

This interesting deposit is described by Mr. Prestwich, in a paper read 
before the British Association at Oxford in 1860,f and by Sir Chas. LyeU, 
" Antiquity of Man," p. 224. An old vaUey a^jpears to have been scooped 
out through the sands, the lower boulder-clay and the laminated beds, down 
to the forest-bed below. This valley is lined throughout with an underlay er 
of gravel, and filled with a succession of black and bro^oi peaty beds and 
sands. It contains an abundance of fi-esh-water shells, aU recent, scales and 
teeth offish, elytra of beetles, bones of Arvicola, and seed vessels of the cerato- 
XDhylluru demersum. Occasionally bones of the Elephas antiquus and ox 
and entu-e fish are found in it ; pike and perch have been recognised. Cappin g 

* Quarterly Journal of Geological Society, Vol. VII. pp. 22, 30, and Geology of NorfolTi, 
p, 24. t Geological Magazine, No. 38. 



126 GEOLOGY OF NORFOLK. 

this river bed is a layer of gravel, which meets the underlying hed of gravel, de- 
fining the extent of the river, and continued beyond it, as described in Mr. 
Prestwich's section. This is an important fact, as it proves the antiquity of 
the Mundesley river bed, and its remarkable correspondence with the celebra- 
ted Hoxne brick-pits ; for tliis upper layer of gravel is the remains of the 
upper-level gravel of the adjacent valley, through which at the present time 
a little rivulet flows — the representative of the once larger stream which 
scooped out the valley. We shall perceive the relation of these phenomena 
to each other in reviewing 

5. The Valley -formations. 

At the outset we took a slight view of the river-valleys. It now remains 
for us to examine the mode of their formation, and their fossil contents. It 
had been supposed that the glacial period termmated with the boulder- clays; 
but the result of Mr. Prestwich's searching analysis of the valley-formations 
in this country and upon the Continent, has proved that, notwithstanding 
the abatement of the extreme cold, and the return from a glacial sea to dry 
land, with an abundant vegetation, ice-action continued, and the climate 
was intermediate between that of the boulder-clay period and of the present 
day. But, before we examine their fossil contents, it is advisable to ascer- 
tain the process by which the valleys have been formed. The late Mr. 
Samuel Woodward considered them to be valleys of elevation, and this was, 
no doubt, correct so far as regards the primary directions given to the cur- 
rents which formed the greater valleys. The subsequent process by which 
those valleys were reduced to their present form and condition, was brought 
to light by Mr. Prestwich.>:' We will endeavour to describe that process as 
well as we can, without the aid of a diagram. Suppose a major valley, or 
plain of denudation, about three miles in width ; the cm-rent of waters leaves 
a deposit of gravel called the high-level gravel; the river becomes contracted 
to a mile in width, and works its way through the high-level gravel to a 
lower stage, leaving a second deposit called the low level- gravel ; the 
river then becomes contracted to its present width of 100 yards, scoops 
its channel through the low-level gravel, and covers its base and its sides 
with recent alluvium. The results are singular, and have long been a puzzle 
to geologists. The high-level gi-avel, -with its truncated edges, correspond- 
ing on either side of the valley, is more ancient than the low-level gravel, 
and the low-level gravel than the alluvium. We cannot expect to find the 
series always complete, because it varies under different conditions; for 
instance, where the river valley is wider than the original major valley or plain 
of denudation, the upper -level gravel will have been entirely removed; but 
such has been the manner in which the valleys have been formed. 

The deposit of loess adds still further to the complication, but when the 
process of its formation is unfolded, it becomes equally obvious and plain. 
Rivers in icy regions are subject to great rises of water, occasioned by the 
melting of winter-snow, the fall of rain while the ground is still frozen, and 
other causes ; and, in all rivers subject to floods, three forms of sediment 
will be deposited — first, the gravel and shingle in the more direct channel ; 
secondly, sand in more sheltered places ; thirdly, fine silt, where the flood- 
waters are out of the direct channel. The fine silt, or loess, like the high and 
low-level gravels, is always connected with river- valleys, although it extends 
much beyond the limits of these beds, and rises to higher levels. It is found 
at the bottom of valleys, and sometimes from one to three hundred feet higher, 
which may be accounted for on the supposition that the rise of the water took 
place successively, when the valleys were at difierent levels. This explanation 
is necessary to render the extensive deposit of clays in East Norfolk, which, 

* Transactions of Royal Society, 1860. 



THE VALLEY-FORMATIONS. 127 

are most probably a sedimentary deposit or loess, intelligible. Such is the 
manner in which the gravel and loess of various levels have been formed ; 
at the same time Mr. Prestwich doubts whether the effects in question could 
have been produced without the upheaval of the land ; a slow elevation of 
which would increase the velocity and erosive power of the rivers. This 
combined action has formed the valleys through which so many rivers flow 
in this county ; as, for instance, the valleys of the Yare, the Wensum, and 
the Bure, on the opposite sides of which the escarpments of strata, which 
were once spread from side to side, may now be traced. 

The fauna of the several deposits is of great interest. All the species of 
mollusca are of forms that still exist here, and are common species, except the 
Cyren afluminahs of the Nile. They do not, therefore, afford any very appre- 
ciable evidence of climate, but, as Mr. Prestwich observes, the tendency of 
development of the group is rather in a northern than a southern direction. 
The evidence, however, of chmatal conditions furnished by the mammalia, 
although slight, is more definite than that obtained from the mollusca, 
and tends to show that the climate of these latitudes was colder then than 
at the present day. The Elephas premiginius. Rhinoceros tichorinus, 
Cervus tarandus or reindeer, C. elephus or red deer, 0. dama or fallow 
deer. Goat, Bison prisons. Bos primigenius, Horse, Wolf, Badger, and other 
animals, are found in these deposits. Mr. Prestwich is of opinion that 
the British Channel had been formed prior to the high-level gravel period, 
and that most of the animals had immigrated to this country from the con- 
tinent, before the disruption, but that some might have crossed since, when 
the channel was bridged over by ice. But the most interesting memorials 
discovered in the high-level gravels are the first works of man that are 
known — viz.. The Flint Implements. The most ordinary shapes of these 
are in the high-level gravels ; the large lance-headed form, either witli a sharp 
point, or a flat rounded one, and with a butt- end, sometimes blunt, and at 
other times chipped to an edge. It is conjectured that some of these were 
used for making holes in the ice, as the Chippewayan Indians and Esquimaux 
do at the present day with their ice chisels, when in winter the usually 
abundant supphes of reindeer fail, and they resort to fishing in the frozen 
rivers, and make and keep open water-holes for that purpose. Similar state- 
ments are made by Wrangel, in liis history of Siberia, the chmate of which 
country approaches to that of the high-level gravel period. It is re- 
markable that these flint implements with massive butt-ends, are most 
common where the evidence of ice is greatest. They almost disappear in 
the low-level gravels, and are there succeeded by others of an ovoid form, 
or by mere flakes, a change which indicates a difference in the pursuits and 
occupations of the primitive natives by whom they were used. Such pur- 
suits, Mr. Prestwich justly shows, are necessarily and primarily influenced 
by the chmate and lite of the period. Such is the picture of Esquimaux 
life, which this distinguished geologist so graphically brings before us as 
probably prevaihng at the period when the vestiges of man are first trace- 
able in this country ; and he places, as it were, a thermometer of the cli- 
mate in our hands during the high-level gravel period, which corresponded 
probably with that of Canada at the present day. The localities in Norfolk, 
where such flint-implements have actually been found are very limited. 
At present only a few of the low-level gravel type have been discovered, 
one, by the Rev. S. W. King, from the railway cutting near Bungay, which 
was, we are informed, associated with remains of the Elephas primigenius ; 
another, by Mr. Pengelly (a doubtful specimen) , lying upon a heap of gathered 
stones by the road side, at Lakenham, near Norwich. Several have 
been recently brought to light in excavating the unbroken strata of gravel on 
the banks of the Thet,near Thetford. Such is the meagre list of flint imple- 
ments at present found. It may, however, be expected that the lance-keaded 
ones of the upper-gravel period will be obtained on the Norfolk side of the 



128 GEOLOGY OF NORFOLK. 

banks oftlio Wavency, opposite to Hoxue, and in the gravel pits neai* Harlc- 
stou. In the valley of the Nar the remains of the Elephas primigenius have 
been found by Mr. Dalton, at Bilney, and Mr. Rose has pointed out in that 
parish a brick pit containing similar freshwater shells to those in the 
Hoxne bed, together with the bones of the horse and ox. On the high 
land of South VVootton, and many other places bordering on the Lynn 
Wash, the valley of the Wensum, and most of the river- valleys, there are 
remains of both the high and the low-level gravels, which may reward a 
patient search with the discovery of such implements. In the low-level 
gravel skirting Barton-Broad, and in the parish of Smallbiu'gh, the bones of 
the deer and ox have been found. Off this coast, about forty miles from 
Yarmouth, and near the Dutch coast, abundant remains are obtained by 
dredging, of the Elephas primigenius. Rhinoceros tichorinus, Hippotamus 
major, Cervus tarandus, and C. megaceros, together with other mammals 
usually found associated with these early vestiges of man. Probably, such 
flint implements and the remains of the men who made them, ^vill be brought 
to light from this and similar formations. A large collection of these fossil 
bones has been made by Mr. Rose, wdio described them in a paper read by 
him at the meeting of the British Association, at Cambridge, in 1862, and 
also by Mr. Owles and the Rev. John Gunn. 

The Recent Formations, Prehistoric and Historic. 
The Estuarinc, Fluviatilc, and Lacustrine Deposits 
appear in many places in an excursion along the coast, e.g., — the Holme 
and Thornham scalphs, with their magnificent submerged forest, the tur- 
baries and forests at Palling, near Waxham, on the beach ; and inland in 
the valleys of the Yare, the Bure, the Wensum, the Ant, and the Thurne 
At some remote period the sea rolled its tide up these extensive river- valleys, 
and left unmistakable evidence of its course by the marine shells, which 
are imbedded in the blue clay of this flu vio -marine deposit, and extensive 
flats are covered with a muddy sediment. As far as the organic remains 
admit it, we v/ill endeavour to bring them under the notice of the reader in 
their order of succession. 

In all these formations one very decided change in the fauna is observable, 
namely, the disappearance of the Elephas primigenius. Rhinoceros tichori- 
nus, the Hippopotamus major, and the reindeer, and the appearance of the 
remains of man and liis works, and of animals still living on the surface 
of the earth, as the horse, the ox, the red and fallow deer, the wild boar, 
the wolf, tlie badger, and others. One of the most ancient relics of 
man brought to light in this country was a human skull exhumed in 
sinking for the locks on the Dilham canal at Partridge's mill, in North 
Walsham. It was found lying beneath the peat upon the gravel, about 14 
feet below the surface, together with two specimens of the os frontis of the 
Bos primigenius. The skull (that of a young man) had a hole pierced in it, 
from which it was conjectured by the lal5t)urers that he had been gored to 
death by one of the oxen, and by others that he was Idlled in battle at tlie 
narrow passage of the river in this place. But what we desire to record rests 
upon the authority of the late Rev. Wm. Tylney Spurdens, of North Walsham, 
namely, that the skull was submitted to Sir Everard Home and to Mr. 
De Vnie, the celebrated phrenologist, who concurred in opinion that it was 
remarkable in its form, and resembled the skull of a red Indian. It was, 
there can be no doubt, the remains of one of the early inhabitants, who pre- 
ceded the Celtic and British colonists. It is to be regretted that this 
relic is lost ; the remains of the ox are in the Norfolk and Norwich Museum. 
At the Holme and Thornham Scalphs, near Hunstanton, are the remains of 
a remarkable forest. No human bones have been discovered there, but 
a polished Celt, of the stone period, was found in the Holme Scalphs, stick- 
ing in the trunk of a tree, by the Rev. George Munford, Rector of East 



GEOLOGY OF NORFOLK. 129 

Winch, and it is now placed in the Nonvdch Museum. The horns and 
bones of the deer have been taken from the forest-bed, and from the muddy 
sediment near the Thornham sluice-gate. The trees are the ordinary trees 
of the neighbourhood, then- stools are in situ, of great size, and the wood 
turned black, but so sound as to be used for carpenters' work. Human 
remains have frequently been dug up in the Peat formations, together with 
those of the red and fallow deer, and of the ox, mth a large quantity of hazel 
nuts. At Kidlington, the skeleton of a man was found in throwing out a 
ditch, lying beneath a trunk of a tree. At Wayford bridge, near Small- 
burgh, in making a staith-ditch, several human skulls and bones were dis- 
covered about six feet deep in the peat. One skull belonging to the skeleton 
from Ridlington, and one of a female from Wayford, are considered by JNIr. 
Busk to be very fine specimens of early British, and are placed in the 
Museum of the London University. 

The formation of turbaries is very interesting and important for the 
determination of the age of the remains embedded in them, and the re- 
mains frequently reflect light upon the age of the turbary. The discovery 
of several coins in digging turf in Catfield, near Ludham, the latest of 
which was of the reign of Edward VI., proves that there was water when 
the coins were sunk, and the peat has grown up since, and become a soHd 
tui-f-ground. It is formed by the annual growth and decay of several marsh 
plants, as the Typha latifolia and angustifoha, Scirpus lacustris, Cladium 
mariscus, »fec., and is estimated at the rapid growth of a foot in twenty 
years. The broads or lakes in Norfolk are foimd in some instances to grow 
up very rapidly by a singular process, which throws hght upon the form- 
ation of ancient turf- grounds and marshes. The water-plants which fix 
thek roots in the mud, if not cut down regularly, lose their hold, and 
rise to the surface, forming floating islands. These islands become massed 
and compacted together, and in time form marshy ground, leaving only a 
channel for the flow of water to pass through. In some places where 
boats could sail fifty years ago, people may now walk ; and, where there 
were swamps and treacherous ground, heavy cattle are now grazing. 
By such a natural process extensive tracts of marshes have been formed ; 
but where the turf or peat is of considerable depth, and where trunks 
of trees are embedded, which once grew upon the clay beneath, it is 
di£S.cult to explain how the peat could have been formed. A change of level 
by a gradual subsidence seems to ofi'er the only solution, diuing which the 
peat grew up by successive growths, as it were, and again the re-eleva- 
tion of the land appears to be the most satisfactory mode of accounting 
for peat-formations which rise above the present level of the water. 
The frequent mention made of earthquakes in the history of Norfolk, espe- 
cially in the Chronicles of John of Oxnead, from the earliest records to the 
17th century, accords with this view. Another very powerful agent which 
will account for the overthrow of trees, is the violence of winds and storms 
such as we have experienced of late years. The incursions of the sea are 
also frequently mentioned by this chronicler. In 1287, he records that 
" In the month of December, the seventh of the Kalends of January, the 
8th day of the moon — the sea, in dense darkness, began to be agitated by the 
violence of the wind, and in its agitation to burst through its accustomed 
limits, occupying towns, fields, and other places adjacent to the coast, and 
inundating parts which no age in past times had recorded to have seen 
watered with sea-water. For, issuing forth about the middle of the night, 
it suffocated or drowned men and women sleeping in their beds, with infants 
in their cradles, and all kinds of cattle and the fresh-water fishes ; and it tore 
up houses from then' foundations, with all they contained, and carried them 
away, and threw them into the sea with irrecoverable damage. Many, when 
surrounded by the waters, sought a place of refuge by mounting into trees ; 
butj benumbed by the cold, they were overtaken by the water and fell into it 

I 



130 GEOLOGY OF NORFOLK. 

and were drowned. Whereby it happened that m the town of H3''ckelingge 
(Hiclding) nine score of different sexes and ages perished in the aforesaid in- 
undation. In the priory of Canons in the same town, the aforesaid inundation 
rose to the height of a foot and more over their high altar ; all the canons, 
except two left behind, made their escape in boats ; which two saved as 
many others as they could snatch from the waters in their dormitory, which 
was vaulted. And not only in the aforesaid town, but in the other towns ad- 
jacent to the sea, there was great risk of men's lives, seeing that the afore- 
said inundation happened in the deej) darkness of the night." 

Such incursions of the sea form one of the most active elements of 
geological changes. Twice every 24 hours, and at certain times and seasons, 
with increased violence, the sea beating on the shore and cliffs, reduces the 
loftiest hills and the hardest rocks to a common level. Proofs of its power 
have been afforded within the historical period by the destruction of several 
parishes, or such portions of them, as to leave scarcely more than their 
names as Little Waxham, Whimpwell, adjoining Happisburgh ; Shipden, 
near Cromer ; and Keswick, adjoining Bacton. Eccles, near Hempstead, has 
suffered such depredations from time to time that in 1614, lUth Charles 
I., only 100 acres remained out of 2000. The tower of the ruined church 
stood enveloped in il/arrrtj/i hills till Christmas, 1862, when a strong and long 
continued northerly wind on the 8th day of the moon, (during a neap tide, 
when least expected), caused one of the highest and most destructive tides 
upon record. Along the line of the coast, from 2 to 20 yards, as already 
mentioned, were washed away, in proportion as the materials of the cliffs were 
capable of offering resistance. The sand hills around Eccles tower could 
offer but little. They were carried away about 20 yards inland, and the 
ploughed fields, with their fences, and tracks of cart wheels and im- 
pressions of horseshoes of the period, just as they had been left many years 
before, were exposed. In the early part of tliis century the sea broke over 
at Eccles and Horsey, and the entire level of marshes to Beccles, Norwich, 
Horstead and North Walsham, was threatened with inundation. The cele- 
brated Wilham Smith was called in, and the breaches were ingeniously 
repaked by sloping the embankments to the sea at such an angle that the 
waves would roll uj) and back harmlessly. The principle was, no doubt, 
sound ; but in order to carry it out effectually, it is necessary to have a 
series of groins placed at certain distances so as to stay the shingle and 
sand, and prevent the sea taking the cliffs and embankments on the flank. 
These groins have been tried at Cromer with success, and the town has 
escaped uninjured by the late storms. The same effect is produced at 
Yarmouth by the extension of the piers of the haven seaward, and by other 
works. The marram hills,* formed by the psamma arenaria, either growing 
naturally or planted, and raised as the i)lant grows, by blown sand, which 
is stayed by it, attract our attention as important barriers against the en- 
croachments of the sea. Commencing at Happisburgh they extend to Yar- 
mouth ; at Palling and Wanham attaining the height of 40 or 50 feet, and at 
Yarmouth represented by low dunes and hillocks. The high tides at 
Christmas, 1862, in a few hours cut some of these hills in two, carry- 
ing haK into the ocean and leaving the remainder with regular 
stratifications, as if they had been deposited by water, and with the 
helix and the solen intermixed, wafted by the wind from the land and from 
the beach. It is very difficult to obtain j)recise and accurate information 
respecting the amount of land washed away in a given number of years. 
We, therefore, gladly avail ourselves of a communication on the subject by 
a very intelligent, as well as interested observer, Mr. William Cubitt, of the 
Bacton Priory Farm. He states that, at Bacton, where he and his prede- 
cessors have carried on the business of coal merchants during the last 
thirty-five years, he has seen four coal-yards successively, a small farm- 
house with a barn, out-houses and garden used as a bowling green, washed 



GEOLOGY OF NORFOLK. 131 

away, measuring at least ninety yards to the present cliff; and that vessels 
can now sail at high-water where the land was then cultivated. Such 
observations are valuable, not only in a geological, but in a commercia 
point of view. Mr. Cubitt remarks: — "It is serious to contemplate what 
may be the effects of two or three more such tides as we experienced in 
January, 1863. It is not improbable, with the present low state of the 
beach, and the much diminished sand-banks, that we may live to see some 
tens of thousands of acres of the finest land in our county suddenly over- 
flowed. No man practically conversant with the matter can visit that part 
of the coast without seeing the immediate necessity for providing against 
such a calamity, by the formation of groins or breakwaters at right angles 
to the cliffs, or sandbanks, extending to extreme low-water mark. Every- 
one who has resided for any length of years upon this coast, must be aware 
that the sea is gradually, but surely, encroaching upon us. It is serious 
enough to see so much fine land swept away, but it would be an unmitigated 
calamity to see a vast portion of our county buried beneath the sea." This 
is one of the most effective elements of destruction, by which a few feet of 
land are annually washed away, till the centre ridge of high land which 
interposed between the sea and the adjoining valley is removed, and then 
the sea takes possession of the valley, and begins without delay to batter 
against the opposite side. There is, however, a principle of compensation 
going on meanwhile, by which the materials carried away are being rede- 
posited in the form of sand and mud-banks out at sea, to be elevated above 
the surface by subterranean force at some future time. A new edition of 
terra firma may then be presented to geologists, illustrated by the medals 
and memorials of the present day. Such is the alternate process of destruc- 
tion and renovation which has been going on for ages ; and it may be ex- 
pected to continue, except so far as it is arrested by the ingeniuty and 
labour of man, to the end of time. We conclude this brief description of 
the small part of the crust of the earth which is exposed in this county, with 
an earnest recommendation that precautionary measures should be taken 
to resist the encroachments of the sea on the eastern coast. 

0E^:ITH0L0Gy. — The reputation which this county has always maintained 
as being one of the richest OiTdthological districts in the United Kingdom, 
is quite unaffected by those local causes which have of late years altered 
the habits of many of our resident species. Not only is its bold projecting 
coast-line, extending fi*om Yaimouth on the extreme eastern point to Hun- 
stanton and Lynn on the north-west, peculiarly favourable for the advent 
of all migratory species, but the variety of attractions presented by the 
diversity of the soil and sudden transitions from one formation to another, 
are such, perhaps, as can be nowhere equalled in the same extent of 
country. On the coast itself we find a sti-ange alternation of sand and 
shingly beaches, salt marsh, cultivated land, and low sandy hills, or lofty 
chffs, with rich grassy summits and thick woods, in close vicinity to the 
sea. Besides which, to a very large proportion of our migratoiy visitants, 
the tidal channels of Breydon, Blakeney, and Lynn present, at low water, 
from their wide extent of mud banks, an inexhaustible supply of food ; and, 
more inland, the shallow waters and reedy margins of the " Broads," sur- 
rounded by large tracts of luxiuiant marshes, form the natural resort, both 
in winter and summer, of many of the aquatic tribes. To the natural ad- 
vantages, therefore, of the locality itself, the fact, that the number of species 
included in the avi-fauna of Norfolk has increased rather than diminished 
of late years, is mainly attributable. Messrs. Gurney and Fisher, in their 
" Account of the Bu'ds found in Norfolk," pubhshed in the " Zoologist" 
for 1846, give the total number of species at that time as 277; and even 
omitting one or two birds, hitherto included on insufficient authority, the 
total number at the present time amounts to 293. It is, however, in the 

i3 



132 ORNITHOLOGY OF NORFOLK. 

nesting habits of many residents, and the absence during the summer 
months of others, which formerly remained to breed in tliis county, that we 
really find the changes which have been effected by local causes during the 
last 20 or 30 years. 

Civilization and cultivation go hand-in-hand, and as the necessities of 
our largely-increased population demand still greater exertions to supply the 
required food, the wild denizens of the marsh recede before the rapid in- 
roads of the plough, drainage on all sides narrows their boundaries, and as 
surely as the waving corn crops succeed the feathery reedstems, the call of 
the Partridge takes the place of the Redshank's whistle and the drumming 
noise of the Snipe. Salt marshes reclaimed, no longer afford feeding 
grounds for the various wild fowl; and the very repairs necessary to 
prevent the encroachments of the sea, are a constant source of disturb- 
ance to such species as formerly bred in the vicinity of the coast. The 
general enclosure of commons and waste lands has likewise in its turn, 
affected other classes of birds, as well as the thinning of hedgerows and 
other farming operations resulting of late years from an improved system of 
agriculture. To the latter cause may, in some degree, be attributed the 
much to be regretted extinction of the Great Bustard in Norfolk, its last 
abiding place in the whole kingdom. The adoption of horse-hoeing, un- 
doubtedly, facilitated the discovery of its nests and eggs amongst the spring 
corn, (most of them being found in fields of rye,) and the high price given 
for tlie eggs, which, for the most part, were placed under hens and hatched, 
with the hope of rearing the young birds, caused them to be taken whenever 
met with. The last Bustard killed in tliis county was a female obtained at 
Lexham, near Swaffham, in 1838, the remnant of a small flock of hens, 
which had for some years frequented that neighbourhood; but no male 
birds then existing, their eggs were dropped about at random during the 
breeding season, and thus the whole race became entirely extinct. As an 
accidental migrant, can it alone be included in the " Norfolk List " at the 
present time, specimens having occurred here, as in other counties, which 
may fairly be 'considered as migratory visitants. Drainage and cultivation, 
however, but shai'e "uith other causes a common result; the great. increase 
of gunners, 0"wing to the cheapness of firearms, and the ready means of 
transit by rail to almost all parts of the county, (the iron road itself travers- 
ing between Norwich and Yarmouth, some of the finest snipe marshes of 
former days), have done much towards completing that exterminating system 
which years of indiscriminate egging was fast effecting by itself. Bather 
may we wonder that so much still remains to the sportsman and naturalist 
than that so many familiar forms have ceased to appear except as temporary 
sojourners on their migratory course. 

There is one group of birds, however, which demands a somewhat sepa- 
rate notice, its persecutions arising from a very different cause. No Falcon, 
Hawk, Harrier, or Buzzard can long expect to escape the doom of its race in 
a strictly game preserving district like the county of Norfolk ; and scarcely 
can it be said that any birds of this class but the Kestrel and Sparrow-hawk 
are still resident amongst us, although the nests of all three of the Harriers 
are occasionally found in the neighbourhood of the Broads. The Tawny 
and Barn Owls are both far less common than they used to be, and the 
Short-eared Owl, though a regular autumnal migrant, has ceased almost 
entirely to nest in our fens, so many of its former haunts no longer exist- 
ing in their normal state. The Long-eared Owl, on the contrary, at one time 
scarce, has, through the great increase in our fir plantations, become a 
pretty numerous resident amongst us, in spite of its nests being syste- 
matically plundered. But if the Raptores have suffered at the hands of 
the gamekeeper (and included alike in his list of " feathered vermin " are 
the Raven, the Magpie, and the Carrion Crow), the smaller insessorial birds, 



OENITHOLOGY OF NORFOLK. ISB' 

more especially the warblers that visit us in summer, are benefited gi'eatly 
through the care of the game. The dense woods afford both food and shel- 
ter, and their own Httle nests are safe from prjdng eyes, since no intruding 
footstep is allowed to scare the sitting Pheasants. This is perhaps the only 
class which can really be said to have benefited by recent changes, for if the 
marked decrease in our birds of prey has caused a corresponding increase 
amongst the Finches, Buntings, and Larks, the barbarous and um-easoning 
system of slaughter so recently adopted, by means of poisoned wheat, bid 
fair to effect at onetime the same, lamentable state of tilings that now exists 
in France. The warning, however, received fi'om that country has roused 
the friends of the " little bird" amongst us, and the various appeals in its 
favour that have appeared in our metropohtan and provincial journals 
have been happily supplemented by legislative enactments tending to the 
preservation of the feathered tribes. " Man cannot do without the bird" as 
an insect eater, and although, when undiminished in the natural way, their 
numbers become a serious tax upon the farmers' corn, there are and always 
have been legitimate and effectual means for thinning then- ranks without 
involving in one general massacre the useful and the mischievous — the Rook 
and the Sparrow, and often, though quite unintentionally, the Partridge 
as well. 

The arrangement and nomenclature of Yarrell's, " British birds," has been 
adopted, with but one or two shght exceptions (indicated by a *) in the fol- 
lowing list of th.eBi7'ds of Norfolk ; and the initial letters, &c., placed after 
the Enghsh names of each species, will be readily understood by reference 
to the subjoined table, 

ace. — Accidental, — very rare, or such as have occurred but a few times 
irregularly. 

a. w. m.— Autumn and winter migrants, amongst which are included most 
of the Gulls, but although some bkds of this tribe are seen on the coast 
nearly all the year round, they do not (with the exception of the Black- 
headed Gull) breed here, and cannot therefore be classed as residents. 

sp. a. m. — Spring and autumn migrants. 

sp. a. m. occ. — Occasional spring and autumn migrants. 

sp. a. m. occ. b. — Spring & autumn migrants occasionally remaining to breed. 

s. m. — Summer migrants. 

s. m. b. — Summer migrants breeding here. 

s. m. occ. b. — Summer migrants breeding here occasionally. 

r. — Resident all the year and breeding here. 

r. m. — Residents receiving migratory additions in autumn and winter. 

r. m. occ. — Residents occasionally receiving additions. 

irr. m. — Irregular migrants apparing at various seasons. 

w. m. — Winter migrants. 

w. m. irr. — Irregular winter migrants. 

w. m. occ. b. — Winter migrants occasionally remaining to breed. 

Haliaeetus albicilla 
Pandion haliaeetus 
H^Falco greenlandicus ... 

peregrinus ... _ 

subbuteo ... Hobby ... ... s. m. occ. b. — 

rufipes ... 

sesalon 

tinnunculus 

Astur palumbarius ... Goshawk ... ... sp. a. m. occ. — 

Accipiter nisus ... , 
Milvus vulgaris 
Buteo vulgaris 

lagopus ,. 

Peraia apivorus ,,. Honey Buzzard ... sp. a. m. occ. — 



White-tailed Eagle ... 


a. 


w. 


m. 


Osprey 


sp. 


a. 


m. 


Greenland Falcon 


ace. 


— 


— 


Peregrine Falcon 


sp. 


a. 


m. 


Hobby 


s. 


m. 


occ. 


Red-footed Falcon 


ace. 


— 


— 


Merlin 


sp. 


a. 


m. 


Kestrel 


r. 


m. 


— 


Goshawk 


sp. 


a. 


m. 


Sparrowhawk 


r. 


m. 


— 


Kite 


ace. 


— 


— 


Common Buzzard 


sp. 


a. 


m. 


Rough-legged Buzzard 


sp. 


a. 


m. 


Honey Buzzard 


sp. 


a. 


m. 



134 



BIRDS OF NORFOLK. 



Circus ceruginosiis 

cyaneus 

montagui 

Scops aldrovandi 

asio 

Otus VTilgaris 

• brachyotos 

Strix flammea 
Syrnium stridula 
Surnia nyctea 
Noctua passerina 

— tengmalm 

Lanius excubitor 

coUurio 

rutilus 

Muscicapa grisola ... 

atricapilla ... 

Cinclus aquaticus 
Turdus viscivorus 

pilaris ... 

musicus 

• iliacua 

— " — merula 
— — — torquatus 

Oriola galbula 

Accentor modularis 
Erytliaca rubecula 
^Motacilla suecica (Linn) 

ruticilla . . . 

titliys 

Saxicola rubicola 

• rubetra 

genantbe 

Salicaria locustella 

pbragmitis ... 

luscinoides . . . 

arundinacea ... 

Philomela luscinia 
Curruca atricapilla 

hortensis 

cinerea 

sylviella 

Sylvia sylvicola 
trochilus 

* rufa 



Marsh Harrier 
Hen Harrier 
Montague's Harrier , . . 
Scop's Eared Owl 
American Mottled Owl 
Long-eared Owl 
Short-eared Owl 
Barn Owl .. 
Tawny Owl 
Snowy Owl 
Little Owl ... 
Tengmalm's Owl 
Great Grey Shrilce ... 
Red-backed Shrike ... 
Woodchat Shrike 
Spotted Flycatcher 
Pied Flycatcher 
Common Dipper 
Missel Thrush 
Fieldfare 
Song Thrush 
Redwing 
Blackbird ... 
Ring Ouzel ... 
Golden Oriole 
Hedge Sparrow 
Redbreast ... 
Blue-throated Warbler 
Redstart 
Black Redstart 
Stonecliat 
Wliinchat ... ... 

Wheatear 

Grasshopper Warbler... 
Sedge Warbler 
Savi's Warbler 
Reed Warbler 
Nightingale 
Blackcap Warbler 
Garden Warbler 
Common Whitethroat ... 
Lesser Wliitethroat ... 
Wood Warbler 
Willow Yv^arbler 
Chiffchaff 



MeUzophilus dartfordiensis— Dartford Warbler 
Regains cristatus 

ignicapillus . 



Parus major 

coeruleus 

■ ater 

palustris 

caudatus 

Calamophilus biarmicus 
Bombycilla garrula 
Motacilla yarrellii 

■ boarula 

neglecta 

flava 



Golden-crested Regulus 
Fire-crested Regulus . . . 
Great Tit ... 
Blue Tit ... 
Cole Tit 
Marsh Tit ... 
Long-tailed Tit 
Bearded Tit 
Bohemian Waxwing ... 
Pied Wagtail 
Grey Wagtail . 
Grey-headed Wagtail 
Ray's Wagtail 



r. m. 

sp. a. 

sp. a. 
ace. — 
ace. — 

r, m. 

sp. a. 

r. — 

r. — 
ace. — 
ace. — 
ace. — 
irr. m. 

s. m, 
ace. — 

s. m. 

sp. a. 
ace. - — 

r. m. 

w. m. 

r. m. 

w. m. 

r. m. 
sp. a. 
ace. — 

r. — 

r. — 
ace. — 

s. m. 
ace. — 

s. m. 

s. m. 

s. m. 

s. m. 

s. m. 
ace. — 

s. m. 

s. m. 

s. m. 

s. m. 

s. m. 

s. ni. 

s. m. 

s. m. 

s. m. 
ace. — 

r. m. 
ace. — 
r. m. 
r. — 
r. — 
r. 

r. — 
r. — 

w. m. 
r. m. 

w. m. 

ace. — 

s. m. 



m. occ. 
m. occ. 



b. 
b. 



m. occ. b.? 



b. — 
m. occ. 



b. 



m. occ. b. 



m. — — — 



occ. 



b. — 



BIRDS OF NORFOLK. 



135 



Antlius arboreus 

prateusis 

petrosus 

' ricardi 

alpestris 

arvensis 

arborea 

Plecti'opbanes lapponica 

nivalis ... 

Emberjza miliaria 

■ — scboeniclus ... 

citrinella 

ciiius 

■_ — hortulana ... 

Fringilla coelebs 

montifringilla 

Passer montanus 

domesticus 

Coccothraustes cliloris 

— vulgaris 

Carduelis elegans 



spinus 

Linota cannabina 

canescens 

— \ liaaria 

montiiim 

Pyrrliula vulgaris 
enucleator 



Tree Pipit ... 
Meadow Pipit 
Rock Pipit ... 
Hicbard's Pipit 
Sbore Lark ... 

Skylark 

Wood Lark „ 

Lapland Buntiug 
Snow Bunting 
Common Bunting 
Black-beaded Bunting 
Yellow Bunting 
Cirl Bunting 
Ortolan Bunting 
Cbaffinch ... 
Bramling 
Tree Sparrow 
House Sparrow 
Greenfincb .. 
Hawfinch 
Goldfinch ... 
Siskin 

Common Linnet 
Mealy Redpole 
Lesser Bedpole 
Twite 

Bullfinch ... 
Pine Grosbeak 
Common Crossbill 
Parrot Crossbill 



Loxia curvirostra 

pityopsittacus 

bifasciata... European TvTiite -winged Crossbill 



Agelaius phoeniceus 
^i'Sturnella ludoviciana 

vulgari s 

Pastor roseus 

Corvus corax 

corone 

comix 

frugiligus 

monedula 

Pica caudata 

gl andariu s 

Nucifraga caryocatactes 
Picus martins ... ... 

viridis 

major 

minor 

Yunx torquilla 

Certhia familiaris 
Troglodytes vulgaris ... 

Upupa epops 

Sitta europEea 

Cuculus canorus 
Coracias garrula 
Merops apiaster 
Alcedo ispida ... 
Hu'undo rustica 
urbica 



Redwinged Starhng 
American Meadow Starhng 
Common Starling 
Rose-coloured Pastor 
Raven 

Can-ion Crow 
Hooded Crow 
Rook 
Jackdaw 
Magpie 
Jay 

Nutcracker 

Great Black Woodpecker 
Green Woodpecker . . . 
Great Spotted Woodpecker 
Lesser Spotted Woodpecker 
Wryneck 
Common Creeper 

Wren 

Hoopoe 
Nuthatch 
Cuckoo 
Roller 
Bee-eater 
Kincffisher 
Swallow 
House Martin 



m. 
m. 



m. 
m. 



s. 

r. 

w. m 
ace. — 
ace. — 

r. 

s. 
ace. — — 

a. w. m. 

r. m.? — 

r. — — 

r. m. — 
ace. — — 
ace. — — 

r. m. — 
w. 



b. — — 



b. — — 



a. 
r. 
r, 
r, 
a. 
r. 



w. 
m. 



a. w. 
r. m. 



m. — — 



m. oee. b. 



m. — — 



w. m. — 



r. m. 
a. w. 



m. — — 



r. m. — — 

ace. m. ? — — 

w. m. occ. — 

ace. — — — 

ace. — — — 

ace. — — — 

ace. — — — 

sp. 

r. 

r. 



m. 
m. 



m.y 



a. 

m. 
m. 

a. w. 

r. — 

r. — 

r. 

r. 

ace. 
ace. 

r. 

r. 

r. 

s. 

r. 

r. 

sp. 

s. m. 
ace. — 
ace. — 

r. m. 

s. m. 

s. m. 



m. oce. — 



m. — — 



m. — 
m.? — 
m. b. 



a. m. — 



b. — 



b. 
b. 



136 



BIRDS OF NORFOLK. 



Hirundo riparia 

Cypselus apus 

. — alpinus 

Caprimulgus europaeiis 
Columba palumbus 

seuas 

turtur 

Phasianus colchicus ... 

Tetrao tetrix 

-V- Syrraptes p aradoxus 
Perdix cinerea 

rufa 

Coturnix vulgaris 

Otis tarda 

tetrax 

CEdicnemus crepitans ... 
Glareola torquata 
Charadrius pliivialis ... 

morinellus ... 

hiaticiila 

— cantianus ... 

Squatarola cinerea 
Vanellus cristatus 
Strepsilas interpres . . . 
Calidrs arenaria 
Hoematopns ostraligus 

Grus cinerea 

Ardea cinerea 

purpurea 

alba 

garzetta 

comata ... 

Botaurus minutus 

stellaris 

Nycticorax garden! 
Ciconia alba 
Platalea leucorodia 
Ibis falcinellus 
Numenius arquata 

phceopus 

Totanus fuscus 

calidris 

ocliropus 

glareola 

hypoleucos 

glottis 



Sand Martin..,, 

Common Swift 

Alpine Swift 

Nightjar 

Ringdove 

Stock Dove ... 

Turtle Dove ... 

Common Pheasant 

Black Grouse 

Sand Grouse 

Common Partridge 

Red-legged Partridge 

Common Quail 

Great Bustard 

Little Bustard 

Great Plover... 

Collared Pratincole 

Golden Plover 

Common Dotterel 

Ring Dotterel 

Kentish Plover 

Gray Plover ... 

Peewit 

Turnstone 

Sanderling ... 

Oyster Catcher 
Common Crane 

Common Heron 

Purple Heron 
Great Wliite Heron 
Little Egi-et 
Squacco Heron 
Little Bittern 
Common Bittern 
Night Heron... 
^Vhite Stork... 
"White Spoonbill 
Glossy Ibis ... 
Common Curlew 
Whimbrel ... 
Spotted Redshank 
Common Redshank 
Green Sandpiper 
Wood Sandpiper 
Common Sandpiper 
Greenshank 
Avocet 



Recurvirostra avocetta 

Himantopus melanopterus — Black- winged Stilt 



Limosa melanura 

rufa 

Machetes pugnax 
Scolopax rusticola 

maj or 

1- gallinago 

■ gallinula 

sabina 

Macrorhamphus griseus 
Tringa subarquata 



Black-tailed Godwit 
Bar-tailed Godwit 
Ruff 

Woodcock ... 
Great Snipe ... 
Common Snij)e 
Jack Snipe ... 
Sabine's Snipe 
Brown Snipe... 
Curlew Sandpiper 



s. m. 

s. m. 
ace. — 

s. m. 

r. m. 

r. — 

s. m. 

r. — 

r. — 
ace. — 

r. — 

r. m. 

s. m. 
ace. — 
ace. — 

s. m. 
ace. — 

sp. a. 



sp. 
r. 
sp. 
sp. 



a. 

m. 
a. 
a. 



r. m. 

sp. a. 

sp. a. 

r. m. 

ace. — 

r. — 

ace. — 

ace. — 

ace. — 

ace. — 

ace. — 

a. w. 

ace. — 

sp. a. 

sp. a. 

ace. — 

sp. a. 

a. 

a. 

m. 

a. 

a. 

a. 

a. 



sp. 

sp. 

r. 

sp. 

sp. 

sp. 

sp. 

ace 

ace 

sp. 

sp. 

sp. 

sp. 

sp. 

r. 

sp. 

ace. — 

ace. — 

sp. a 



b. — — 
b. — — 

b. — — 



b. — 



b. — — 



b. — 

m. — 

m. — 

m. oec. 

m. — 

m. — 

m. — 



a. 
a. 
a. 
a. 
a. 
m. 
a. 



m. — — 

m. oec. — 

m. oec. — 

m. — — 

m. — — 

m. — — 

m. — ' — 

m. — — 

m. — — 

m. — — 



m. oec. 
m. — 
m. oec. 
m. oec. 
m. — 



m. — — ■ 



m. oec. 



BIRDS OP NORFOLK. 



137 



Tringa canntus 

rufescens 

platyrhyncha ... 

minuta 

Temminckii 

pectoralis 

► variabilis 

maritima 

Crex pratensis 

porzana 

pucilla 

baillordi 

Rallns aquaticus 
Gallinula chloropus 
Fulica atra 
Plialaropus lobatus 

hyperboreus 

Anser ferns 

segetum 

brachyrbyncbus 

albifrons 

leucopsis 

torquatus 

ruficollis 

egyptiacus 

canadensis 

Cygnusolor 

ferns 

bewicMi 

immutabilis 

Tadoma vulpanser 

Anas strepera 

clypeata 

acuta 

boscbas 

querquedula 

crecca 

panelope 

Somateria mollissima 

dispar 

spectabilis 

Oidemia fusca 



nigra 

Fuligula rufina 

ferina 

nii'oka 



-marila 

-cristata 

-glacialis 

-bistrionica 

-clangula 

-albeola 



Mergus albellus 

cucullatus 

serrator 

merganser 



Podiceps cristatus 
rubricollis 



Knot 

Buff-breasted Sandpiper 

Broad-billed Sandpiper 

Little Stint ... 

Temminck's Stint 

Pectoral Sandpiper 

Dunlin 

Purple Sandpiper 

Landrail 

Spotted Crake 

Little Crake 

Baillons Crake 

Water Rail 

Moorben 

Coot 

Grey Pbalarope 
Red-necked Pbalarope 
Grey-legged Goose 
Bean Goose 
Pink-footed Goose 
Wbitefronted Goose ... 
Bernicle Goose 
Brent Goose 
Red-breasted Goose ... 
Egyptian Goose 
Canada Goose 
Mute Swan 
Hooper 
Bewick Swan 
Polisb Swan 
Sbeldi'ake ... 
Gadwall 
Sboveller 
Pintail 
Wild Duck 
Garganey ... 
Teal 
Wigeon 
Eider Duck 
Stellar's Western Duck 
King Duck 
Velvet scoter 
Common Scoter 
Red- crested Whistling Duck 
Pocbard 

Ferrugenous Duck ... 
Scaup Duck 
Tufted Duck 
Long-tailed Duck 
Harlequin Duck 
Golden Eye 
Buffel-beaded Duck ,.. 
Smew 

Hooded Merganser ... 
Red-breasted Merganser 
Goosander ... 
Great Crested Grebe 
R^d-necked Grebe 



a. m. — — 



sp. 

ace. — — 
ace. — — 



sp. 

sp. 

ace. 

sp. 

sp. 

s. 

s. 

ace. 
ace. 

r. 

r. 

r. 

a. 

a. 
ace. 

a. 

a. 

w. 

w. 

w. 
ace. 
ace. 
ace. 

r. 

w. 

w. 
ace. 

r. 

a. 

r. 

a. 

r. 

s. 

r. 

a. 
ace. 
ace. 
ace. 

a. 

a. 

ace. 

a. 

a. 

a. 

a. 

a. 
ace. 

a. 
ace. 

a. 
ace. 

a. 

a. 

r. 

sp. 



a. 
a. 

a. 
a. 
m. 
m. 



m. 
m. 

m. 
m. 

b. 

b. 



occ. 



m. — — — 



w. m. 
w. m. 



m. 
m. 



w. 
w. 
m. 
m. 
m. 



m. — 
m. occ. 



occ. 
occ. 



occ. — 



m. 
w. 
m. 
w. 
m. 
m. 
m. 
w. 



w. 
w. 

w. 
w. 
w. 

w. 
w. 



m. — — 



m. 



b. — — 



m. — — 



m. 
m. 

m. 
m. 
m. 
m. 
m. 



occ. — 



occ. 



w. m. 

v\'. m. 

w. m. 

w. m. 

m.? — 

a. m. 



138 



BIRDS OF NORFOLK. 



Podiceps coniutus 
auritus 



•minor 



Colymbus glacialis 

arcticiis 

septentrionalis 

Uria troile 



nngvia 

Mergulus alle 

Fratercula arctica 

Alca torda 

Phalacrocorax carbo .. 

graculus 

Sula alba 

Sterna Caspia 

boysii 

dougalii 

hirundo 

. anglica 

— arctica 

leiicopareia 

• miniita 

fissipes 

■ — leucoptera 

Larus minutus 

ridibundus 

tridactylus 

oburneus 



-carnis 



— leucopterus 
— fuscus ... 



-argentatus 
-marinus... 
-glauciis ... 



Lestris catarractes 

■ pomarinus 

richardsonii 

parasiticus 



Procellaria glacialis 
■ hoesitata 



Puffinus anglorum 

— major ... 

obscurus 

Tlialassidroma Wilsoni 

. leacliii... 

pelagica 



a. 
a. 
m. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
a. 

w. 
w. 

a. 

a. 

a. 



a. 

a. 



m. — — 

m. — — 

m. — — 

m. ■ — — 

m. — — 

m. — — 

m. — — 

m. occ. — 

m. — — 

m. occ. — 

m. occ. — 

m. occ. — 

m. b. — 

m. — — 

m. b. — 

m. occ. b. 



Sclavonian Grebe ... sp. 

Eared Grebe ... sp. 

Little Grebe ... r. 

Great Northern Diver a. 

Black-tliroated Diver a. 

Red-throated Diver ... a. 

Common Guillemot ... sp. 

Ringed Guillemot ... ace. 

Little Auk .;. ... a. 

Puffin • ... ... a. 

Razorbill ... ... sp. 

Cormorant ... ... sp. 

Shag ... ... ace. 

Gannet ... ... sp. 

Caspian Tern ... ace. 

Sandwich Tern ... sp. 

Roseate Tern ... ace 

Common Tern ... sp. 

Gull-billed Tern ... ace. 

Arctic Tern ... ... sp. 

Whiskered Tern ... ace. 

Lesser Tern ... sp. 

Black Tern ... ... sp. 

White-winged Black Tern ace. — — — — 

Little Gull ... sp. a. m. occ. — 

Black-headed Gull ... r. m. — — — 

Kittiwake Gull ... a. w. m. — — 

Ivory Gull ... ... ace. — — — — 

Common Gull ... a. w. m. — — 

Iceland Gull ... ace. — — — — 

Lesser Black-backed Gull a. w. m. — — 

Herring Gull ... a. w. m. — — 

Great Black-backed Gull a. w. m. — — 

Glaucus Gull ... a. w. m. occ. — 

Common Skua ... a. w. m. occ. — 

Pomarine Skua .. a. w. m. occ. — 

Richardson's Skua ... a. w. m. occ. — 

Buffon's Skua ... a. w. m. occ. — 

Fulmar Petrel ... a. w. m. occ, — 

Capped Petrel ... ace — ■ • — — 

Manx Shearwater ... a. w. m. occ. — 

Great Shearwater ... ace. — — — — 

Dusky Petrel ... ace. — — — — 

Wilson's Petrel ... ace. — — — — 

Fork- tailed Petrel ... ace. — — — — 

Storm Petrel ... a. w. m. occ. — 



HISTORY 

OF THE 

CITY AND COUNTY OF THE CITY 

OF 

NOEWICH. 






Norwich, the capital of Norfolk, and tlie See of an extensive Bishopric, 
is the largest city on the eastern side of Englaaid, and forms, witli its pre- 
cincts, a countj^ of itself, containing about 76,000 inJiabitants, 35 parisheSf 
10 hamlets, and G,630 acres of land. It has long been celebrated for its 
manufactures, for its venerable antiquities, and for the memorable events 
of which it has been the scene. From its numerous gardens, shrubberies, 
and shady trees, it has been emphatically called " a city hi an orchard;" 
and though many of these sylvan ornaments have given place, duiing 
the X)i'esent century, to new sti'eets and modem erections, it still retains 
much of its former rural aspect. It is pleasantly seated on the sloping 
banks of the river Wensum, which, at a short distance to the south- 
east, empties itself into the Yare, after having, by several abrupt sinu- 
osities, intersected and partly encompassed this populous city, which 
is distant 108 miles N.E. by N. of London ; 4-3 miles N. of Ipswdch ; 
42 miles E. by S. of Lynn-Regis; 49 miles N.E. of Newmarket; 19 
miles W. of Yarmouth; 25 miles W.N.W. of Lowestoft; 72 miles N.E. 
by E. of Cambridge; 99 miles E.S.E. of Lincoln; and about 380 miles S.E. 
by S. of Edinburgh ; being in 52 deg. 35 min. north latitude, and in 1 deg. 
20 min. east longitnde firom the meridian of Greenwich. The Wensum and 
the Yare ai'e navigable only for small craft fi'om Yarmouth ; but the shal- 
lows near the mouth of the latter river are now avoided by a ship canal cut 
across the marshes, fi'om Reedham to Lowestoft, and opened in 1833, so 
that Norwich is now B^port for sea-borne vessels ; and by the Oreat Eastern 
Railway, and its various branches, it is connected with all the great lines 
of railway now traversing the kingdom. Norwich is one of the largest seats 
of the u-eaving trade, and is noted for its manufactui'es of crape, gauze, chahs, 
fillover shawls, silk shawls, bandannas, camlet, mohair, paramatta, mouseUn- 
de-laine, poplin, barege, glove cloth, sewing cotton, coach lace, horse hau-, 
sacking, brashes, boots and shoes, &c., &c., and for its extensive wool and 
yam mills, agricultural implement and galvanised-ii'on works, founcMes, 
icoach-building establishments, rope waU^s, ai'tificial manui'e works, breweries, 
tanneries, dye-works, soap and tallow works, starch and mustai'd mills, and 
patent concrete stone works. Being screened fi'om the keen easterly winds 
by the hills of Household Heath ; and the soil being a light loam, resting 
on beds of chalk, gi'avel, and sand, the ah- of Norrdch is diy, mild, and 
salubrious, and the water of its numerous springs is of the purest quahty. 
Among its inhabitants at the time of taking the census in 1861 were 304 
above 80 years of age, 132 above 85, 33 above 90, 3 above 95, and 1 above 
100. Among other instances of longevity may be mentioned Mrs. Lang, 
who died in 1820, aged 104 ; Mary Herring, who died in 1813, aged 100 ; 
and John Smith, who died in 1843, aged 102 years. 

The city of Norwich is said to occupy a larger space of ground, compara- 
tively with its population, than any other in the kingdom; many of its 



140 HISTORY OF NORWICH. 

buildings being interspersed with gardens and other private enclosures, 
which contribute much to the general appearance of tlie place, and also to 
the free circulation of air, which would otherwise be somewhat impaired by 
the narrowness of many of the streets, some of which, however, have been 
widened during the present century, by the removal of the projecting fronts, 
and over-hanging gables of many of the antique half-timbered houses. The 
plan or shape of the city, as marked by its ancient boundaries, approaches 
that of a cornucopia, or bent cone, extending more than a mile and a half in 
length from north to south, on both sides of the river, and one mile and a 
quarter in its greatest breadth from east to west; but these admeasurements 
are now considerably extended by modern erections in the suburbs. It was 
formerly surrounded by a strong flint Wall, flanked with forty Towers, and 
having a broad ditch and twelve Oates ; except on its south-eastern side, 
and a small portion of its northern extremity, where it is bounded by the 
river Wensum ; but having fallen into decay, and being considered impedi- 
ments to the growth and improvement of the city, the whole of the gates and 
several large portions of the wall have been removed at various periods, and 
their sites occupied by many of the new streets and buildings, which have 
sprung into existence since the year 1816, in this ancient city and its 
hamlets ; — the latter of which surround, and most of them form populous, 
handsome, and contiguous suburbs of the city, from which they were for- 
merly separated by green fields and frowning fortifications ; of which latter, 
enough still remains to show their ancient strength, especially on the castle 
hill, which holds a central situation, and though only of a moderate altitude, 
commands an extensive and beautiful view of the city and neighbourhood, 
and was once a formidable citadel, as will be seen at a subsequent page. 

The late Mr. James Origor, who published, in 1841, a valuable work, 
illustrated by fifty etchings of remarkable trees, entitled " The Eastern 
Arboretum," lamented that Norwich, so rich in sylvan beauties as to have 
been styled " the city of gardens," or " the city in an orchard," should still 
be without a pubUc Botanical Garden, where the productions of all parts of 
the globe might be scientifically cultivated, and a stimulus given to Norfolk, 
for the general introduction of a variety of ornamental trees, shrubs, and 
flowers, now unknown, or rarely to be seen in the county. He considered 
that the best site for such an institution is Chapel field, which was planted 
in 1746 by Su* Thomas Churchman, and is still a pubUc promenade. This 
field is already full of the elements of every thing that gives dignity and 
grace to garden landscape, having a good soil, some noble specimens of old 
trees, and several hundred yards of rock-work-waU, admirably adapted for 
Alpine plants. The fine lime trees in the Upper and Lower Close, were 
planted in the l7th century. In the grounds of Sir Samuel Bignold, in 
Surrey street, is a fine collection of large hawthorns ; at the seat of G-. L. 
Coleman, Esq., in Heigham, are some magnificent specimens of the horse 
chestnut ; and at the Grove, in Ipswich road, is a fine mulberry tree and some 
uncommonly large shady heech trees. In the Town Close are many tower- 
ing elms of great height, a noble specimen of the snowdrop tree, and a shady 
avenue of heech, ninety yards in length ; and in the garden of Captain Ives, 
at St. Catherine's Hill, is a strawberry tree, twenty feet high, and a large 
wide-spreading plane. Near Ber street gates is the Wilderness, the most 
romantic seat about Norwich. Bracondale Lodge, the seat of Miss Mar- 
tineau, has in its sylvan pleasure grounds several temples and other orna- 
mental buildings, and some of its elms are from 11 to 12 feet in girth. Earl- 
ham Hall, the residence of the Rev. W. N. Ripley, was the seat of the late 
J. J. Gurney, Esq. It has a heronry, and its grounds are full of sylvan 
magnificence. The Village of Thorpe, which has been called the " Rich- 
mond of Norfolk," has many handsome villas, with delightful gardens and 
pleasure grounds sloping to the river, but lies just without the boundaries 
of the county of the city, beyond Thorpe Hamlet, which has also many 



HISTORY OF NORWICH. 



141 



picturesque beauties and neat houses, as also liave Bracondale, Carrow, and 
some of the other suburban hamlets. At Crown Point, among other large 
trees, is a hollow pollard oak, 19 ft. 9 in. in girth. In the Great Hospital 
garden is difig tree more than 200 years old; and in the Hospital meadow 
is a venerable elder tree, 8 ft. 6 in. in girth, and 40 ft. high. 

The Population of Norwich, which is the best criterion of its growing 
prosperity, has increased since the year 1811, from 37,313 to about 76,000 
souls, notwithstanding the occasional depressions and revolutions to which 
the ancient staple trade of the city has been subjected during the last fifty 
years. The following Table shews an enumeration of the Parishes and 
tiamlets of the City and County of the City, with tiie number of inhabitants 
in each, at nine dififerent periods, from 1693 to 1861. 



CITY OF NORWICH 
PARISHES. 



All Saints 

St. Andrew 

St. Augnstine 

St. Benedict 

St. Clement 

St. Edmund 

St. Etheldred 

St. George Colegate.. 
St. George Tombland 

St. Giles 

St. Gregory 

St. Helen 

St. James § 

St. John Maddermarkt. 
St. John Sepulchre .. 
St. John Timberhill . . 

St. Julian 

St. Lawrence 

St. Ma'-garet ........ 

St. Martin-at-Oak .. .. 

St. Martinat- Palace . . 
St. Alary Coslany .... 

St Mary inthe-Mareh. 
St. Michael Cosleny .. 
St. Michael-at-Piea .. 
St. Michael-at-Tborn... 

St. Paul 

St. Peter Hungate.. .. 
St. Peter Mancroft . 
St. Peter Mountergate. 
St, Peter Southgate .. 

St. Saviour 

St. Simon and St. Jade 

St. Stephen 

St. Swithin 



HAMLETS. 

Earlbam 

Eaton 

Heigham* 

Hellesden (part of)+ . . 

Lakenham 

Pockthorpe§ 

Thorpe (part of)| . . . . 

TrowseMiUgate.Car- ) 

row, & Bracondale J ) 

TownClosel! 



POPULATION IN A.D. 



1693 1752 I80I 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 



425 
935 
860 
652 
593 
370 
243 

1154 
722 
910 
772 
838 
416 
657 
781 
668 
593 
66S 
664 

1243 
819 
949 
650 

1026 
479 
865 
983 
267 

1953 

1376 
470 
701 
362 

1769 
496 



50 
158 
644 

65 
221 
732 

69 

258 



578 

1334 

1226 

715 

816 

520 

247 

1295 

737 

961 

1202 

356 

696 

1107 

1004 

890 

695 

952 

85 P 

1698 

1083 

1178 

700 

1046 

482 

1127 

1461 

341 

2288 

1480 

425 

810 

420 

2314 

751 



68 
226 
653 

70 

165 

1116 

36 

386 



701 

1868 

1232 

830 

853 

446 

252 

1132 

750 

1076 

1057 

393 

520 

1698 

1144 

888 

662 

899 

662 

1747 

936 

1018 

616 

1031 

446 

1198 

1395 

371 

2120 

1360 

378 

984 

333 

2211 

603 



95 
278 
854 
155 
428 
979 

74 

853 



Total 28 881 36,441 36,906 37,313 60,288 61,364 62.246 



657 

1396 

1394 

925 

933 

492 

261 

1379 

739 

1043 

1126 

371 

565 

827 

1233 

918 

677 

992 

797 

1857 

978 

1097 

608 

947 

601 

1450 

1583 

398 

2137 

1291 

389 

990 

898 

2198 

591 



84 
294 
842 
184 
441 
1029 

67 

346 



741 
1518 
1627 
1125 

2364 

677 

273 
1610 

797 
1422 
1244 

425 
1268 

957 
1599 
1101 

932 
1092 

938 
2477 
1202 
1521 

583 
1340 

389 
1750 
2160 

611 
2671 
1789 

630 
1266 

447 
2927 

750 



118 

419 

1503 

248 

1876 

1313 

284 

505 



692 
1297 
2022 
1424 
2767 

762 

627 
1613 
"710 
1695 
1104 

521 
1299 

814 
1832 
1056 
1069 
1008 

868 
2524 
1217 
1361 

611 
1202 

357 
2048 
2407 

622 
2901 
1975 

627 
1486 

446 
4110 

870 



103 
629 
5396 
382 
3810 
1669 
1211 

607 

14 



676 
1295 
2053 
1319 
2836 

727 

308 
1440 

778 
1546 
1107 

487 
1311 

738 
1847 
1108 
1098 

974 

865 
2589 
1320 
1402 

498 
1298 

395 
1860 
2783 

428 
2976 
2025 

465 
1419 

360 
4212 

763 



107 
621 
6060 
324 
4006 
1878 
1166 

788 

18 



689 
1266 
2111 
1379 
3229 

890 

395 
1580 

794 
1611 
1116 

625 
1538 

708 
2014 
1284 
1296 
1024 

840 
2678 
1317 
1566 

518 
1347 

423 
2094 
2741 

477 
2992 
2297 

493 
1457 

353 
4361 

802 



131 

786 



7745 
371 



667 

978 
1890 
1381 
3961 

753 

614 
1607 

687 
1586 

934 

507 
1353 

537 
2219 
1302 
1361 

877 

664 
2546 
1086 
1498 

461 
1365 

379 
2121 
2907 

399 
2575 
2868 

457 
1532 

283 
4191 

699 



195 

930 



13894 
393 
4776 4866 
2070, 2055 
1811 2388 



724! 

106: 



687 
249 



^,713 76.025 



+ 1 § II * For notes, see next page^ 



14^ 



HISTORY OF NORWICH. 



The County of the City of Norwich was separated from the county 
of Norfolk by Henry IV. in 1403, and placed under the exclusive jurisdic- 
tion of the corporation. It comprises about 6630 acres of land, being nearly 
14 nailes in circumference, and extending from the Guildhall, in the Mar- 
ket-place, If mile to ]\Iile-cross, on the north ; 1^ mile to Thorpe St. An- 
drew, on the east; 2j miles to Harford bridges, on the south; and 2^ 
miles to the outer bounds of Earlham, on the west. It is encompassed by 
the Hundreds of Humbleyard, Henstead, Blofield, Taverham, and Forehoe. 
The river Yare bounds it on the west and south, and, with the Wensuvi 
nearly insulates the greater part of it ; but it extends beyond the north, 
east side of the latter river, to Thorpe, Mousehold Heath, Hellesden, and 
the confines of Catton and Sprowston ; and on the Costessey road, its 
boundary is an imaginary line near the two-mile-stone, drawn between the 
Wensum and Yare, which here approach within a mile of each other, and 
after following many circuitous windings, unite their streams at Trowse 
Eye, a little below the city. The Wensum, in its sinuous course through 
Norwich, is crossed by ten bridges, three of which are modern structures of 
cast iron, and several of them are fine specimens of ancient masonry. The 
Castle hill, though in the heart of the city, belongs to the county of Nor- 
follf, being now the site of the Gaol and Shire Hall, and vested in the 
High Sheriff and Justices of the Peace, by an act passed in 1806. The 
Cathedral Close and its precincts, and the precincts of the Castle and Shire 
Hall, were added to the Parliamentary and Municipal Borough of Norwich, 
by the Reform Acts of 1832 and 1835, together with all extra-parochial 
places lying within the outer boundary of the " City and County of the 
City," which comprises 35 parishes, parts of four other parishes, commonly 
called " hamlets," and 4S) parochial churches, exclusive of the cathedral, and 
tliree district churches, or chapels of ease. Here were anciently about 
twenty other parishes, but they were consolidated with the above, and their 
churches desecrated or taken down many years ago. All the present 
I)arishes and hamlets are united for the maintenance of the poor, under 

\ Thorpe extends into Blofield Hundred. The entire parisli contains 3841 inhabitants. 
Those in the Norwich portion of the parish use St, Helen's Church. Troivse Millgate, 
Carrow, and Bracondale, are in Trowse Newton parish, which ia partly in Henstead Hun- 
dred, and comprises 1104 inhabitants. 

^ Pochthorpe Hamlet is in St. James' parish, vvhich comprises altogether 3408 souls. 

f Hellesden parish extends into Taverbam Hundred, beyond the jurisdiction of the 
County of the City. The entire parish contains 496 souls. 

II Town Close is an estete of 113 acres, (without St. Stephen's gate) belonging to the 
Corporation, and on which the citizens had formerly commonage ; but in lieu of thatright, 
the resident freemen (nearly 2400) each receive about 6s. yearly out of the rents of the 
estate, which now amount to more than ^700 per annum, part of it being let on build- 
ing leases, 

* The great increase in the population of Hcigham, ia 1861, was occasioned by the 
erection of the new City JForkhouse and more than 1800 houses in that pleasant suburb 
during the preceding ten years. 

^^Institutions. — The parochial returns in 1861 included as follows, viz. — St. 
Clement's parish, 96 in Pauper Lunatic Asylum; St. Helen's, 176 in Great Hospital; 
Pockthorpe, 309 in Cavalry Barracks ; St. Paol's. 41 in Blind Hospital, and 20 in Stanley 
Home; St. John Timberbill, 111 in Castle Gaol; St. Peter Mountergate, 75 in Boys' 
Home; St. Stephens, 149 in Norfolk and Norwich Hospital; St. Peter Mancroft, 90 in 
Bethel Hospital; Heioham, 635 in Workhouse, 105 in City Gaol, 71 in Heigham Hall 
Asylum, and 35 in GirW Home ; St. Margaret'?, 19 in Jenny Lind Infirmary, and 24 in the 
Orphans' Home; and St. L3,wrence, 9 in the Eys Infirmary. 

Of the 74,891 inhabitants in 1861,-33,862 were ma Zes, and 4.1 ,028 females ; living in 
17,122 houses; besides Vi'bich there were in the city 735 empty houses, and 102 building, 
when the census was taken. The total number of houses in the City and County of the 
City was 7,131, in 1752; 8,336, in 1811; 11,031, in 1821; 14,367, in 1831; 14,906, in 
1841; 15,611 in 1851, and 17,959, in 1861. It will be seen in the foregoing table, that 
the parishes which have most rapidly increased in buildings and population, during the 
last fifty years, are Heigham, Lakenham, St. Clement's, and St. Stephen's. The annual 
value of the land and buildings in the City Incorporated parishes, at the present time as 
assessed to the poor rates, is 2X56,000. 



HISTOEY OP NORWICH. 143 

an Act of Parliament passed in 1863. In municipal affairs they are now 
divided into eight wards; but before the passing of the Reform Act of 1835, 
they were divided mio four great icards, viz., Mancroft, Wymer, Conisford, 
and the Great Northern Ward, each of which was sub-divided into three small 
wards, with two Aldermen each. As numerous charities have been be- 
queathed for distribution among the poor of these old wards, their names 
are still preserved for almonry purposes, and the following shows the 
parishes and hamlets comprised in each : — 

Mancroft Great Ward includes the tlu^ee parishes of St. Stephen, St. 
Peter Mancroft, and St. Giles, each forming a small Ward. 

Wymer Great Ward is divided into the three small Wards of West' 
Middle, and East Wymer: — West Wymer contains the parishes of St. 
Benedict, St. Swithin, St. Margaret, St. Lawrence, and St. Gregory ; — 
Middle Wymer has the parishes of St. John Maddermarket and St. Andrew, 
with most of the parish of St. Michael-at-Plea;— 5'«s^ Wymer comprises 
the parishes of St. Peter, Hungate, St. Simon and St. Jude, St. Martin-at- 
Palace, St. Helen, and the chief part of St. George Tombland. 

Conisford Great Ward is subdivided into the tlu'ee small Wards of 
North and South Conisford, and Ber Street : —A^o;t7i Conisford compre- 
hends the parish of St. Peter-per-Mountergate, two small portions of St. 
George Tombland, and St. Michael-at-Plea : — South Conisford has the 
three parishes of St. JuUan, St. Etheldred, and St. Peter Southgate ; — Ber- 
street Ward contains the paiishes of St. Jolin Sepulchre, St. Michael-at- 
Thorne, St. John TimberhiU, and All Saints. Conisford Street which gave 
the name to this great Word, is now called King street. 

Great Northern Ward, or Ward beyond the Water, is divided into the 
small Wards of Coslany, Colegate, and Fye-Bridge : — Coslany Ward in- 
cludes the three parishes of St. Michael Coslany, St. Mary, and St. Martin- 
at-Oak: — Colegate Ward comprises St. George Colegate and St. Augustine : 
— Fye Bridge Ward includes the five parishes of St. Clement, St. Edmund, 
St. Saviour, St. Paul, and St. James. 

The Hamlets enjoy all the privileges of the City Wards, and are annexed 
to them as follows, viz. :—Lakenham, mth Trowse, C arrow, and Bracon- 
dale to South Conisford and Ber street Wards ; Eaton, to St. Stephen's Ward ; 
Earlham, to St. Peter Mancroft and West Wymer Wards ; Heigham and 
HeUesden, to West Wymer Ward ; Pockthorpe, to Fye-Bridge Ward ; and 
Thorpe, to East Wymer Ward. 

Norwich Union, — All the parishes and hamlets of the city, except St. 
Mary's in the Marsh, were united for the support of the poor, under an Act 
of Parhament, passed in 1712, vesting the management in a Court of Guar- 
dians, empowered to assess to the poor rates, all lands, houses, tenements, 
tithes, stocks, and personal estates. The assessment of the two latter created 
great dissatisfaction, and the mismanagement of the guardians, together 
with depressions of trade, and increased population, having augmented the 
poor rates from twenty to fifty thousand pounds in 1826, a new act was 
obtained in 1827, which abolished the assessment of stocks and personal 
estates, and considerably altered the constitution of the Court of Guardians. 
This act was further amended by another passed in 1831, under which the 
Court consisted of 68 Guardians ; but, in consequence of the inequahty of 
rating, and the vast expenditure of the Incorporation, which averaged more 
than ,£'30,000 a-year, a new act was appHed for and received the royal assent, 
July 29th, 1863, by which all the parishes, hamlets, preciucts, limits and 
liberties within the city and county of Norwich were formed into a Union, 
and the management vested in a Board of Guardians, consisting of 42 
members, annually elected, of whom 14 form a quorum. The union is sub- 
divided into 16 districts, of which one returns five guardians, seven return 
three, and eight two each. Persons rated at ^10 and under ^£25 have one 
Tote; ^625 and under ^'50 two votes; ^50 and under £75 three votes; £75 



144 NOEWICH UNION. 

and under ^100 four votes ; aSlOO and under ^9150 five votes ; and ^8150 
and upwards six votes. By this act the previous act of 1831 was entirely 
repealed, as also was the " Norwich Small Tenements Act " of 1847 ; and 
the provisions of the General Poor Law Act of 1834 came into operation. 
The act also divides the hamlet of Heigham into two distinct hamlets called 
North and South Heigham, the boundary line being the Earlliam road ; and 
authorises the Board of Guardians to axDpoint " special overseers" for the 
liberty of the Town Close, and the hamlets of South Heigham, HeUesden, 
Pockthorpe, Thorpe, and Trowse Millgate, Carrow, and Bracondale, so long 
as there are no lawfully appointed churchwardens or overseers for those 
respective places. The Worhliouse is in Heigham, and was erected in 
1858-9, at a cost of .633,000, exclusive of ^680 paid for about nine acres of 
land, which are cultivated by the inmates. It is an extensive brick building 
of Tudor architecture, having room for about 1,000 paupers, though it has 
seldom so many. The average weekly number of paupers in the half year 
ending 31st December, 1862, was 74, including 63 boys and 34 girls in the 
Boys' and Girls' Homes ; and the number of out-poor was 3,700. There 
were 635 inmates in 1861 when the census was taken. Previously to the 
completion of the present buildings, the Workliouse occupied part of the 
remains of the monastery of the Black Friars, adjoining St. Andrew's Hall 
and the Dutch church, and had ranges of buildings extending down to the 
river, capable of accommodating about 600 inmates, but which have been 
recently taken down. The Boys' Home is in St. Peter-per-Mountergate parish, 
and the OirW Home is at Heigham. The Quardians Office is in Bridge- 
street. The Pauper Lunatic Asylum in St. Augustin's, was formerly the 
Infirmary, and has room for 100 inmates. The expenditure during the year 
ending 31st December, 1862 was, on account of Workhouse, i;8663 ; Asy- 
lum, ^63368 ; Boys' and Girls' Homes, £'1145 ; out-door poor, ^19,287 ; medi- 
cal department, ,£929 ; and £4831 for instalments and interests on loans, 
registrations, and other general expenses. The receipts during the same 
period were about £40,000. The deht still owmg, and being gradually paid 
oif by instalments, amounts to about £22,000. E. C. Bailey, Esq., is 
Union Cleric ; and Mr. Starling Day, cashier and accountant. Mr. Job 
Harrison is master, and Mrs. E. M. Boulter matron of the Workhouse ; Bev. 
E. A. HiUyard, chaplain; Charles Drake, Esq., surgeon; Mr. Wm. Abigail, 
schoolmaster ; and Mrs. S. A. Bandall, schoolmistress. Mr. Jeremiah and Mrs. 
M. A. Lingwood are master and matron of the Boys Home ; and Mrs. R. 
Bales, matron, and Miss A. Hill, schoolmistress of the Girls Home. The 
Relieving Officers are Messrs. Robert "Winter, Charles Owry, E. M. 
Larke, and Thos. Wolveridge ; and Mr. Robert Martin is the removal officer. 
Mr. William Pank is superintendent, Mrs. S. Phillips, matron, Rev. Chas. 
Caldwell, chaplain, and G. W. W. Firth, Esq., surgeon of the Pauper 
Lunatic Asylum. 

Superintendent Registrab. — F. J. Blake, Esq., Upper King street, 
Tombland. — Registrars of Marriages. I. 0. Taylor, Esq., St. Giles' st., 
and Mr. J. Restieaux, Stafibrd st., Heigham Road. Deputy Registrar, Mr. 
W. Runacres, Oxford st., Heigham. — Registrars of Births and Deaths. 
— East Wymer District — comprising the parishes of Sts. Michael-at-Plea, 
Peter Hungate, Simon, Martin-at Palace, Helen, Edmund, Saviour, Paul, 
and James- with-Pockthorpe, and Thorp Hamlet — John Brownfield, Esq., 
Golden Dog lane, St. Saviour's ; Deputy, Mr. James Hubbard, Magdalen 
street. Gonisford District — comprising the parishes of Sts. John Sepulchre, 
Peter Southgate, Etheldred, Julian, Peter-per-Mountergate, Michael-at- 
Thom, John Timberhill, George Tombland, and All Saints, and hamlet 
of Trowse, Carrow, and Bracondale— C. Drake, Esq., All Saints' green; 
Deputy, Mr. H. Thompson, St. Stephen's Plain. Mancroft District — compri- 
sing the parishes of St. Stephen, Peter Mancroft, and Giles, and hamlets of 
Eaton and Lakenham— T. W. Crosse, Esq., St. Giles' street; Deputy, 



HISTOEY OF NOEWICH. 145 

Charles Evans Muriel, Esq., St. Giles' street. West Wymer District — 
comprising the parishes of Sts. Benedict, S within, Margaret, Lawrence, 
Gregory, John Maddermarket, and Andrew, and hamlets of Earlham and 
Heigham — Ai-thur M. F. Morgan, Esq., St. Giles' street ; Deputy, Mr. Eras . 
Wheeler, Bedford street. Coslany Z)zs^nci— comprising the parishes of 
Michael at Coslany, Mary Coslany, Martin- at- Oak, Augustine, George 
Colegate, and Clement, and the jDart of Hellesdon belonging to Norwich 
— Bransby Francis, Esq., St. Clement; Deputy, Sturley Payne, Esq., 
Duke street. 

Ancient History. — Norwich, one of the largest cities in England, and 
one of the most important as respects its manufactures, claims the honour 
of high antiquity. Its original foundation, being involved in the impene- 
trable gloom which is cast over the dark ages of the aborigines of Britain, 
has been the subject of many absurd legends, and much antiquarian research 
and conjecture. Some writers have attributed its rise to Ouitiline or Giir- 
guntus, an imaginary British prince, and others to Julias Caesar, who never 
extended his conquests so far northward in the island. Polydore Virgil, 
who is reported to have destroyed many historical documents, that his own 
misrepresentations might not be detected, was of opinion that a castle was 
built here by the Romans, who first estabhshed themselves in Norfolk under 
Claudius Csesar, about A.D. 46 ; when, having overthrown the aboriginal 
inhabitants (the Cenimanni, a tribe of the Iceni) they either built fortifica- 
tions near the British towns, or invited the subdued natives to assemble 
round their military stations, the most considerable of which was the Venta 
Icenorum, at Caistor, now a small village on the river Tesse, about three 
miles south of Norwich. Caistor appears to have continued the principal 
station in tlie territory of the Iceni until A.D., 426, when the Romans finally 
quitted Britain, for the purpose of defending their seat of empire, then 
hastening fast to dissolution by dissentions within and assaults from without. 
Caistor being now deserted by its founders, fell rapidly into decay, and the 
Bomanized British inliabitants in 446, are said to have removed both them- 
selves and their dwellings to the place where Norwich now stands, as is as- 
serted in the following ancient distich : — 

" Caistor was a city wLen Norwich was none, 
And Norwich was built with Caistor stone." 

But the name of Norwich, or North-tvic, does not occur till the usurpation 
of the Saxons, who, after the departure of the Romans, were invited to assist 
the Britons against the Picts and Scots, and after driving tliese enemies 
back to theu' northern hills speedily turned tlieir swords upon their allies. 
Having subjugated the fair territory of Britain, the Saxons divided it into 
seven Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, in which Norfolk formed part of East Anglia, 
as has been seen at page 26. Uffa, the first or second king of East Anglia, 
is supposed to have formed here, about the year 575, a strong entrenchment 
of earth on the site of the castle, encircled by broad ramparts and ditches. 
This fortress was called Nortli-vnc, in consequence of its lying north of the 
old Roman fort at Caistor. From ancient manuscripts, it appears that at 
this period a large arm of the sea flowed up to Norwich, the Yare being then 
divided into two large channels, which freely admitted the tides of the ocean 
over the marshes below Norwich until after the Norman conquest, when one 
of these channels being choked up by the intervening sands, and becoming 
firm ground, occasioned the building of Yarmouth, which effectually con- 
fined the tides in this neighbourhood to the present contracted bed of the 
river. Since the departure of the Romans, great alterations have been effected 
in many other tidal rivers on the English coast, and these changes have occa- 
sioned much embarrassment to topographers, and produced apparent con- 
tradictions in their writings. It is said tliat the present level of the German 
Ocean is at least 40 feet below where there is evidence of its having been 
stationary at some remote period. There exists positive evidence of Norwich 

K 



146- HISTORY OP NORWICH. 

"being a fisliing toivn in the reign of Canute ; for Alfric, Bishop of East 
Angha, at that period having bestowed his Hagh by Norwich (the ground 
on which St. Lawrence's Church was afterwards built,) on the abbey of St. 
Edmund's-Bury it paid a yearly ground-rent of a last of herrings to that 
monastery. Early in the seventh century, Norwich had a royal castle 
erected on the entrenchment thrown up by Uffa, and in 642, it was one of 
the chief seats of Anna, Iving of the East Angles, who gave this castle, with 
the lands belonging to it, to his daughter Ethelfreda, on her marriage with 
Tombert, a nobleman or prince of the Oyrvii, or Fenmen who inhabited 
the fens of Lincolnshire and the adjacent parts of Norfolk and Cambridge- 
shire. At the same time, Tombert gTanted to Ethelfreda, as a marriage 
settlement, the Isle of Ely, which, for great security, was to be held by 
castle-guard service to the castle of Norwich, After the deatli of Tombert, 
his widow married Egfrid, King of Northumbria, but by repudiation or 
mutual consent she parted from him, and retired to her ov/n estate at Ely, 
where she erected a monastery, and became its first abbess about A.D., 673. 
After Ely had been created a bishopric by Henry I., its first prelate paid to 
the crown, as a discharge of his lauds from the service of castle-guard duo 
to Norwich, no less than ^1000, which was, at that period, a very large sum, 
and consequently evinces the great extent of lands and services attached to 
the royal castle of Norwich in the reign of I{ing Anna. 

From the time of Anna, the seventh Idng of East Angha, till the reign of 
Alfred the Great, we find few events on record respecting Norwich Castle ; 
but during the frequent mcursions of the Danes, it was often attacked and 
possessed by them and the Saxons alternately. Its situation, on an 
eminence, commanding an extensive view of the surrounding country, 
rendered it an object of importance to the contending parties, and it appears 
to have been occupied by Ingwar, a Danish chief, in the year cS70, when the 
Danes overran East Anglia, and had their head-quarters at Thetford. But 
the succeeding reign of the great Alfred was distinguished by his repeated 
and decisive victories over these northern marauders; and one grand object 
of his care was to strengthen and fortify the principal parts of his kingdom 
against hostile attacks. Castles and cities, which had been destroyed or 
dilapidated, he rebuilt ; and he constructed several new and substantial forti- 
fications, which enabled him to make such mihtary dispositions as the im- 
petuous invaders were never able effectually to counteract, though they 
frequently laid waste and triumphed over a large portion of his country. 
Finding the mails or ramparts of Norwich Castle too weak for repelling the 
mode of attack adopted by the ravaging Danes, Alfred caused others to be 
erected with the most durable materials. That it was a military station of 
note, and a royal castle, in his time, is evident from a coin struck here about 
the year 872, having round the head Alfred Rex, and on the reverse 
NoRTHWic. It has already been seen at page 28, that King Alfred, after 
conquering and making peace mth the Danes, in 878, assigned to them for 
their residence the territory of East Anglia, and that their leader Outhrum, 
fixed his seat of viceroyalty chiefly at Norwich, until breaking his faith by 
joining some newly arrived hordes of his marauding countrymen, Norfolk 
was wrested from him by Alfred, and reverted again to the Saxons during 
the reign of six successive sovereigns. Edward the Elder succeeded his 
father, the illustrious Alfi'ed, m the year 901, and kept the Danes in subjec- 
tion, — Ericke, one of their petty kings, holding East Anglia of him until 
913, when he rebelled, but was soon overthrown and slain by King Edward, 
whose son and successor, Athelstan, totally expelled the Danes, and reduced 
the whole kingdom under his government. In his reign, the city of Nor- 
wich flourished greatly, and it is probable that he was here about the year 
925, for a coin stiU extant, has on the obverse, Athelstan, and on the 
reverse, Barbe Mon. Northwick, — that is, Barbe mint-master of Norwich. 
Among the other Saxon coins struck here are the following :— One of Ed- 



HISTORY OF NORWICH. 147 

muud, tlie successor of Athelstan, inscribed round Uie head Edmund Rex, 
and on the reverse, Edgar Mox. Northwic ; several of Edred, coined about 
946, and inscribed round the head Eadred Rex, and on the reverse, Haxne 
Mo. NoRTHwic ; two of Edward the Martyr, having on the obverse Edward 
Rex Angl., and on the reverse, Leofwine Mox. Nor. ; andtliree of Etheked 
the Unready, having on the obverse Edeleed Rex, but struck by three 
different mint-masters, Leofat, Branting, and Folceard. 

In the reign of Etlielred, during the year 1004, Norwich is said to have 
been biu-nt and destroyed by the army of Sweyne, King of Denmarh, who 
invaded the kingdom for the purpose of revenging the diabolical massacre 
of his countrymen, on the 13th of November, 1002; but he was afterwards 
defeated by the Saxon Earl, Ulfkettle, and obHged to fly to Denmark. In 
1010, Sweyne again invaded the country with a numerous army, and having 
subdued the East Angles, he fixed his residence sometime at Norwich, 
which he rebuilt and fortified, so that from this period the present city may 
be said to have arisen. In 1013, Sweyne extended his conquest ftirther 
into the interior of the country, and such was the force of his arms and the 
terror of liis name, that the whole kingdom submitted to his yoke, and 
Ethelred, the Saxon monarch, fled to Normandy. But this ruthless tyrant 
did not long enjoy the crown of England, for he died early in the following 
year, at Gainsborough or Thetford, as is variously stated by the old his- 
torians. On the death of Sweyne, the exiled king Etheh'ed, returned, pur- 
suant to tlie invitation of his subjects, and after defeating TurMl, the 
Danish governor of Norwich, he was soon reinstated in power, which he 
enjoyed till his death in 1016, when he was succeeded by his son Edmund 
Ironside, who, after fighting many battles, was obHged,|in the same year, to 
divide his kingdom with Canute, the new Danish sovereign. In the suc- 
ceeding year Edmund was murdered, and Canute, having obtained sole 
power in England, strengthened or rebuilt Norwich Castle, in which he 
replaced the Danish governor Tiu'kil. The government was afterwards 
bestowed upon Harold, who, succeeding to the throne, conferred this castle 
on Leofric, Earl of Mercia. Under the dominion of the Danes,* Norwich 
increased rapidly, for, though it had been nearly desti'oyed by fire in 1004, 
we find it had, in the reign of Edward the Confessor, 1320 burgesses and 
25 churches, and was them deemed a hundred of itself, containing 833 
acres of arable and meadow land, besides an extensive sheep-walk, held by 
the burgesses, under a socage tenure, of four proprietary lords, viz., the 
King, the Earl of Norfolk, Bishop Stigand, and Prince Harold. When 
William the Conqueror ascended the throne in 1066, he appointed JRalpli 
de Waher to the Earldom of Noriolk, and gave him several manors, with 
the Castle of Norwich for his residence. In 1075, this earl joined the 
rebellious barons against the Norman conqueror, and being defeated he fled 
^vith his forces to Norwich, but not receiving the assistance which he ex- 
pected, he speedily retired to Normandy, leaving the charge and defence of 
the castle to his Countess, who made an obstinate resistance, not yielding 
to the besiegers till compelled by the imperious necessity of famine ; and 
even then the garrison demanded and obtained an honourable capitulation, 
the Countess and her Httle band of vaHant troops being allowed to depart 
the kingdom as persons abjured and banished, never to return wdthout the 
king's special Hcense. Blomefield says, " In this siege the city suffered 
much, as we learn from Domesdaj'', many of the citizens who took the Earl's 
part fled away, and so forfeited all they had ; others were forced to go away 
because Waleram, xmder the pretence that they had joiuedthe Eai'l, whether 

* The only Danish relics that have been fotmd in the city are a sword dredged 
np in the river Wensum, and now in the British Museum, and a bone draughtsman, 
found in St. Stephen's churchyard, and preserved in the collection of K. Fitch, 
Esq., F.G.S. and F.S.A. 



148 HISTORY OP NORWICH. 

tliey did or no, invaded and seized their inheritances, and a great part were 
forced to look out for themselves, the chief of the city being burnt down at 
the seige, so that they had no place of residence ; and otliers were so heavily 
fined and taxed by the King that they were forced to fly ; and thus, by this 
one conspiracy, the city received prodigious damage every way." The 
earldom and castle being now confiscated were conferred by the Conqueror 
on Roger Bigocl, and we find at the Domesday Survey, in 108G, its number of 
cJiurches had increased to 54, its burgesses to 1565, and its hordars, or 
labourers, to 480. Though many of its dwellings are described in that 
great pubUc record as being then untenanted, it is evident that a con- 
siderable number must have been erected since the time of Edward the 
Confessor. 

Roger Bigod, Earl of Norfolk and governor of Norwich, retained these 
honours during the reign of "William Rufus, though he joined in the fruit- 
less attempt to place that king's elder brother, Robert Curthose, upon the 
throne. Peace being signed between the royal brothers. Earl Bigod was 
guaranteed, by a prior stipulation, in his landed possessions and the govern- 
ment of the castle. At the same time, the burgesses received a grant of 
many privileges from the king, and in 1094, the See of tlie Bishopric was 
removed from Thetford to Norwich, by Herbert de Losinga, who, in 1096, 
laid the first stone of the Cathedral, which tended greatly to promote the 
increase of the city both in riches and magnitude. Henry I. kept his 
Christmas at Norwich in 1122, and granted the burgesses their Jirst charter, 
containing the same franchises and liberties as London then enjoyed, and 
separating the government of the city from that of the castle, by placing 
it under the control of a provost. About this time a considerable addition 
was made to the population of Norwich, by a vast influx of Jews, who 
originally came over from Normandy, and were allowed to settle in Eng- 
land by the Conqueror, as chapmen for the confiscated goods of his subjects. 
They afterwards became so numerous, and were so much in favour with 
"William II., that he is said to have sworn by St. LuTtesface, his usual oath, 
" if the Jews should overcome the Christians, he himself would become one 
of their sect." They had many broils with monastic and other Christians, 
and in 1187, it is said they stole and crucified a boy named William, and 
buried him in Thorp Wood, where the monks, in 1144, built a chapel, called, 
in honour of this martyr, St. William-in-the-Wood.'^- For this ofi'ence, 
many of the Jews were punished, and the popular fury ran so high against 
them, at the time of the Crusades in the reign of Richard I., (A.D. 1189,) 
that great numbers of them were massacred in Norwich, Lynn, Stamford, 
London, York, and other places. Thomas, a monk of Monmouth, wrote 
seven books on St. William, the boy and martyr of Norwich, and on the 
miracles done at his shrine. 

In the reign of King Stephen, the castle and the borough charter were 
seized by the crown, in consequence of Hugh Bigod, the governor, being 
supposed to have favoured the cause of the Empress Matilda, but they were 
restored in 1152, with additional honours, the king giving license for Nor- 
wich to have a corporation vnth coroners and bailiffs. In the reign of 
Henry II., Hugh Bigod was advanced to the title of Barl of Norfolk ; but 
he afterwards rebelled against that monarch, and in 1174 landed a party of 
Flemings, who plundered the city. For this ofi'ence he was attainted, but 
his estate and honours were subsequently purchased by his son, Roger 
Bigod, who partly rebuilt and added such strength to the fortifications of 
Norwich Castle that it was considered impregnable. In 1193, he obtained 

* The foundations of this chapel may still be traced on Mousehold Heath. Its 
site is covered by short smooth grass, among which the wild thyme grows, but not 
furze or coarse plants, which flourish all round. The shepherds say that no weeds 
will grow upon it because it is holy ground. 



HISTORY OF NORWICH. 149 

from Richard I. a new charter, in which the inhabitants were recognised 
under the title of " citizens ;" but in the succeeding reign of King John, he 
joined the refractory barons, and was one of the most active in procuring 
for the people that great palladium of English liberty, Magna Charta, 
though he was at one time expelled from Norwich by the King, who ap- 
pointed the Earl of Pembroke and John Fitzherbert joint constables of the 
castles of Norwich and Orford. During these intestine wars the dastardly 
King John murdered his nephew. Prince Arthm*, for which crime the Pope 
excommunicated the whole kingdom, and avowed his intention of setting 
aside John de Grey, Bishop of Norwich, from whom King John had bor- 
rowed large sums of money, for which he gave him this prelacy, and left 
with him, as pledges, a great part of his regalia, viz.: — his large crown, 
gilt sword, surcoat, cloak, dalmatic girdle, sandals, gloves, and spurs. In 
1216, Norwich Castle was taken and the city plundered by the troops of 
Louis, dauphin of France, who had been invited to the Enghsh throne by 
the Pope and the discontented barons ; but these civil broils terminated 
dui'ing the same year in the death of John, and the accession of his son, 
Henry III., who, in 1228, granted the citizens a new charter, and in 1252, 
gave them license to surround the city with a large ditch. 

In 1234, the monies of Norwich had a serious affray with the citizens, in 
which part of the convent founded by Bishop Herbert was destroyed; 
and in 1272, a still more serious riot occurred, in which the cathedi-al suf- 
fered considerable damage. The cause of these distiu'bances was the 
haughty conduct of the monks, who, having charters of hberties oldeV than 
those of the city, were jealous of those granted by Richard I. and his suc- 
cessors. To quell these riots the king, in 1273, displaced the bailiffs for 
three j^ears, and appointed a governor in their stead. In consequence of the 
citizens representing to Edward I. that the city had suffered greatly during 
the rebellion against King John, and at other times, they obtained leave to 
enclose themselves within embattled tvalls, and a murage was levied for that 
purpose. These fortifications were begun in 1294, and finished in 1320 ; 
but in 1342, Richard SjyynJc, a wealthy citizen, erected additional walls and 
towers, with portcullises to the gates, and famished the garrison with 
various military engines, ammunition, &c., such as were then in use, con- 
sisting chiefly of espringolds and gogeons, arblasters and gogeons, with 
grapples, &c. The cathedral being repaired, was re-consecrated on Advent 
Sunday, 1278, in the presence of Edward I. In 1296, Norwich first sent 
two burgesses to Parliament. In the reign of Edward II., the Honour of 
Norwich Castle consisted of 120 knights' fees, equal to 85,000 acres of land, 
but the power of the Earl of Norfolk appears to have been soon after 
abridged, for the sheriff of the county was authorised by the King to use 
the Castle as o, prison, to keep persons charged with crimes in safe custody 
till the itinerant justices should hold their courts of Oyer and Terminer and 
general gaol delivery. This authority of the sheriff was often resisted by 
the Earl, which occasioned an act to be passed in the 14th of Edward III., 
estabhshing the right of the sheriff to use the castle as a county prison ^ 
though for the purpose of defence a military governor continued to be 
nominated by the crown. Tliis office was, however, gradually curtailed of 
its privileges by repeated grants to the corporation, and of its fees by 
numerous alienations ; for we find that in 1470 the " constabyllship of 
Norwych castyll" had only 20 knights' fees, though it possessed 120 when 
it was surrendered by Roger Bigod to Edward I. 

In the year 1336, the worsted and other woollen manufactures of Norwich 
were considerably augmented by the arrival of a number of Dutch and 
Flemish artizaiis who were " well-skilled in clotli making," and were invited 
to settle in England by Edward III., who did more for the commerce of his 
Idngom than all his predecessors. The city now began to rise rapidly in 



150 HISTORY OP NORWICH. 

trade, population, and wealth. In 1340, Edward III.,^- with his Queen 
Philippa, held a grand tournament here from February to Easter, and they 
visited the city again in 1342 and 1344. At this period, Norwich was a very 
populous place ; but it is said that about one-third of the inhabitants were 
swept away in 1348 and 1349, by the gveat j^higue, which first appeared in 
the northern parts of Asia, and extended its destructive ravages from one end 
of Europe to the other, Hke that modern pestilence, Asiatic Cholera, which 
in 1832, committed the most awful devastation in various parts of the king- 
dom. During the years 1348 and 1349, no less than 57,304 persons (besides 
rehgious -and beggars) died of the plague in the county of Norfolk ; and 
Bishop Bateman collated, in his diocese, 850 persons to vacant benefices ! ! 
so that at least, one-half of his clergy must have died or removed during 
the prevalence of this dreadful malady. In 1350, another tournament was 
held at Norwich, m the presence of Edward the Blade Prince and his 
mother, queen Philippa, with many distinguished nobles, who were enter- 
tained by the city at the cost of ^637. 4s. Cd. In 1377, the battlements on 
the walls and towers amounted to 1030 ; and the population of the city was 
estimated at only 5300 souls. 

Richard II., at the age of eleven years, ascended tlie throne in 1377, 
when the expensive wars in which the nation had been so long engaged 
with France and Scotland had greatly impoverished the people and occa- 
sioned much discontent, which was considerably aggravated by the levying 
of a poll-tax — an impost that pressed heavily on the poor, being a demand 
of three groats yearly on each person above the age of fifteen. By this 
odious tax the mumiurings of tlie poor were at length raised into open in- 
surrection, which first reared its bold front in Essex, under the influence of 
Wat Tyler, Jach Straw, and Hoi) Carter, three daring leaders, who assumed 
tliese names from thek humble occupations. The cUsafiection soon sjDread 
into other parts of the kingdom, and in 1381, a body of 50,000 rebels as- 
sembled in Norfolk and pillaged the houses of the nobles, lawyers, and other 
wealthy inhabitants under their leader, John Litester, a dyer of Norwich. 
But in the same year, these insurgents were completely overthrown at 
North Walsham, by the troops of //^-wr?/ le Spencer, Bisliop of Norwich, who 
took Litester prisoner, and after being arraigned for liigli treason, he was 
condemned to be hanged, drawn, and quartered, — one portion of his body to 
be suspended at his o^^oi residence, another over one of the city gates, one 
at Lynn, and the other at Yarmouth, which so disi^irited the Norfolk 
levellers, that they quietly dispersed. Thus an end was put to tliis 
alarming rebelhon, chiefly through the valor and ]Dromptitude of Bishop 
Spencer, who had been bred a soldier, and at this time ofiered to serve 
Richard II. abroad, with 3000 men at arms and 2500 archers well horsed 
and accoutred. In 1383, he raised several regiments and transported them 
into Flanders, to support the cause of Pope Urban against the Anti-Pope 
Clement, in which expedition he took many strong towns by assault, and 
gained a signal victory over 30,000 men. He was a rigid catholic, and, 
consequently, an inveterate enemy to the first church reformers, called the 
Lollards. In 1386, the citij ditches V\^ere cleansed, and there was a general 
survey of the walls and towers, by which it appears they were all put in 
thorough repair, and the latter were each of them guarded by three, six, or 
eight men. Heigham-gate was then called Port Inferna, or Hell-gate, 
from its low situation near the river. PJchard II. and his Queen passed 
through Norfolk, and visited Norwich abbey in 1383. 

Henry IV., having usurped the throne, and instigated the murder of the 

* In 1854, five gold coins of Edward III. were found by some men who were 
making a drain in Ber street, near St. Martin's lane. They are what were called 
Koyals or Double Nobles, each weighing 119^ grains, and originally of the value of 

13s. 4a, 



HISTOEY OF NORWICH. 151 

unfortunate and often misguided Pdchard II., in 1399, made it his first 
policy to ingratiate liimself in public favour. In 1403, after receiving a gift 
of 1000 marks from Norwich, he granted the citizens a new charter suitable 
to then' own wishes ; separating the city and its liberty from Norfolk, under 
the name of the County of the City of Norwich, with power to elect a mayor 
and two sheriffs yearly, in lieu of four bailiffs. The Idng visited the city in 
1406, and granted the corporation another charter for regulating the mode 
of electing the mayor, sheriffs, and common council. In 1415, Henry V., 
before he went to France and gained the glorious victory of Agincourt, 
visited Norwich, where he left his coronet in pawn for 1000 marks, of which 
500 were lent by the corporation of Norwich, 400 by that of Lynn, and the 
remainder by Wm. Westacre, Wm. Walton, and Nicholas Scounfet. During 
the reign of Henry VI., tlie citizens, from their quarrels with the monks, 
and by sueing the King in the Exchequer for ^£100 which they had lent 
liim, lost the ro5^al favour, and had their charter taken from them in 1437 
and 1442 ; but it was restored again in 1439 and 1447, in which latter year, 
Sir John Chfton, whom the King had appointed governor of the city, was 
withdrawn. In 1448 and 1449, Henry VI. visited Norwich, and after being 
entertained at the Bishop's palace, he granted the citizens a charter for two 
FAIRS, the first to be kept ten days before and after the third Sunday in 
Lent ; and the second on the commemoration of St. Paul, and the twenty 
following days. Fortimately, Nor-udch was not the scene of any of those 
fatal conflicts by which the kingdom was so often disturbed during the wars 
of the rival houses of York and Lancaster, though Queen Margaret visited 
the city for the purpose of recruiting her forces, when she was preparing to 
march against the Yorkists, under the Earl of March, then apxn*oacliing 
towards London. In 1455, a statute was made, limiting the number of 
attorneys to six for Norfolk, six for Suffolk, and two for Norwich. In the 
preamble, an excellent reason is given for this regulation. Edward IV. 
visited tliis city in 1469, and in the same year his Queen, Elizabeth Wood- 
ville,. came hither. She entered the city by the Westwick gate, and lodged 
at the Dominican Priory, but there were no i^ageants during her stay on 
account of the death of her father and brother, which took place about that 
time. Henry VII. kept liis Christmas here in 1485, when he went on a 
pilgrimage to Walsingham ; and he was here again in 1497, with his Queen, 
EHzabeth, and his mother, the Countess of Derby. 

Norwich, like many other ancient cities, has at various periods suffered 
greatly in plagues and scarcity ; and few places have sustained greater loss 
from accidental fires, by two of which the Cathedral was greatly injured 
in 1463 and 1509; and three others reduced a large portion of the city to 
ashes, in 1505 and 1507, — no fewer than 718 houses being consumed in the 
latter year. These desolating conflagrations induced the Corporation, in 
1509, to issue an order, that no new buildings in the city should be 
covered with thatch ; but this injunction not extending to those previously 
erected, some few still retain tsh unseemly and dangerous covering. In 
1517, that imperious prelate, Cardinal Wolsey, visited Norwich, to mediate 
between the citizens and the monks; but their disputes were not finally 
settled till 1524, when the jurisdiction of the convent was ascertained, and 
separated from that of the corporation ; though the prior and monks were 
not made a body corporate until 1538, when they were converted into a 
dean and chajJter. On November 6th, 1519, the city was visited by a gTeat 
flood; and in 1520 Queen Katherine visited the city. In 1527, tliere was 
an alarming scarcity of provisions, which caused several riotous disputes 
between the populace and the corn-sellers, at the Market-cross. In 1534, 
during the reign of the lascivious Henry VIII., and the prelacy of Richard 
Nykhe, or Nix, the bigoted bishop of Norwich, several conscientious church 
reformers were burnt at Norwich and other places: amongst those who 
suffered under the sanguinary judgments of this catholic prelate, were Ayres 



152 HISTOBY OF NORWICH. 

Bingy, Norrice, and tlie amiable Thomas Bilney, a native of East Bilney, 
in Norfolk. Bishop Nix, in the same year, gave the revenues of his diocese 
in exchange for the abbacy of Holm, to Henry VIII., who, shortly after- 
wards denied the papal supremacy, and established the Protestant rehgion, 
not so much from the love of truth as to satiate his greedy concupiscence 
with the spoils of the monastic foundations, of which he suppressed no fewer 
than 79 in Norwich and Norfolk. The monasteries which escaped the 
avarice of Henry, were dissolved by the regency of his infant son and suc- 
cessor, Edward VI., in whose reign several rebellions broke out in various 
parts of the kingdom, during the year 1549, owing to a system of enclosing 
adopted by the nobility and gentry, who had been put in possession of the 
abbey lands, which had previously been appropriated for the relief of the 
poor, who stiU considered they had a right of commonage on the wastes and 
open pastures. The rebels in this neighbourhood having imbibed the spirit 
of the ancient Norfolk levellers of 1381, proceeded to execute their nefarious 
designs under the command of Robert and William Kett, of Wymondham ; 
the former a tanner, and the latter a butcher. About 20,000 rebels having 
flocked to the standard of these daring leaders, they pillaged the country 
in their march to Mousehold heath, near Norwich, where they fixed their 
rendezvous, and where Robert Kett, the elder of the two leaders, assisted by 
deputies from every Hundred, held his councils under a large tree, styled 
the Oah of Reformation, from which he pretended to administer justice, 
and issued his edicts for contributions, which, in a few days, amounted in 
provisions alone to 3000 bullocks, 20,000 sheep, and an immense quantity 
of corn, besides geese, swans, &c. During several months, the country 
suffered under the exactions and outrages committed by this formidable band 
of insurgents, who murdered many of the inliabitants ; showing no mercy 
to those who bore the title of gentleman, in their frenzy for abolishing dis- 
tinction of ranks. On the approach of these levellers to Norwich, the 
citizens despatched messengers to the King's council for assistance, and put 
themselves in a posture of defence ; keeping a careful watch and ward upon 
the walls and towers, but not daring to act on the offensive against such a 
numerous and reckless foe. Government having, by means of a herald, 
offered the King's pardon to all who would abandon their traitorous enter- 
prise, and this promise being attended with no success, sent down the 
Marquis of Northampton with a body of troops to subdue them, but they 
were found too weak for the execution of tliis object, and, after being com- 
pletely routed in a second engagement, they abandoned the city to the 
rebels, who pillaged and burnt a large portion of it. All attempts to quell 
this violent insurrection were ineffectual, till a large army, raised to proceed 
against the Scots, was ordered to march to the relief of Norwich, under the 
command of the Earl of Warwick, who arrived under the city walls on 
August 23rd, after being joined at Cambridge by several of the principal 
citizens, the Marquis of Northampton, and other distinguished persons. 

On the following day, after making an ineffectual offer of pardon, the 
King's troops commenced their attack, and having made several breaches 
in the walls and forced open some of the gates, they soon entered the city 
and took possession of the Market-place. In the midst of this scene of 
blood, the King's ammunition carriages having entered apart from the main 
body of the army were captured by the enemy, but were soon re-taken by a 
detachment from the Market-place. A large number of the rebels still re- 
maining in the city now made a lodgement in Tombland, and, through their 
superior local knowledge, greatly annoyed the soldiers by i^osting small 
parties at the angles of the different streets leading into the Market-place. 
The Earl of Warwick, however, soon brought out his whole force to scour 
the cit}^ and after setting fire to their camp the rebels were obliged to quit 
their advantageous post on the hill, and retreated to Dussyn's dale, resolv- 
ing to finish the business by a general engagement in that valley. It is 



HISTORY OP NORWICH. 153 

probable they were stimulated to this movement by the want of provisions, 
the Earl having taken efifectual care to cut off their supplies. On the 27th, 
being reinforced by a newly arrived detachment, the Earl marched out of 
the city to attack these deluded men, to whom he again offered pardon pro- 
vided they would quietly lay down their arms; but confident in their 
numbers, and animated by the speeches of then* false prophets and leaders, 
they again unanimously refused to capitulate. A bloody conflict ensued, 
but the rebels being unused to the discharge of artillery, were soon in 
confusion ; this was taken advantage of by the hght-horse, who advanced 
to the charge, drove them from the field, and pursued them with great 
slaughter; upwards of 3000 of them being slain and many more wounded, 
whilst the royal army sustained but little losss. A corps de reserve, strongly 
entrenched behind their carts, carriages, &c., had remained unattacked near 
the scene of action, and to these the Earl again sent a promise of pardon, 
but they refused to surrender until he had personally assured them of the 
King's clemency, upon which they immediately threw down their aims. 

Some of the piincipal citizens fell in this battle in a manner very dis- 
tressing to their friends ; for, having been prisoners in the camp of the 
rebels, they were by the latter placed in front of their ranks, being first 
fettered and chained together ; all possible care was, however, used by the 
King's troops, so that many of the intended victims to this inhuman and 
dastardly contrivance escaped unliurt. About 300 of the rebels were 
executed shortly after in different parts of the city; and the Earl was 
strongly urged to put a much greater number to death, but he declared that 
enough had been done to satisfy the ends of justice, and that none of those 
should suffer to whom he had given liis promise of pardon. Robert Kett, 
though the chief in command, was the foremost in flight ; but he was taken 
the day after the battle in a barn, where he attempted to hide himself when 
his horse was no longer able to proceed. He was sent, with his brother, to 
the Tower of London, and being both convicted of liigh treason, they were 
on November 29th, brought to Norfolk : — Robert was executed on a gibbet 
on the top of Norwich Castle, and William suffered the same punishment 
at Wymondham. Thus perished with its authors, this desperate rebellion, 
which threatened the subversion of all lawful authority, and the consequent 
introduction of anarchy and confusion. After the departure of the King's 
troops, the citizens began to repair the damages sustained in this unnatural 
conflict, which was followed by such a scarcity and dearness of provisions, 
that the corporation issued an edict, requiring all the wealthier inhabitants 
to provide corn for then* own households elsewhere, so that their poorer 
neighbours might have the exclusive benefit of the city markets. 

In 1551, the siveating sickness, which either " mended or ended" its vic- 
tims in 24 hours, carried off 960 persons in a few days. This dreadful 
malady first appeared here in 1486, and during the succeeding five years 
visited many other parts of the kingdom. Two severe shocks of an earthquake 
were felt here in 1479 and 1487, and i\iQ plague was very fatal in the former 
year. During the short reign of that rigid Roman Cathohc, Queen Mary, 
Norwich was afiiicted by the residence of those merciless persecutors, 
Bishop Hopton and Chancellor Dunnings, at whose instigation several 
martyrs to the reformed rehgion were burnt here in 1557 and 1558. In 
the same years the Quartan Ague and a " new sickness" raged so violently 
that at the close of 1558 it was said " fre, sword, and p)estilenee" had swept 
away the third part of the men of England ; and it is recorded tliat ten of 
the Norwich aldermen fell victirns to the latter scourge in 1558. The 
plague again visited the city in 1578 and 1591, carrying off 4817 persons in 
the former, and 672 in the latter year. This dreadful pestilence afiiicted 
Norwich at several subsequent periods, and the numbers said to have died 
of it amounted in 1002 to 3076 ; in 1625 and '6 to 1431 ; and in 1665 and 
'6 to 2251 persons. During the continuance of the pestilence in 1660, the 
market was held at the north end of the Town Close. 



154 HISTORY OP NORWICH. 

In 1565 and 'G, the prosperity of the city, which had begun to dechne, 
was again revived by the settling here of 330 Dutcli and Walloons, who had 
fled from the Netherlands during the rigid persecution nnder the Duke of 
Alva. In 1571, by the fostering encouragement of Queen Elizabeth, the 
number of these foreign settlers had increased to no fewer than 3925, and 
by the introduction of bombazine and other silk and worsted manufactures, 
they contributed much to the wealth and prosperity of the city. In 1582 
they had increased to 4679, and enjoyed many exclusive privileges. On 
February 2nd, 1570, the north side of the city was inundated, and Fye 
bridge washed down by a gi'eat flood. In the same year printing was in- 
troduced here by Anthony Solen, one of the foreigners; and John Throg- 
morton, TJiomas Brooke, and G. Redman were hanged and quartered in the 
city, for having joined in one of the numerous conspiracies formed for the 
re-estabhshment of the Roman Catholic reUgion, during the long reign of 
EHzabeth. In 1572, the Duhe of Norfolk, and several other noblemen, 
were attainted and beheaded for similar offences at London, York, and other 
places ; the Duke having not only espoused the cause of Mary, Queen of 
Scots, but even offered marriage to that unfortunate Catholic Princess. In 
1574, when a rumour was spread of invasion by means of the boasted 
Invincible Armada, Norwich, towards the general defence, exhibited on its 
muster roll, 2120 able men, of whom 400 were armed ; the total number 
enrolled in the whole county of Norfolk being at the same time 6120 able 
men, of whom 3630 were armed. In 1578, Queen EUzaheth made a pro- 
gTess through this county, and from the 16th to the 22nd of August, she 
lodged at the Bishop's palace, in Norwich, where she and her suite were 
entertained with sT^lendid jjageantries, principally allusive to the trade and 
manufactures of the city. The Queen came on horseback from Ipswich, 
though she had several coaches in her train. Whilst here she dined pub- 
licly in the north alley of the Cathedral cloister, and often went a hunting 
on horseback, and to witness wrestling and shooting on Mousehold-heath. 
In 1583, Abdyall Lewis was burnt in the Castle ditch for denying the 
divinity of Christ, and in 1588 Francis Knight, M.A., was burnt at the same 
place for similar heresy. 

The charges of the mayoralty having much increased, the city in 1593, 
ordered that .=£100 should in future be allowed yearly towards defraying 
them: this yearly allowance was increased in 1821 to ^6300, a sum very 
inadequate to the Mayor's expenses, which, for the Guild-day festivity 
alone, often amounted to about a thousand pounds ; or to one guinea for 
each person entertained in the hall. The Municipal Reform Act does not 
countenance these festivities. In 1597, it was ordered that Margaret Grove, 
a common scold, should be carried, with a basin rung before her, to the 
cucking-stool, near Fyebridge, there to be ducked three times in the river. 
The cucking-stool, for cooling scolds and other disorderly women, was then 
in common use all over England. In 1599, Wm. Kemp, a comedian in 
Shakspeare's company, a man of considerable humour, famous for perform- 
ing the part of Dogberry, came dancing from Loudon to Norwich in nine 
days; of which comical exploit he published an account in a quarto 
pamphlet, in 1600, entitled, " Nine Days Wonder,'' with an engraved 
frontispiece, representing himself in a fanciful habit and dancing attitude, 
preceded by a person playing upon the pipe and tabor. This work was 
reprinted in 1840. On April 29th, 1601, the Cathedral sinre was much 
damaged by lightning. On the evening of the guild-day, in 1611, a great 
crowd assembled on Tombland, to witness a display of fireu-orks, some of 
which breaking or taldng fire accidentally, created such confusion in the 
multitude, that thirty-three persons were trampled or pressed to death. 
The city was visited by great floods in 1646, 1697, and 1706, and so high 
were the waters in the first of these years, that boats were rowed in many 
of the streets. 



HISTORY OP NORWICH. l55 

Civil Wars. — In the fatal contentions betrveen the prerogatives of the 
Crown and the privileges of Pai'liament,in the reign of Charles I., when 
brother fought against brother, and father against son, Norfolk saflfered 
much less than many counties in the kingdom, though it was several 
times the scene of confusion and blood. The principal causes wliich led 
to tliis long and du'eful distraction of the country, were the levying of sMp 
money, and the duty of tonnage and poundage, without the sanction of 
Parhament; and the cruel proceedings of that secret and inquisitorial 
court, called the Star Chamber. There also prevailed in the nation a dis- 
position for republican, in preference to monarchical government; and 
rehgion was often made the stalldng-horse to avarice and ambition. From 
these combined causes, the elements of government were thrown into dis- 
order; and they never perfectly re -assumed their proper station, till the 
glorious Ptevolution of 1688. When Charles I. had left London, for the 
pm-pose of raising forces in the north of England, the Parliament then 
sitting voted the necessity of taking up arms in opposition, (July I2tli, 1042,) 
and the inhabitants of Norfolk generally approved of that determination. 
At an early period of this contest, Norwich was fortified against the royal 
cause, pm-suant to the orders of a majority of the corporation ; though the 
mayor, (Wm. GostHn,) and some of the principal citizens stiU preserved 
their loyaltj^ ; and the foi-mer, for not confirming the edicts of Parliament, 
was sent prisoner to Cambridge, by the Earl of Manchester, who was 
appointed commander of the " associated counties " of Norfolk, Suffolk, 
Cambridge, Hertford, and Essex, to wliich Lincoln v\^as afterwards added. 
After the arrest of the mayor, the king's partisans in Norwich, assembled 
in the house of one of their friends, to consider what measures should be 
adopted for their safety ; but the meeting being discovered, and the city 
ordnance planted against the house with threats of immediate destruction 
they were compelled to surrender. The Parliamentarians, having now 
overcome all oi^position here, were enabled to direct their attention to the 
furnishing of money and troops for the subjugation of other pai'ts of the 
kingdom. A tax, levied for this purpose, to be paid by weekly instalments, 
amounted for Norfolk to £'1-250 per annum, — of which Norwich paid £'53 ; 
Yarmouth, £31. 6s. 5d. ; Thetford, £o. lis. 9d. ; and Lynn, £-27. lis. lOd. 
But this impost was trilling, compared mth the loss sustained by the 
Bishoi? and his clergy, and aU others suspected of loyalty, for they were 
plundered and maltreated without mercy in these troublesome times. In 
1648, Mr. JohnUtting, being mayor, was often solicited by a set of fanatics, 
to give more effect to certain ordinances against superstition, and for the 
defacing images, &c. ; but not paying much attention to their "cashes, a 
complaint was lodged with Parhament against liim. Soon after, a pursui- 
vant was sent from the house, to carry up Mr. Utting to answer these 
charges ; the common people having had experience of the treatment offered 
to a former mayor, were determined to prevent a repetition of such insults, 
and apprehensive of his being earned off in the night, they assembled 
together and secured the city gates, keeping careful watch. Their numbers 
continually increased ; many amongst them were armed, and their watch- 
word was, " For God and King Charles." 

The next day they were alarmed with a report that the mayor was about 
departing, upon wliich they marched to the house where the pursuivant 
was, and would have immediataly sacrificed liim to their fury but for the 
interference of the mayor liimseh". The messenger, not at all pleased •\\ith 
his reception, quitted the city without his prisoner, and the mob du'ected 
their course towards the committee-house, where the depot for the county 
arms was, committing many excesses by the way. I'pon their arrival, they 
furnished themselves completely witli arms, and retired to Chapelfield. A 
troop of horse arrived in the course of the day from the country, and dis- 
persed a gi'eat part of theni ; but one party, having secured the committee- 



156 HISTORY OP NORWICH. 

house, they would not have beeu easily dislodged, but for the accidental 
firing of 98 barrels of gunpowder, which tremendous explosion is said to 
have killed and wounded above a hundred on both sides, and effectually 
terminated all further hostilities. In 1049, several persons concerned in 
the last-named disturbance were put to death ; and in the following year, 
some of the aldermen were displaced for refusing to take the covenant ; and 
twenty-five royalists were hanged here and at other places in Norfolk, for 
being concerned in a projected insurrection in favour of Charles II., whose 
father had already fallen a victim to the ambition of Cromwell and the 
turbulent sphit of the times. At length, the nation finding theh miscalled 
liberty a " succession of tyrannies," brought about the restoration, after the 
death of Cromwell. The citizens of Norwich were among the first to hail 
the return of monarchy in the person of Charles II., who was proclaimed 
here May 10th, 1000, and the sum of ^£1000 was presented to his majesty 
on behalf of the city, by the mayor, who received the honour of knighthood. 

In 1003, Charles II. granted the city the charter by which it was gov- 
erned till 1835 ; and in 1070, Lord Howard presented tlie corporation with 
a noble mace of silver gilt, and a gown of crimson velvet for the mayor. In 
1071, Charles II., his Queen, the Dukes of York, Monmouth, and Bucking- 
ham, with many other nobles, entered the city on September 28th, and were 
met by the mayor and corporation and entertained both at the Duke of 
Norfolk's and the Bishop's palace. In 1082, the corporation, by a majority 
of votes (40 to 22) surrendered to the king the charter which he had granted 
them nine years before, and in lieu of it a new one was substituted sub- 
jecting the city to very extraordinary limitations, — the Idng having reserved 
to himself the right of removing such magistrates as he might not approve 
of. By the mandate of James II., in 1087, ten aldermen and nineteen com- 
mon councilmen were displaced. But the arbitrary conduct of this monarch 
soon brought about his ruin; and when "Henry, Duke of Norfolk, rode 
into the market-place at the head of 300 knights and gentlemen, and de- 
clared for a fi'ee Parliament," the corporation and citizens responded with 
loud and fervent acclamations. 

After the " glorious Revolution" of 1088, the first charter of Charles II. 
was restored to the city, and the aldermen removed by James II. were rein- 
stated in their offices. On December 7th, 1088, a mob destroyed the 
Catholic Chapel in Black-friars yard, and pillaged many houses belonging 
to the Catholics ; but on the following day the rioters were dispersed by 
the trained bands. In 1097, a mint was established at Norwich, and coined 
to the amount of .6259,371. The Water Works at the New Mills were 
commenced in 1097 ; and in 1701, Acts of Parliament were obtained for 
lighting the streets and estabhshing a Court of Conscience in the city. In 
1703, Hardley Cross, at the extent of the city's jurisdiction on the river 
Yare, was repaired at the cost of the corporation. In 1705, Weavers' Hall 
was broken open and the books destroyed, after which the seaHng of stufis 
was disused. On December 7th, 1700, Henry Crosgrove began a weekly 
Newspaper called the Norwich Gazette, in which he was assisted by the 
celebrated Edward Cave, the original planner and establisher of the Gentle- 
man's Magazine, commenced in 1731. The Norwich Artillery Company, of 
100 men, was formed in 1715 ; and in I7l0, Mr. Thomas Hall left a hand- 
some gold chain, to be worn by the mayor. In the latter year, the Bev. 
John St. Quintin was convicted at Norwich assizes of asserting that the 
Pretender was landed in the west with 50,000 men, and drinking his health; 
he was sentenced to pay a fine of 20 marks and be imprisoned for one year. 
Mr. Matthew Fern underwent a similar sentence for drinking the Preten- 
der's health, and calluig King George " turnip hougher ;" and Thomas 
Shirley for saying " King George has no more right to the crown than I 
have," was pubUcly whipped and compelled to find sureties for good beha- 
viour for three years In 1732, an Act passed for better qualifying the city 



HISTORY OP NORWICH. 157 

mannfacturers to bear the offices of magistrates, &c. ; and another Act was 
obtained in 1729, for regulating the city elections. In 1725, an Act was 
passed for levying a toll on goods, &c., brought higher up the river than 
Thorpe Hall, for supporting the bridges, staiths, wharfs, &c., in the city. 
This Tonnage Act was repealed by another Act for the same imrpose, pas- 
sed in 1839. Ber-street gates and Brazen-doors were rebuilt in 1726. 
Some labourers digging on Household Heath, in 1730, discovered the 
foundations of the church called " St. William's in tlie Wood." In 1731, 
the market was new paved ; and in the following year, Charing-cross and 
Market-cross were taken doTMi. St. George's Company resigned its books, 
charters, and records to the corporation in 1731, when the procession on 
the Guild-day was commenced. In 1733, Sir Robert Walpole was pre- 
sented with the freedom of the city in a gold snuff-box ; and in 1734, he 
presented to the city a gilt mace weighing 168 ounces. The ditches on the 
south side of the Castle hill were levelled in 1738, and since then the cattle 
market has been held there. In 1739, Mr. Thomas Emerson, of London, 
presented to this his native city two gold chains, value 100 guineas each, to 
be worn by the sheriffs. In 1740, deamess of provisions occasioned several 
riots, which were suppressed by the mihtary after the loss of six or seven 
lives. In 1741, it was ordered " that no stranger be permitted to exercise 
his trade in Norwich more than six months, without taking up the fi*eedom 
of the city." In 1745, the magistrates and principal inhabitants associated 
for the support of Government and the defence of civil and rehgious 
liberty. In 1746, the Shu-e-house was destroyed by fire on September 
30th ; and on October 9th, the city was brilliantly illuminated, after the 
suppression of the Scotch rebellion. On January 10th. 1756, a slight shock 
of an earthquaJie was felt here, about the same time that Lisbon was des- 
troyed by a dreadful convulsion of nature. The first Norwich banJc was 
established this year, by Charles Weston, Esq. ; and the gold chain worn 
by the mayor was presented by Matthew Goss, Esq. 

The Norfolk Militia, commanded by Lord Orford, marched from Norwich 
to Portsmouth, on July 4th, 1759, and passed in review before his Majesty 
at Kensington. This was the first miUtia regiment that left its county. In 
digging under the rampart of the Castle hill, two very curious bones were 
found in 1700, supposed to have been amulets worn by the Druids in their 
sacrifices. In 1761, a coach from Norwich to London was estabhshed, per- 
forming the journey in about 20 hours, which before had employed two 
days in summer and three in winter. The coronation of George HI. 
and his Queen was celebrated here with great splendour, and congratu- 
latory addresses were sent to their Majesties ; after presenting which, 
Thomas Churchman, Esq., the mayor, was knighted. On October 27th, 
1762, near three hundred houses and eight parish churches were inundated 
during a great^ZoofZ, which rose 12 feet perpendicularly in 24 hours, being 15 
inches higher than the flood in 1691, and 13 inches lower than that in 1614. 
In 1764, air jackets, for preventing persons sinking in water, were invented 
by Messrs. Cobb and Tinkler, and a hackney coach was set up by Wilham 
Huggins. On September 27th, 1766, owing to the high price of provisions 
and a want of employment, an alarming riot broke out in Norwich, which 
was quelled after much mischief had been done : thu'ty of the ringleaders 
were taken and tried by a special commission, and two of them were execu- 
ted. Wheat sold at from 22s. to 24s. ; barley, 10s. to lis, ; oats, 8s. to 
9s. 3d. ; and peas, at 12s. to 13s. per coomb. On December 25th, Mx. 
Ward's house, in Ber-street, was burnt down, and six persons perished in 
the flames. In 1767, an act was obtained for a new turnpike from Norwich 
to Thetford. The turnpikes from Norwich to East Walton and Caistor, 
near Yarmouth, were formed in 1770 ; that to New Buckenham in 1772; 
and that to Aylsham in 1794. Mr. Alldays Bank (afterwards Sir Roger 
Kerrison and Son's) was opened in 1768. 



HISTOBY OF NORWICH. 

. On December I9tii, 1770, there was a greater storm of wind and rain 
than had been known since 1741. Part of the city wall, between Brazen 
doors and Ber street, fell, and crushed down a new house. In 1771, " the 
names of the streets, &c., were ordered to be fixed up." This has recently 
been done afresh, but the numbering of the dooi^s is still very imperfect, and 
in many of the streets there are no numbers at all. In 1773, upwards of 
.£1600 was subscribed for relieving the poor of the city with bread. In 
1775, Messrs. Gurney and Co.'s bank was opened, and the influenza raged 
severely in the city. In 1777 a scheme was proposed for cutting a navig- 
able canal from Norwich to the river Ouse, near Downham. It was esti- 
mated by Mr. Brindley at the cost of £00,000, but finally abandoned. In 
1778 the freedom of the city was presented to Earl CornwaUis ; and Wm. 
Crotch first astonished the world with his musical powers by playing on the 
cathedral organ at the age of two years and three quarters. In 1779, the 
new year was ushered in with a terrible storm of wind, which rolled up the 
lead of St. Andrew's Church, and blew it to a considerable distance, besides 
doing much damage to other churches and houses. On March 24th, 1783, 
the pageant of the Golden Fleece, or Bishop Blaize, was exhibited by the 
woolcombers in a most magnificent style. In 1784, the moat which sur- 
rounds the Castle hill, and the ascent from thence, were laid out as gardens 
and shrubberies. On July 23rd, 1785, Major, afterwards General Money, 
ascended in a balloon from the pubhc gardens outside St. Stephen's gate, 
and after passing over Lowestoft, was driven about seven leagues from land, 
when, from the valve of the machine being defective, the car sunk so low 
as to be immersed in the sea. After beating about for four hours the Major 
was taken up by the Argus revenue cutter. This was the second aerial 
voyage from Norwich, the first being made by a Mr. Decker, on June 1st, 
in the same year. Part of the Lower Close was enclosed by Dean Lloyd, 
and a handsome garden made in 1788, and on digging gravel in the cloister 
yard some human bones were dug up, with hair four feet long, supposed to 
have lain there 200 years. The " city ivaytes" had £30 a year till 1790, 
when they were discharged. In 1792, seven of the city gates were taken 
down, an opening made in the wall by Chapelfield, and another near Ber 
street'gates. In January, two new Banks were opened by Messrs. Harvey 
and Hudson, and Messrs. Kett, Hadfield and Co. 

In January, 1795, £1500 were subscribed for the relief of the unemployed. 
In February, Norfolk and Norwich raised their quota of 264 volunteers for 
manning the navy, and a rapid thaw produced such a general inundation 
in tlie city and suburbs that the poor inhabitants near the river were re- 
duced to great distress. In May, several buildings in the city were con- 
verted into temporary harrachs for 8000 soldiers. In 1796, about 1000 
human skeletons were found in digging on the premises of J. Crowe, Esq., 
at Lakenham, supposed to have lain there since the plague of 1G65, as a 
tradesman's token, dated 1664, was found in the same place. On May 
17th, a dreadful affray occurred between the privates of the Northumber- 
land and Warwickshire regiments of militia, and several were v/ounded 
with bayonets before their of&cers could part them. This year Norwich 
raised 211 men for the Supplementary Mihtia. In February, 1797, the 
Norwich Light Horse Volunteers and Loyal Military Association were em- 
bodied, the former under the command of Captain John Harvey, and the 
latter under Captain John Patteson. In January, 1797, the sword of the 
Spanish Admiral, Don Xavier Winthuysen, was presented by Admiral 
Nelson to the corporation of Norwich, and placed in the council chamber 
of the Guildhall, with an appropriate device and inscription. In February 
and March, £8000 were subscribed here for the defence of the kingdom ; and 
in May, five companies of Volunteer Infantry were formed in the city. In 
September, all the oflicers, and most of the men, of the East and West Nor- 
folk Militia volunteered their services for Ireland. On December 29tli, the 



HISTOBY OF NORWICH. 15^^ 

thermometer stood at 3° below 0, a degree of cold never before noticed in 
this island. In February, 1799, a deep snow obstructed for a time all 
travelling and internal communication ; and the mail coaches were four days 
and nights in performing the joui-ney from Norwich to London. In many 
places the snow was twenty feet deep. 

In January, 1800, a meeting of the citizens was held at the Guildhall, 
and a committee appointed to consider a i)lan for better paving, lighting, 
and cleansing the city. The cost of tliis necessary work was estimated at 
.£55,000." On September 1st, in consequence of the high price of provisions, 
a number of persons, chiefly females, riotously assembled at the New Mills 
for the purpose of serving out the flour at a cheap rate, and had begun to 
sell at 2s. per stone, when several magistrates arrived and frustrated the 
designs of tlie misguided mob. In October, his Majesty's proclamation 
was received, exhorting all housekeepers to reduce the consumption of 
bread in their respective famihes to, at most, a quartern loaf per week for 
each individual. In December, the price of wheat was I20s. to I50s. per 
quarter. On July 29th, a ship of 120 tons was launched at Thorpe; being 
the first ever built so high up the river, a vast concourse of people attended 
to witness the novel sx^ectacle. In October, here were great rejoicings and 
a general illumination in consequence of the ratification of peace between 
England and France. In 1803, this kingdom being again threatened with 
invasion from France, Norwich, like other poiDulous places, made great 
preparations for internal defence. In August, .£6000 were subscribed for 
raising a regiment of Volunteer Infantry, in which 1400 citizens speedily 
enrolled themselves under the command of Lieut.-Col. Robert Harvey. A 
Rijie CorjJS was also formed, of wliich R. M. Bacon, Esq., was appointed 
captain. On Sept. 29th, a new Telegraph was erected on the top of Norwich 
Castle, to communicate with Strumpshaw Mill, Filby Church, and Yar- 
mouth. In October, the Norfolk and Norwich Volunteer Regiments agreed 
to perform permanent duty at Yarmouth in case of invasion, and many of 
them were stationed in that port during two succeeding months. The vic- 
tory of Trafalgar, in 1805, is said to have so blasted the hopes of France 
that she relinquished the idea of putting in force her threatened invasion of 
this land of freedom, although she had 300,000 men ready for the purpose 
on the heights of Boulogne. In February, 1803, nearly 100 pairs of slioes 
were burnt in the Market place, for being made contrary to act of Parlia- 
ment, by about twenty shoemakers, who were all fined by the Mayor. In 
1806, the estate belonging to the Duke of Norfolk, called the Dukes Palace, 
was sold in lots for £5055. In July, debts to the amount of £-160,000, were 
proved against the bankmpt firm oiSir R. Kerrison and Son. Dividends 
of 16s. 4d. in the pound were afterwards paid. The Local Militia Act 
passed in this month, and many of the Volunteers transferred to it their 
services, under the command of Col. Patteson. The Gates in Ber street, 
Magdalen street, and St. Martin's-at-Oak were taken down this year. The 
Prince Regent and tlie Dukes of Clarence and Cambridge passed through 
the city in December, 1812. The Volunteer Corps of Norwich and Norfolk 
were disbanded March 24, 1813. On August 10th, the first steam barge 
on the river Yare arrived at Norwich, after travelling at the rate of only five 
miles per hour. On May 11th, 1816, the West Norfolk Militia returned to 
Norwich from Ireland, and were disembodied on June l7th. The new 
silver coinage was received here on May 31st, in exchange for the defaced 
shillings and sixpences. In January, 1817, upwards of £3000 were sub- 
scribed to relieve the poor, many of whom were employed in maldng a new 
road to Carrow, and in other public works, the staple trade of the city being 
for some months in a state of great stagnation. On April 0th, tlie boiler of a 
steam packet burst shortly after leaving Norwich, and killed nine persons, 
besides two others who died of their wounds in the hospital. After this acci- 
dent, a vessel was introduced with paddles turned by four horses, working in 



160 HISTORY OP NORWICH. 

a circle of eighteen feet in diameter. This year, the wife of Edward Eigby, 
M.D., was delivered of four children, but they all died before they were 12 
weeks old. On December 3rd, 1820, the Dukes of York and Wellington 
were admitted to the honorary freedom of the city, at the Angel Inn. 
On the 12th, in consequence of the numerous rohheries committed in the 
city and county, public meetings were held and resolutions entered into for 
granting rewards to such watchmen as should apprehend offenders. More 
burglaries had been committed in the last three months than in the twenty 
preceding years. Acts were this year passed for Ughting the city with gas, 
and for erecting the bridge at the Duke's palace. On July 7th, 1821, the 
Coronation of George IV. was celebrated here in the most splendid and joy- 
ful manner. On Sept. 27th, 1822, the weavers of Norwich presented a 
magnificent silver vase to John Harvey, Esq., in testimony of the high 
esteem with which they regarded him as a liberal patron and spirited pro- 
moter of the manufactures of his native city; 2361 weavers subscribed to 
defray the expense, no individual being allowed to contribute more than one 
shilling. On December 23rd, 1823, as some workmen were employed in 
sinking a well near St. Giles' gates, they discovered several extensive vaults, 
running in all directions at the depth of 35 feet. The bank of Messrs. Day 
and Co. failed in 1825. In February, 1830, the numerous unemployed 
weavers were relieved by a subscription of £2300, exclusive of £200 given 
by Hudson Gurney, Esq., and £400 received fi-om London. On March 
9th, the premises of Mr. A. Beloe, on Orford hill, erected a short time 
before, at a cost of more than £4000 were sold by auction for £860. 
On September 8th, 1831, the Coronation of WiUiam IV. was celebrated 
here, with a grand procession, pubhc dinners, and a brilUant illumination. 
Several petitions were sent from Norwich, in favour of the Reform Bill. 
On the 24th of February, 1832, the corporation gave a vote of thanks to the 
Lord Chancellor, for having granted two gaol dehveries in the year ; and a 
similar vote, with the freedom of the city, was conferred on John Stracey, 
Esq., for his exertions in obtaining the removal of the Summer Assizes from 
Thetford, for which an Act of Parliament received the royal assent on June 
23rd. The passing of the Reform Bill was celebrated in this city on the 
5th of July, by public rejoicings and festivities, and a numerous and splendid 
procession. That baneful disease, Asiatic Cholera, wliich committed such 
awful ravages in many parts of the kingdom in 1832, did not visit Norwich 
till August 17th ; and on November 11th, thanksgivings were offered up at 
all the churches and chapels, for the removal of this malady, and for the 
mild manner in which the citizens had been afflicted, in comparison with 
those of other populous places. On May 13th, 1833, a meeting of about 
300 citizens agreed upon a petition to the House of Commons, " praying 
that honourable House to enact such laws as would be necessary for reform- 
ing the constitution and powers of the corporate body, and to cause an 
inquiry to be instituted touching the management and expenditure of the 
estates, tolls, and other funds under the control of the Corporation." This 
petition was numerously signed. During a dreadful thunder-storm, about 
midnight on July 7, the electric fluid struck the thatched roof of the Black 
Tower, on Butter hills, which was instantly in a blaze, and burned with 
great fury until the whole of the interior of the building was consumed. 
On September 5th, the Norwich Yarn Company was formed at a numerous 
meeting of the merchants, bankers, and manufacturers. The Norwich and 
Lowestoft Navigation was opened September 30, when the Squire and the 
City of Norwich traders passed through Carrow-bridge, and arrived here 
without once touching ground, amidst the firing of guns, ringing of bells, 
and the loud cheers of a multitude of sj^ectators. On November 23rd, two 
of the municipal commissioners, G. Long and J. Buckle, Esqrs., commenced 
their enquiry into the state of the Norwich Corporation, at the Guild Hall, 
and the investigation lasted 22 days, being much impeded by the sheriffs 



HISTORY OF NORWICH, 161 

and some other members of the corporate body. The first " Toicn Council" 
under the Municipal Reform Act, was elected Nov. 9th, 1835. 

On January 7th, 1835, after a contest between two Whig and two Tory 
candidates for the representation of the city in parhament, the two former 
were defeated ; the number of votes at the close of the poll being, for Lord 
Stormont, 1892 ; for the Hon. Robert Campbell Scarlett, 1878 ; for the Hon. 
E. V. Harbord, 1592 ; and for F. O. Martin, Esq., 1582. During the same 
month, Sir James Scarlett, who had sat for the city from 1832 to 1834, was 
raised to the peerage by the title of "Baron Abinger, of Abinger, in the 
county of Surrey, and of the city of Norwich." He died in 1844. On June 
loth, 1835, the last guild-day of the old corporation, was held with all the 
customary civic splendoui', and about 800 ladies and gentlemen dined at 
St. Anckew's Hall. On Januaiy 1st, 1836, T. O. Springfield, Esq., was 
elected the first Mayor under the Municipal Act. On December 1st, when 
the first stone of the yarn factory, near Whitefriar's bridge, was laid, the 
pageant in honour of Bishop Blaize was revived with great splendour. The 
bishop was personated by Richard Dickerson, a woolcomber, who had held 
the same character in the procession of 1783. The coronation of Queen 
Victoria was celebrated here June 28th, 1838. This year the city was much 
disturbed by the weavers' stiike for resisting a reduction of wages. In 
June, 1839, the Norwich Tonnage Act passed. The chartists of the city 
attended service at the cathedral, on the 18th of August. This faction did 
not commit here any open breaches of the peace, though some of its mem- 
bers provided themselves with guns and pikes, which were taken from them 
by the pohce. While excavating a grave in the chancel of the church of 
St. Peter Mancroft, a cofl&n was broken, which proved to be that of Sir 
Thomas Browne, M.D., who died in 1682. The skeleton was found to be in 
good preservation, and the hair of the beard very profuse. At the election 
in July, 1841, the chartists put F. K. Eagle, Esq., in nomination, and the 
military were soon afterwards called out co disperse a ''riotous mob, which 
threatened vengeance on Dover, the chartist leader, for taking a bribe for 
the withdrawal of his nomination of Mr. Eagle. 

A dreadful storm of hail, rain, wind, and thunder, on the 9th of August, 
1843, did immense damage to property in various parts of Norfolk; and 
towards repairing the losses of the sufi'erers, £'5622. lis. lOd. were raised by 
parochial, and £4391. 14s. 6d. by individual subscriptions. Similar storms 
occurred in tlie preceding and the same month, in various parts of the king- 
dom, and many of the hailstones, or rather pieces of ice, were 1^ inches 
square. In some places the panes of glass in the windows which faced the 
storm were nearly all broken. In January, 1849, Jenny Lind gave two 
concerts in Norwich, each of which was attended by more than 2000 per- 
sons, and the proceeds, amounting to £1253. 4s., were generously given by 
the celebrated songstress for the foundation of the Jenny Lind Infirmaiy 
for Children, as afterwards noticed. On April 4th, 1850, Mr. Newall, the 
superintendent of the Eastern Counties Railway, was killed at Reedham, 
by leaping ofi" a train when in motion. On July 9th, 1853, a dreadful 
thunderstorm passed over Norwich, and the rain fell in torrents for three 
hours, and inundated the lower part of the city. In May, 1854, the mayor 
(Mr. Samuel Bignold) presented an address to the Queen, assuring her 
majesty of the loyal support of the Corporation in the prosecution of the 
Russian war, and his worship received the honour of knighthood. The 
Wellington statue, in the Market place, was inaugurated on Nov. 2nd in the 
same year. Duke's Palace Bridge was opened free of toll in March, 1855. 
The new Cemetery was commenced Feb. 27th, 1856 ; and in April of the 
following year the Nelson statue was removed from the Market place to 
the front of the Grammai' School, in the Upper Close. There were great 
rejoicings and illuminations in 1857, on the conclusion of peace with 
Russia ; and a grand banquet was shortly afterwards given in St. Andrew's 



162 HISTORY OF NOEWICH, 

Hall, to Major General Windham, C.B., the hero of the Redan. On June 
26th, 1857, the present Bishop of Norwich was mstalled, and in the follow- 
ing August the annual congress of the British Archaeological Institute was 
held in this city. In March, 18G0, Lord Bury and H. W. Schneider, Esq., 
who had for some years represented the city, were unseated for bribery, 
and replaced by Su- Wm. Russell, Bart., C.B., and Edward Warner, Esq., 
the present parhamentary representatives of Norwich. A meeting was 
held on the 10th of January. 1861, to consider the best means of reheving 
the distress which had for some time prevailed owing to the depression of 
trade; and within a month more than £4.000 were raised for the poor of the 
city. The death of the Prince Consort, in December, 1861, caused great 
grief in Norwich, and the mayor and corporation went in procession with 
the Volunteers, &c., to the cathedral, where a suitable sermon was preached 
by the bishop. On the 12th of September, 1862, the whole of theNorfolk 
and Norwich Volunteers, with some of their confreres from the neighbour- 
ing counties, and more than 2000 invited guests, were entertained by R.J. 
H. Harvey, Esq., the High Sheriff of Norfolk, at his seat at Crown Point; 
and on the succeeding day a large number of the poor experienced the same 
liberal treatment. On the 10th of March, 1863, the citizens again dis- 
played their enthusiastic loyalty by processions, illuminations, balls, &c., 
on the occasion of the marriage of the Prince of Wales. The Triennial 
Musical Festival in September, 1863, reahzed the large sum of 564680. 8s. 

Mandfactuees. — The manufactures of Norwich are the great source of 
its wealth, and by employing an immense capital, exciting industry, and 
remunerating labour, they have raised the city to its present commercial 
importance, and augmented its population since the year 1811, from 37,313, 
to upwards of 76,000 souls; and its houses from 8336 to about 18.000. No 
place in England, Manchester excepted, has made a more distinguished 
figure in the weaving trade than the city of Norwich. That the art of 
manufacturing cloth from wool was exercised in Norfolk from a very early 
period, has been conjectured from the simple and primitive mode of spinning 
with a distaff being continued here long after it was disused in other manu- 
facturing districts ; indeed, it was not finally abolished here till about fifty 
years ago, when the machine spinners of Yorkshire began to supply the city 
manufacturers with yarn of a more regular texture, at a cheaper rate, and 
in much larger quantities than could be produced on the domestic wheels 
of Norfolk ; and several yarn mills have since been built in Norwich. 

Before the Norman Conquest, woollens of various qualities and textures 
composed the principal manufactures of Norwich ; but soon after that period 
a sort of cloth work was introduced, which, though not a new discovery, 
had not been previously x^ractised in England. This was a totally different 
production to what had usually been denominated cloth ; the preparation 
being by a combing, instead of a carding process. By the former, the wool 
is drawn out to a very long, in the latter to a short staple ; that is, the 
fibres of the fleece are extended the whole length in the one instance, and 
broken and internected in the other. The art of combing wool is attributed 
as a discovery to Blasius, or Blaize, a bishop of the eastern church in the 
third century, who is still venerated by the woolcombers as the patron saint 
of their trade. Respecting the time when it was first exercised in this 
country, difl'erent opinions have been entertained. Owing to an inundation 
in Flanders, numbers of the inhabitants of that province came over to tliis 
country in the time of Henry the First. Some of them settled in Pem- 
brokeshire, and others fixed their abode, first at Worstead, and afterwards at 
Norwich, and their articles, manufactured fwm jersey, or combed wool, 
received the name of ivorsted stuff's, from their original place of settlement 
in Norfolk. In the reign of Edward II. a patent was granted to John 
Pecock, investing him with the exclusive privilege of measuring every piece 
of worsted stuff made in the city of Norwich or County of Norfolk. But 



NORWICH MANUFACTURES. 163 

this having been found to operate as a restraint upon the trade, the letters 
were soon afterwards recalled. What tended to increase and raise to an 
enviable height this species of manufacture, was the number of Flemish 
artizans who came over in 1336. Their arrival was occasioned by the 
great intercourse at that time kept up between tliis country and the Nether- 
lands, the English King, Edward III., having married PhUippa, daughter 
of William, Earl of Hainault. That quaint but sohd historian, Fuller, in 
his account of the arrival of these foreigners, says, " The king and state 
began now to grow sensible of the great gain the Netherlands got by our 
English wool, in memory whereof the Duke of Burgundy, not long after, 
instituted the order of the golden fleece ; wherein indeed the fleece was ours 
and the golden theirs, so vast was their emolument by the trade of clothing. 
Our king, therefore, resolved, if possible, to reduce the trade to his own coun- 
try (men), who as yet were ignorant; as knowing no more what to do with 
their wool than the sheep who wear it, as to any artificial and curious 
drapery, their best cloths being no better \h.2iXifre'izes, such their coarseness 
for want of skill in thek making." The king, having obtained this treasure 
of foreign artizans, that the arts they brought might be more generally dis- 
persed, encouraged them to settle in different parts of his dominions. Bat 
when left to their unbiassed choice, they always preferred a maritime situa- 
tion ; and both the bearing of the county and habits of the people deter- 
mined many in then* choice of Norfolk. The discovery of Fullers -earth at 
this time, a substance so useful in the trade, and with which England 
abounds, did not a little contribute to further their exertions in the weaving 
craft. Various staples were appointed for the sale of wool, and its export- 
ation was proliibited under heavy penalties. On this occasion the city of 
Norwich was fixed for the staple of the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk. 

In the time of Richard II., and succeeding reigns, various statutes were 
enacted for the encouragement and regulation of the trade, by further pro- 
hibitions against sending unmanufactured wool out of the kingdom, and for 
measuring the manufactured articles, as well as for the sale of cloth. 
Though the alnage had been dropped, as tending to depress the spirit of 
speculation, yet it was deemed necessary, in the early progress towards 
manufacturing excellence, that officers should be appointed, whose duty it 
was to inspect all goods, and pass them, by affixing a seal, as a mark of 
approbation, to the approved pieces. In the twenty-third year of Henry 
the Sixth, an act passed ordering four wardens to be chosen for the city of 
Norwich, and four others for the county of Norfollc, " To do right, and to 
make due search of worsteds in Norwich and Norfolk, and which will set 
down orders for the true making thereof J''-' It having been discovered in 
the following reign, " that divers persons in Norwich and Norfolk made 
untrue wares, by which means they lose their ancient estimation beyond 
sea," &c., the number of wardens was increased. From this act it seems 
the trade had arrived at such a degree of excellence as to rival other nations 
in the foreign market; and the English goods, probably, then obtained an 
extensive sale in those very countries whence the art had first been im- 
ported. In the time of Henry VIII., according to Blomefield, the sale of 
stuffs made in the city of Norwich only, amounted to the annual sum of 
^200,000, exclusive of stockings, wliich were commuted at i'60,000 more. 
Not only did the ti-ade thus flourish at Norv^dch and Worstead, but it had 

* In the year 1459, at an assembly of the clothiers under the late regulations, it 
was agreed that thecZof/i seal should be committed to a proper person, who should 
be considered sole tokener, to seal and token all cloths, called Norwich cloths, with 
a lead seal or token, after he had found them the proper length and breadth. All 
the weavers were ordered to deliver in a roll, containing the names of their craft, 
with the several marks belonging to each individual, by which the gooJness of 
everj man's work might be ascertained by his mark, and the measure of it by the 
token. 

T. 2 



164 HISTORY OF NORWICH. 

now spread over the county ; for by an Act passed in the fourteenth year of 
his reign, it appears, that " the making of worsteds, sales, and stammins, which 
had greatly increased in the city of Norwich and county of Norfolk, was now 
practised more busily and diligently than in tunes past at Yarmouth and 
Lynn." The wardens of these towns, therefore, were put under the con- 
trol of the jurisdiction of Norwich. During the reigns of Edward the Sixth 
and Queen Mary, new articles of manufacture continued to be introduced. 
and new regulations passed for the making of russells, satins, satin-reverses, 
and Naples-fustians, as had been done before for the making of hats, dor- 
nicks, and coverlets, and the manufacturers of such new articles were 
formed into a corporation, endowed with exclusive privileges. Subsequent 
to this, the trade fell into decay, and a new era of its revival commenced. 
By the advice of the Duke of Norfolk, Queen Elizabeth was induced to offer 
an asylum in her dominions to the inhabitants of the Low Countries, who 
had fled from the cruel persecution of the Duke of Alva. These Dutch and 
Walloon refugees brought with them theii* arts and their industry, and 
quickly evinced the folly of attempting compulsion in religious matters, and 
the wisdom and policy of an enlightened toleration. They were allowed to 
settle in Norfolk, and each master to bring with him ten servants at the 
Duke's charge. They rapidly increased from 330 to nearly 4000, and the 
county was essentially benefited by their skill and exertions. New fabrics 
were introduced by the intermixture of silk and wool, and, in 1575, the Dutch 
Elders presented in court a specimen of a novel work, called bombazine, for 
the manufacturing of which elegant stufi", (of silk and worsted,) the city was 
long famed. In 1653, an Act was passed for regulating the spinning of 
worsted yarn and the weaving of stuffs. In the reign of George I., an Act 
passed to compel the makers of any Idnd of stufi" to become freemen of Nor- 
wich, as the manufacturers of russells and fustians had formerly been. 
The preamble states that it was made to furnish the city with a proper 
supply of able magistrates ; but the policy of the measure lay deeper than 
the statement. In the twenty-fifth year of George II., a statute was enacted 
to open the port of Great Yarmouth for the importation of wool and woollen 
yarn, a circumstance which proved highly beneficial to the general trade 
of the city and county. For a long time the master manufacturers were 
men of moderate capital, their concerns were hmited, and credit small. 
Many of them resided in the villages, and brought their articles to the city 
for sale ; indeed, most of them disposed of their goods to factors, who sup- 
plied the merchants. The trade was then principally confined to home 
consumption, and the act of 1721, which prohibited the general wearing of 
cottons, and the order for the court moui-ning to consist of Nonvich crapes, 
during the administration of Sir Robert Walpole, prove that the trade did 
not then depend so much on foreign demand as upon internal orders. 

About ninety years ago, the tide of fashion running strongly in favour of 
the light and elegant manufactures of India, excited in the genius of Britain 
a spirit of imitation. The stuff trade had been long on the decline, through 
the prevalence of Manchester cottons ; and from the facihty and cheapness 
with which these were manufactured by the wonderful inventions of Ark- 
wright and other ingenious mechanics, the destruction of the home trade 
was. almost completed. The merchants and manufacturers were roused to 
extraordinary exertions, and the channels of trade were soon entirely 
changed. They improved and extended their continental connexions, their 
travellers were seen in every kingdom of Europe, and the great annual 
marts of Frankfort, Leipsic, and Salerno were crowded with purchasers for 
Norwich goods. By these means, though excluded from their usual share 
of the internal trade, they amply compensated that loss. The tradesmen 
now sent their sons to be educated in German}'', Italj^ and Spain, that by 
learning the languages and manners of the different people, tliey might en- 
large their views and strengthen their foreign relations. The taste of every 



NORWICH MANUFACTURES. 165 

coiintiy, and tlie habits of every clime were consulted, from the frozen north 
to the sultiy south. Hence Norwich, and the countiy for twenty miles 
round it, were quickly crowded with looms. Though the distaff and spin- 
ning wheel were incessantly ^Dlied tlirough the counties of Norfolk and Suf- 
folk, and in the former only, it is computed fifty thousand tods of wool were 
annually spun, yet the produce was inadequate to the demand. It became 
necessary to import yarn as well as wool ; and of the importation of bay 
yarn from Ireland only, more was at that period consumed here than had 
been, a few years before, imported into the whole kingdom. Exclusive of 
this, great quantities of yam were purchased from the neighbouring coun- 
ties, and Scotland also was induced to contribute a share. At that proud 
meridian of its prosperity, the trade, from the capriciousness of fashion, 
began to show some symptoms of decay ; and the disastrous war breaking 
out, abridged its communications, dissolved its continental connexions; 
annihilated all incentives to speculation, depressed the spii'it of entei-prise^ 
and paralysed the hands of industry. 

Arthur Young considered the interval betn^een the years 1748 and 1763, 
and downward, till the dispute between England and her colonies became 
serious, to have been a flourishing era in the commercial annals of Norwich. 
The number of looms was then found to be 12,000, and each of them, with 
its attendant preparations, was supposed to produce work to the value of 
i£*100 per annum, making the total yearly value of the manufactures 
£'1,200,000, of which only one-tenth was estimated as the value of the raw 
material, so that the amount then paid here for lahour exceeded one million 
l)er annum. Nearly the whole of Europe, together with China, South 
America, and the Cape of Good Hope, were formerly supj)Hed by Norwich 
with a variety of worsted stuffs, such as calimancoes, tahinets, brocaded 
satins, satijiets,Jlorettes, hrilliants, daniasl'S, and tastings, which were tech- 
nically called " toys" and are now succeeded in those markets by piinted 
cottons. The ladies of Spain were excellent customers for bombazines. 
Spain also took large quantities of camlets for the use of the rehgious orders. 
Tills article obtained great celebrity for its texture and resistance to the 
weather. It found its way all over Europe, and large orders were annually 
received from tlie East India Company till 1832, for the supply of China, 
where it is still in high repute. The fiUover shawl, commonly called the 
Norwich shawl, was first made here by Mr. John Harvey, in 1803, and was 
of cotton, embroidered with coloured worsted, and chiefly exported to 
America. This article was greatly improved by Mr. P. J. Knights, who 
made it of silk and worsted, the outline of the pattern being printed, while 
the flower was embroidered with the needle. Mr. Knights presented several 
curious patterns of this shawl to Queen Charlotte, and received from the 
Society of Arts a medal, for a counterpane five yards square, with a fringe, 
and without a seam. Fillover shawls have since undergone great improve- 
ments, and at one period a man and his wife are said to have earned, in 
making them, as much as ^615 a week. Tliis branch of the Nor-^ich manu- 
factures has of late years been considerably reduced in consequence of the 
Scotch imitating the style, and paying lower wages. Other branches have 
undergone considerable changes and depressions since the introduction of 
machinery and printed goods. Poplins, chahs, tamataves, cashmeres, 
paramattas, gauzes, crapes, silks, satins, and satinettes, lustres of several 
sorts, mouseline-de-laines, mantles, velvets, &c., are all now produced in 
abundance here, chiefly for home consumption, though fancy goods to a 
considerable extent are exported to America and Austraha, Many articles 
formerly made here entirely of worsted, are not now heard of, and new ones 
are introduced yearly, the manufacturers being constantly on the alert, 
either to anticipate the changes in the pubHc taste, or to copy, and if pos- 
sible, to sell at a lower price, some prevailing article of recent introduction. 
The Jacquard Loom, now so extensively used in yorkshire and other manu- 



IGG HISTORY OP NORWICH. 

facturiiig counties, was introduced here about tlio year 1833. By this in- 
genious machine the most complicated patterns can be woven with the 
same ease as the plainest ; but the great number of cards required to pro- 
duce the figures make it expensive. At one period, about 150 ivoolcombers 
were employed here, but, after 1808, they were obliged to seek employment 
among the machine spinners of Yorkshire. The erection of two worsted 
mills at Norwich, in 1834, again introduced into the city the ancient art of 
woolcombing. 

On the occasion of the marriage of the Prince of Wales, in 1863, seven of 
the principal manufacturing firms presented, through the corporation, to 
the Princess Alexandra, specimens of the elegant fabrics for which Norwich 
has so long been famous, which not only fully maintained the ancient reputa- 
tion of the city, but shewed that such improvements have been introduced 
that no fear need be entertained of competition with the products of foreign- 
ers, either as to quality or price. Messrs. Clahhurn, Sons, d- Crisp, presented 
a silk shawl of elaborate Indian pattern, with white centre and crimson and 
gold border. Messrs. Middleton and Answorth, a silk mantle or bournous 
cloak of Persian pattern, crimson and white intermixed, and edged with 
gold. Messrs. BolinghroTte and Jones, a poplin dress-piece, of bleu-de-ciel 
colour, with white spot, both sides equally perfect. Messrs. Towler, Row- 
ling, and Allen, a grenadine silk shawl of crimson, white, and gold. Messrs. 
Francis Hinde and Son, an opera cloak of white silk, with raised velvet 
stripes of Humbolt-violet colour. Messrs. Edward Willett and Nephew, 
a plain poplin dress-piece, of Humbolt-violet colour. And the Norivich 
Crape Company, a white crape shawl. 

During the last fifteen years the manufacture of boots and sJioes has 
become a leading branch of Norwich trade, and there are about thirty whole- 
sale houses here employing more than 5000 persons, chiefly in making shoes 
for exportation. Messrs. Barnard, BisJiop and Barnards employ a large 
number of hands in manufacturing root pulpers, pig troughs, iron chairs and 
gates, wire netting, dc. The splendid gates manufactured by this firm from 
designs by Mr. Thomas Jeckyll, for the Exhibition of 1862, achieved so 
high a reputation as the " Norwich Gates' that they were deemed a worthy 
j)resent from the County of Norfolk and City of Norwich to the Prince of 
Wales on the occasion of his coming to reside at Sandringham ; they were 
consequently purchased by public subscription and duly presented to his 
Royal Highness in April, 1863. The gates are 25 feet high and 40 feet 
wide, and are divided into compartments, — the lower being a trelhs work of 
vine leaves and bunches of grapes, and the upper a similar interweaving of 
the leaves of the hawthorn. The piers are surmounted by heraldic animals 
supporting shields, and are wreathed with the briar-rose, oak, and convol- 
vulus. Every part, except the piers and gu-ders, which are of cast iron, is 
wrought by the hand of the workman, without the aid of die or mould, and 
copied from nature with such fidelity as to have a marvellous effect ; no 
two leaves or branches being exactly alike. The whole has an imposing 
and beautiful appearance, and is a work of which Norwich may be justly 
proud. Messrs. Holmes and Son are large manufacturers of agricultural 
machines, for which they have obtained several prize medals. The Norfolk 
Stone Company has extensive premises in St. Clement's, yvheve p)atent con- 
crete stone is manufactured, equal in quality to the finest Portland stone, 
whilst it possesses the important advantage of being moulded into any 
form, so as to supply in a few hours, and at a comparatively trifling cost, 
works that could hitherto be only obtained by the slow and expensive 
process of the chisel and mallet. The sand used in this important manu- 
facture is obtained from Mousehold Heath. Messrs. J. cf: J. Colman have 
very large works at Carrow, on the banks of the Wensum, where ships of 
100 tons burden can discharge their cargoes into the warehouses, whilst a 
branch line from the Great Eastern Railway intersects the premises, and 



NORWICH MANUFACTURES. 167 

affords facility for land carriage. Messrs. Colman are the largest makers 
of mustard and starch in the kingdom. They are also manufacturers of 
indigo blue scn^ paper, and have an extensive j^o z/ r 7«fZZ, aiTanged to work 
ten pairs of stones. These works occupy an area of several acres, and 
furnish employment to more than 800 workmen. Mi . George Allen em- 
ploys nearly 80 persons in making elastic fabrics in thread, silk, and wool, 
adapted for gloves, mantles, shawls, table cloths, and general clothing pur- 
poses. These- goods are made upon warp frames, the machinery of which 
is of a very costly description, and on the same principle as the Nottingham 
lace machinery. Messrs. Tliurgar d- Co. have a factory for producing the 
condensed egg or egg-Jlour, for use at sea, and for general cooking purposes. 
In one year this firm imported from France and Ireland the immense num- 
ber of 800,000 eggs for conversion into this kind of food. Messrs. Orout and 
Co. employ about 700 hands at their factory in Lower Westwick street, in the 
manufacture of crapes, aerophanes, and lisses. They have also factories at 
Yarmouth, Ditchingham, Manchester, and London, and employ altogether 
upwards of 3000 hands. The Noruich Steam Poiver Company has a large 
factory in St. James's, in which are two 50-horse power steam engines. This 
spacious building is let off in rooms to various manufacturers, who have 
here about 700 power looms. Some of the long rooms are occupied by 
Mr. Parke and Mr. Skelton, for the spinning of mohair and icorsted yarn. 
R. W. Blake, Esq., possesses a large factory in St. Edmund's, and also the 
Lakenham mill, both of which are occupied for spinning mohair and worsted 
yarn. King street mill belongs to Messrs. Jay d- Son, who are largely engaged 
in spining mohair, ivorsted, and alpaca icool. Messrs. J. L. Barber S Co. 
have an extensive cotton uinding establishment in St. Martin's, where large 
quantities of cotton reels are made. It is almost unnecessary to say that 
at the various International Exhibitions from 1851 to 1862, the Norwich 
manufacturers successfully competed with those of other tovnis and coun- 
ti'ies, and succeeded in can-ying off a fair share of piize medals, besides 
obtaining innumerable honourable mentions. There are a great number 
of manufacturers employing many workmen, besides those ah-eady named; 
but it would be impossible to mention them all ; and there are also in the 
city many extensive establishments for dying and finishing the manufactured 
goods; several ironfoundries, tanneries, breweries, maltkilns, soaperies, 
chemical works, oilcake and artificial manure works, brick and tile works, &c. 
There are two old Banks in the city, viz., Gumeys and Co.'s, estabhshed 
in 1775 ; and Harvey's and Co.'s, estabhshed in 1792. There are also the 
East of England Bank, estabhshed in 1835 by a Joint Stock Company, with 
a capital of one milUon, in 50,000 ^620 shares , a Savings' Bank, a Post 
Office Savings' Bank, and a Penny Savings' Bank. 

The Navigation of the Wensum and the Yare is a great facihty to the 
manufactures and commerce of Norwich, and has been considerably im- 
proved by a ship canal cut across the marshes from Reedham to Lowestoft. 
The general navigation from Norwich to Yarmouth is b}^ keels and wherries. 
The wherries are pecuhar to the rivers of Norfolk and Suffolk, and those 
used on the Wensum carry from 15 to 40 tons, and draw from three to four 
feet of water ; the mast is by the head, and is so balanced by means of lead 
that the strength of one man is sufficient to raise or lower it in the event of 
passing bridges ; on this, by the action of a mndlass, the sail is hoisted, 
being extended on a gaff at the upper edge. These vessels are seldom 
navigated by more than two hands, and one of them is often a boy, or the 
wife of the waterman ; in the latter case it is not unfrequent for them to 
have theu' famihes in a cabin placed at the stern. The project of opening 
a communication between the city and the ocean for vessels drawing eight 
feet of water, originated with Crisp Brown, Esq., one of the aldermen, who 
first submitted his plan for making Norwich a port, by way of Yarmouth, to 
an assembly of the corporation in 1814 ; after which LIr. Cubitt was em- 



168 HISTORY OF NOP.WI0H. 

plo3''ed to make a survey of the river Yare, aud in 1818 he published a re- 
port, recommending the avoidance of the Breydon Water, by a cut on the 
south side, and estimating the cost of his plan at £'35,026. In the same 
year Mr. Cubitt was employed to make another survey, " with a view of 
ascertaining whether or not it was practicable to open a communication with 
the sea at Lowestoft ;" and in 1821 he published his report, strongly recom- 
mending this plan in preference to the other, but estimating the cost at 
£87,000. T. Telford, Esq., afterwards examined the two lines, and fully 
concurred in the reports of Mr. Cubitt. As the corporation of Yarmouth 
had announced their intention of opposing either of the plans that might 
be adopted, it was determined to prosecute that by Lowestoft. Subscrip- 
tions were entered into, and fresh surveys made, but it was not till the 
session of 1826 that the committee was prepared to apply to Parliament 
for an act to enable it to carry the plan into effect. The bill being 
strongly opposed by the Yarmouth corporation and the owners of the 
marshes, (the latter fearing an inundation,) it was lost by a majority' of five, 
though the evidence in its favour was so conclusive that upon application 
to the Speaker of the House it was ordered to be printed at the pubhc ex- 
pense. In the next session a second bill was introduced, and referred to a 
committee, in which, after much opposition, only five members voted against 
it, while 25 voted for it. The bill then passed the Commons, but was 
vigorously opposed in the House of Lords. It ultimately passed both 
Houses, and received the royal assent May 28th, 1827, after the corporation 
of Yarmouth had spent £8000 in opposing it. This great work, called the 
Norwich amd Lowestoft Navigation, was commenced in the same year, 
and finished Sept. 30th, 1833. (See page 160.) The Yare has been deep- 
ened in a small part of its course near Norwich, and the line pursues the 
navigation of that river as far as Reedham, from whence it is carried across 
the marshes by a cut 2^ miles long, to the river Waveney, along which it 
passes to Oulton-Dike. The latter has been -svidened and deepened to 
Oulton-Broad, whence by a short cut the canal enters Lahe Lo thing, along 
which it passes to the shore at Lowestoft, where, by cutting through the 
sea bank, the tides have been freely admitted into the lake, which now forms 
a large harbour, covering 160 acres, nearly three miles in length, and 
averaging from 15 to 17 feet in depth at liigh water. Thus Norwich became 
a port, and its vessels from London and the south arrive by a nearer route 
than Yarmouth, with greater facilities for proceeding on their voyages, and 
with the advantage of avoiding the shallow waters of Breydon, and the 
delay and expense of trans-shipment at Yarmouth, from which port, how- 
ever, much of the city merchandise is still transmitted. 

Bridges. — As has already been seen, the river Wensum passes through 
Norwich by a sinuous course, and soon afterwards falls into the Yare. In 
its passage through the city and suburbs it is crossed by ten bridges. The 
second on the stream within the city is Coslany Bridge, originally built of 
timber ; it was rebuilt of stone in 1521, but falling into decay, was taken down 
and re-constructed of cast iron in 1804. Blachfriars Bridge was a wooden 
structure, erected about the time of Henry VIIL, rebuilt of the same mate- 
rial in Edward IV.'s reign, and of stone with three arches, in 1589 , this 
also decaying, and the narrow arches being a great impediment to the cur- 
rent, the bridge was rebuilt of one stone arch, 44 feet span, in 1784, at a 
cost of £1290. This arch is remarkably strong, all the stones being cramped 
with iron. Fye-Bridge, anciently called " Fyve-Bridge," from its being the 
fifth principal bridge over the Wensum, was a timber fabric till Henry 
IV.'s time, when it was rebuilt of stone, but was washed down by a flood in 
1570. Three years afterwards a new bridge was completed of two arches, 
the largest 20 feet span ; but it underwent considerable repair in 1756, and 
was taken down in 1829, when the present handsome cast iron bridge was 
erected on its site. Whitefriars Bridge was likewise a wooden fabric till 



NORWICH BRIDGES. 169 

1691, when it was rebuilt of stone, containing one pointed arch, 30 feet 
span; being much decayed, it was thoroughly repaired in 1835, when the 
old battlements gave place to neat iron raihng. Bishop's Bridge was 
erected or rebuilt in 1295, by the Prior of Norwich, who had a patent 
granted him for building " a gate, mth a bridge 20 feet adjoining it." It 
was afterwards repaired by the Bishop and Prior, but becoming a general 
inlet to the city, it was granted to the citizens in 1393, and they were 
charged with its subsequent repairs, and had the appointment of a porter to 
keep the gate, though the hermit or monk asking alms there was nominated 
by the Prior. It has three semi-circular arches, and on the inside of the 
largest are some old sculptured heads. Foundry Bridge is a handsome and 
commodious structure, of one spacious arch, erected in 1844, (on the site 
of one built in 1811,) chiefly of wood, resting on stone piers. This was a 
toll bridge, but soon after the completion of the present fabric it was pur- 
chased of the proprietors and thrown open to the public for £'6700, half of 
which was given by the railway company, and the remainder paid out of 
the tonnage dues. Dukes Palace Bridge, built of cast iron (under the pov/ers 
of an act of parhament passed in 1820), at a cost of ^£'9000, was a pay-bridge 
till 1855, when it was purchased by the corporation for about ^£'4000. The 
two following are still toll-bridges, viz. : — New Mills Bridge, the first on 
the river within the walls, (free for foot passengers only ;) and Carroic 
Bridge, originally an u'on elliptical arch of 50 feet span, erected in 1810, 
but rebuilt in 1833, with leaves to draw up for the admission of vessels 
using the Norwich and Lowestoft Navigation. Hellesden Bridge, on the 
north side of the city liberties, beyond the walls, was built by the corpor- 
ation in 1819, chiefly of cast iron, at a cost of £'1169. The Corporation 
have jurisdiction on the river from Hellesden Bridge to Hardley Cross, a 
distance of 24 miles, following the sinuosities of the channel; this, how- 
ever, does not supersede the rights of the proprietors of the manors on the 
banks, all of which have their respective fi:ee fisheries, and to some swan 
marks are appended ; but the city has in all cases a joint right. The river 
contains various kinds of fish, such as roach, perch, tench, dace, gudgeon, 
bream, pike, rufi", and great quantities of eels. Salmon have been occa- 
sionally taken, and smelts are found in great plenty in the months of April 
and May. For cleansing the river and otherwise supporting the navigation 
within their jurisdiction, the Corporation of Norwich receive about £800 a 
year from the Yarmouth Haven and Pier Commissioners; and for the 
reparation of the bridges, staiths, wharves, roads, &c., they levy tomiage 
duties on all goods brought up the river. 

Railways. — The first railway formed in Norfolk was the line from Nor- 
wich to Yarmouth, which was opened May 1st, 1844, with gi-eat rejoicing. 
Since then numerous other lines have been made in the county, so that 
Norwich has now equal, if not superior railway facilities to those of most 
other cities. It has direct communication with London and all parts of the 
kingdom by means of the Great Eastern Railway, with which all the lines 
in the county were incorporated by act of parhament in 1862. (See page 
59.) There are two Railway Stations at Norwich, called respectively. 
Thorpe and Victoria Stations. The fonner is on the eastern side of the 
city, near Foundry Bridge, and the latter just beyond St. Stephen's Gates, 
on the south. Mr. Hy. Buckley Sproul is station master at Thorpe, and 
Mr. Wm. Seeley at Victoria Station. There is also a small station at 
Trowse, on the southern side of the city. 

Municipal Government. — As has been already seen, the corporation 
of Norwich claims a prescriptive origin. A charter of theffth of Henry II. 
is the earhest known one, and it confirmed certain hberties enjoyed in the 
reign of Stephen. A charter of the fifth of Henry IV. made the territory 
within the limits of the corporation a county of itself, excepting only the 
precincts of the Castle and the Cathedral, which have been added to the 



170 HISTOEY OF NORWICH. 

borough by the Reform Acts of 1832 and 1835. Tioenty-jive charters, the 
latest by James II., are known to have been granted, and probably others 
existed and have been lost. That by which the city was governed till 
1835, was granted by Charles II., in 1663, on the petition of the citizens, 
and states in its preamble that " the city of Norwich is an ancient populous 
city and county by itself, formerly incorporated by the name of the mayor, 
sheriffs, citizens, and commonalty of the city of Norwich, and as such, en- 
joying many privileges and immunities granted by former kings," all of 
which are hereby confirmed, with " all manner of liberties, free customs, 
franchises, exemptions, quit-claims, and jurisdictions belonging to the city ; 
and also all and singular lands, tenements, marts, markets, fairs, customs 
for cattle, liberties, privileges, and hereditaments whatever, whether by 
grant, custom, or prescription, in as ample a manner as heretofore." The 
charter then vested the civil government in a mayor, 24 aldermen, two 
sheriff's, a recorder, a steward, a town clerk, and 60 common councilmen, and 
granted " that the mayor, recorder, and steward for the time being, and all 
such aldermen as have borne the office of maijor of the said city, shall be 
afterwards, so long as they continue dldeimen, justices of the peace in the 
CITY and its county, with the same power as all othev justices of the peace 
have in other counties of this realm, with full power to inquire, hear, and 
determine by the oaths of lawful men of the said city and county, of all 
felonies, transgressions, regratings, and ^a;^or^io/2s whatever, committed within 
their jurisdiction ; at which sessions the mayor, recorder, and steward, or two 
of them, shall be personally present, who shall also make inquiry, &c., of all 
conventicles or meetings of the people, contrary to the King's peace, and 
proceed thereupon according to the laws of the land," Two of the twenty- 
four aldermen were elected for life by each of the twelve small wards. 
Persons elected and refusing to serve the office of aldermen, were liable to 
a fine not exceeding .:£200, to be laid out in repairing w^alls, bridges, &c. 
The charters provided that the ^i-^ij common councilmen should be annually 
elected by the freemen in each of the great wards separately; but by acts of 
parliament passed in 1722 and 1729, for the better regulation of elections 
in the city and other purposes, it was enacted that no more than three 
should be elected by the freemen of each great ward on the day appointed 
by the charters, and that those so elected, or the major part of them, should 
elect and fill up the number repuhed for each great ward. From amongst 
the aldermen who had served the office of sheriff, the mayor was chosen in 
the following manner: — four thus qualified were nominated, and two of 
them chosen by a poll, at which all resident freemen in the city voted, and 
the discretionary power of appointing either of them remained with the 
court of aldermen. One of the sheriffs was appointed by the aldermen and 
the other by the freemen. The Guild day, when the mayor was sworn into 
ofiice, was on the Tuesday before the eve of St. Jolni the Baptist, and was 
distinguished by a splendid pageant, which originated in the annual pro- 
cession of St. George's Company, and was kept up after that fraternity had 
been dissolved in 1731. (See page 176.) The mayor-elect entertained the 
members of the corporation to breakfast, after which a procession was 
made to the cathedral. The dragon " Snap," formerly belonging to St. 
George's Company, was carried first, attended by four whifilers, or swords- 
men, and the city beadles with a band of music, and the standard of the 
city, of blue and silver; next came the common council, in gowns, with 
their beadle, then the speaker and the city coroners : then the city marshal 
and the city waits, with the standard of justice, of crimson and gold, the 
mace bearer and under chamberlain on horseback, the sword bearer before 
the mayor, the mayor elect, the recorder, the high steward, the aldermen 
above the chair, the sheriffs, the aldermen below tlie chair, and lastly, the 
sheriff's officers. On returning from the cathedral after service, the pro- 
cession halted at the Free School porch, (where a Latin oration was delivered 



MUNICIPAL GOVEBNMENT. 171 

by the head scholar,) and then returned to the Guiidliall, when the oaths 
were taken by the new mayor, and he was invested with the insignia of 
office, after which a splendid feast was held in St. Andrew's Hall, and a 
ball at the Assembly Rooms concluded the festivities of the day. The last 
guild was held in 1835, just before the passing of the Municipal Reform Act. 
Till 1772, the whole procession went on horseback, and was considered to 
be the gi'andest pubhc cavalcade in England. So much of all acts, charters, 
customs, and usages, as are inconsistent with " An Act to provide for the 
Regulation of Municijjal Corporations in England and Wales,'' j)assed Sept. 
9th, 1835, were repealed and annulled by that act, which divided the 
borough of Norwich into eight wards, and reduced the number of aldermen 
to 16, and the councillors to 48. As already noticed, the Reform Acts of 
1832 and 1835 have added to the borough the Precincts of the Castle and 
Cathedral, and all such other extra-parochial places as are contained witliin 
the outer boundaries of the city and county of the city of Norwich. In the 
Municipal Act of 1835, it was placed in section 1 of schedule A, among the 
boroughs which were to have a Commission of the Peace. This act con- 
firmed its former privilege of being a county of itself, with only one sheriff 
instead of two, as formerly. It also altered the style of the corporation, the 
mode of election, the number of officers, the courts, the fees paid on the 
admission of freemen, &c. The freedom of the city is now only open to 
fi'eemen's sons and apprentices, each of the former paying a/(?e of 7s., and 
each of the latter a fine of 13s. 4d., and a fee of 7s. 8d. on their admission. 
The stamp duty {£!) formerly paid on each admission, was discontinued in 
1838. The freedom could formerly be obtained by gift or purchase, a fine 
of from ^"3 to ^£'25, according to trade, being charged on the admission of 
strangers ; and an act of the 9th of George I. required certain tradesmen to 
take up their freedom, but it was rarely enforced. There are 28 magistrates 
appointed by the Crown for the city and county of the city. Some of them 
sit with the Mayor in the Sword-room, at the Guildhall, every day, to hear 
and determine aU matters brought before them. Assizes are held here 
twice a-year, and Quarter Sessions are held by the recorder, who adjourns 
them as often as necessary. The sheriffs, or one of them, with the steward 
as assessor, were appointed by the charter of Charles II. to hold the Quild- 
Jiall, or Sheriff's Court, and try all personal and mixed causes to any 
amount. Since the passing of the Municipal Act of 1835, all the officers 
of this court, now called the Borough Court of Record, consisting of the 
judge, registrar, and four sergeants at mace, are appointed by the corpora- 
tion. The practice of this court is similar to that of the high courts at 
Westminster. A court for the trial of issues is held six times a year. 

The Treasurer for the City and County of Nor'nach received in the year 
ending 1st September, 1862, a total sum of =£20,791. 8s. lid., exclusive of a 
balance of ^£1690. 9s. ll^d. from the preceding year's account. 'His pay- 
ments during the same period amounted to ^£26,681. 13s. 3d., so that there 
was a deficit of ^199. 14s. 4fcl, The principal receipts were derived as 
follows: — ^07375 from borough rates ; ^£2800 rents of estates ; ^'2210 rents 
and dues of markets and fairs ; ^'2232 from government for the prosecution, 
maintenance, and removal of convicts, police expenses, &c. ; i£800 from 
the Yarmouth Haven Commissioners for the support of the Norwich 
rivers; ^1155 tonnage dues; and ^"711 burial fees, &c. The chief items of 
expenditure were £6100 for the purchase of property for the cattle market ; 
^£2271 expenses of city gaol; ,£1000 for j)rosecutions, &c., at assizes and 
sessions, £5795 for city police; £200 for river police; £020 for taxes, &c. ; 
£176 for coroner's inquests ; £674 for law charges; £1050 for free library ; 
£850 for improvLQg the river ; £1000 for repau-s of roads and buildings out 
of the tonnage dues ; about £1300 for the cemetery ; and £300 for militia 
storehouses. 

Norwich has returned two Members to Parliament since the 25tli of 



172 HISTORY OF NORWICH. 

Edward I. In 1403, Henry IV. summoned /02a' citizens to be returned to 
Parliament ; but the services of representatives being then paid for by their 
constituents, the expense was an object of such consideration that the 
citizens employed John Alford to obtain the Idng's licence to send only two 
as before. The parliamentary elective franchise weis confined to the regis- 
tered freemen (about 3000) and the 40s. freeholders, but by the Reform Act 
of 1832, it was vested in the registered freeholders, the occupiers of pro- 
perty of the yearly rental of ^10 and upv/ards, and such freemen only as 
are registered and do not receive alms, and reside in the city, or within the 
distance of seven miles. The number of munici/pal voters in the eight wards 
into which Norwich is divided is 3366. The number oi parliamentary 
voters registered in 1862 was 5454, of whom 1233 were freeholders, 1998 
freemen, and 2223 occupiers of =£10 houses; but a large number of the free- 
holders and freemen are also entitled to the franchise as occupiers. Muni- 
cipal, as well as parliamentary elections, are often carried on at Norwich 
with a spirit which is not surpassed in any other place. In 1818, it is said 
that no less than ^£16,000 were expended in a contested election of coun- 
cillors for one of the wards. The greatest number of freemen who have 
voted at any municipal election was in 1832, when 2557 polled at the elec- 
tion of the sheriff ; and the number registered in that year to vote for mem- 
bers of parliament was 2335 residing within, and 76 ^^ithout the city. 

The freemen each receive from 5s. to 6s. yearly, in lieu of their ancient 
right of pasturage on the Totvn Close Estate, as noticed at page 142. See 
also Barnham Broom Estate, at a subsequent page. Much of the Corpora- 
tion Property is let on lease for long terms, at small reserved rents, though 
it yields a yearly rental of about ^£2800, which is applied, with the market 
tolls, tonnage dues, &c., towards the reduction of the rates levied on the 
citizens, after the payment of ^£200 due to various charities, and two yearly 
fee-farm rents, viz., ^94, 15s. 6d. to the Earl of Orford, and ^8. 9s. to the 
representative of the late Viscount Fitzwilliam. As will be seen at a subse- 
quent page, the Corporation were formerly trustees of various charities, pos- 
sessing estates and funds yielding about .£9000 i)er annum, but these were 
transferred under the powers of the Municipal Act in 1836, to twenty-six 
new trustees, appointed by the Lord Chancellor. As lords of the manor of 
East Carlton (held in trust for the great hospital since 1424), they formerly 
delivered yearly at the King's Exchequer, 120 herrings, hahed in 24 pies, 
but none have been presented since 1834. Oildencroft, which belongs to 
the same hospital, and adjoins St. Augustine's churchyard, is now occupied 
by buildings, and was the place where the city tournaments were held. 
Chapel field, which belonged to the college of St. Mary, and was granted to 
the Corporation at the dissolution, was the campus martins of the city in 
1578, when the train bands and artillery were exercised in it. 

The Arms of the City are, gules, a castle triple-towered, argent; in 
base a lion passant gardant, or ; supported by two angels, with wings ex- 
panded, that on the dexter side holding a sword, and the other a sword in 
the sinister hand, all proper. The crest is a cap of maintenance. 

CORPORATION OF NORWICH. (1863-'4). 
Mayor, Osborn Springfield, Esq. Recorder, Peter Fdk. O'Malley, Esq., Q.C. 

ThQpast Mayors since 1836, are T. 0. Springfield, T. Brightwell, S. S. Beare, 
J. Marshall, (twice), P. J. Money, E. Willett, S. Mitchell, and W. Freeman, Esqrs., 
Sir Wm. Foster, Bart., J. Betts, J. Colman, and G. L. Coleman, Esqrs., Sir S. 
Bignold, Kut., [tivice], and H. Woodcock, [tioice), C Winter, R. Coaks, R. Cham- 
berlain, (twice), J. G. Johnson, E. Field, G. Middleton, J. H. Tillett, W. J. U. 
Browne, and H. S. Patteson, Esqrs. 

Sheriff, Frederick Brown, Esq.— Under Sheriff, P. E. Hansell, Esq. 

The past Sheriffs since 1836, are, H. Bolingbroke, J. Bateman, J. Francis, H. 
Woodcock, J. BarweU, R. Coaks, W. Storey, W. Freeman, G. L. Coleman, J. Betts, 
J, Colman, (twice), C, Winter, J. Watson, R. Chamberlain, E. Blakely, R. W. 



NOKWICH COBPOKATION. 



173 



Blake, G. Womack, H. Birkbeck, E. J. H. Harvey, T. Steward, R. Seaman, C. 
Crawshaw, H. S. Patteson, J. Underwood, D. Dalrymple, A. J. Cresswell, and 
J. J. Colman, Esqrs. 

Aldermen. — Philip Back, Addison John Cresswell, Canuel Darkins, James 
Dawbarn, Francis Gostling Foster, Wm. Hall, Wm. Manning Kitton, and Henry 
Willett, Esqrs., ivho retire in 1865 ; and Wm. Birkbeck, Wm. Boswell, Eobert 
Fitch, Ctiarlea Hart, Henry Staniforth Patteson, John Oddin Taylor, Jacob Henry 
Tillett, and John Yoaugs, Esqrs., who retire in 1868. 

Waeds and Councillors. 
The Figures shew the year each Councillor retires from Office. 

First Ward. — Containing the parishes of Sts. Helen, Martin- at- Palace, Simon 
and Jude, Michael-at-Plea, Peter-at-Hungate, George-of-Tombland, and Peter-per- 
Mountergate ; and the Precincts of the Cathedral, and the Liberty of the Bishop's 
Palace. 



George Ives 1864 

John Underwood . . 1864 



Geo. Wm. Minns .. 1865 
David Penrice .... 1865 
Second Ward. — The parishes of St. Andrew, John-of-Maddermarket, Gregory, 
Lawrence, Margaret, and S within. 



John B. Morgan ... 1866 
Edw. K. Harvey .. . . 1866 



Richd. N. Bacon. . . 
John F. Watson 



1864 J. Copeman, jun.,. 1865 
.. 1864 A.M. F. Morgan... 1865 
Third Ward. — The parishes of St. Benedict and St. Giles, and the hamlets of 
Heigham and Earlham. 

E. C. Bailey 1864 I Robert Home 1865 

Robert A. Gorell. . . 1864 | Henry Ling 1865 

Fourth Ward. — The parish of St. Peter Mancroft. 



Simms Reeve 1866 

Robert Thorns 1866 



James Winter 1866 

George Gedge 1866 



Thomas Brightwell 1864 
Carlos Cooper 1864 



Sir W. Foster, Bt. . . 1866 
Charles Winter 1866 



J.J. Colman 1865 

Edward Willett.... 1865 
Fifth Ward.— The parishes of St. Stephen, St. John's Timberhill, and All 
Saints ; the Town Close, and the hamlet of Eaton. 



Edward Field . . 
Fredk. E.Watson 



Charles W. Jolly.... 1866 
Nathl. H. Caley 1866 



1864 Sirs. Bignold,Knt. 1865 

1864 Henry Thompson.. 1865 
Sixth Ward. — The parishes of St. Julian, Etheldred, Michael-at-Thorn, Peter 
Southgate, and John Sepulchre ; the hamlets of Lakenham, Trowse, Carrow, and 
Bracondale ; and the Precincts of the Castle and Shirehall. 



George Kitton . . . 
Thomas W. Crosse 



1864 John G.Johnson.. i865 1 Henry Hindes 1866 

1864 C. J. M. Spencer.. . 1865 / Henry Lovett 1866 

Seventh Ward. — The parishes of Sts. Clement, Edmund, Saviour, Paul, and 

James ; the hamlets of Thorpe and Pockthorpe ; and that part of Sprowston, which 

is within the boundary of the city and county of Norwich. 



Wm. Andrews 1864 

Wm. Sadd, jun 1864 



JohnW. Dowson... 186c j Wm. P. Nichols ... 1866 

Thomas Jarrold . . . 1865 | A. F. C. Bolingbroke lb66 

Eighth JVard. — The parishes of 3t. Michael-at-Coslany, Mary, Martin-at-Oak, 

George of Colegate, and Augustine ; and the hamlet of Hellesden. 



John Bid well 1864 

Robert Hood 1864 



George Chaplin 1866 

Osborn Springfield. . 1866 



J. G. J. Bateman.. 1865 
William Kemp 1865 

Justices of the Peace. — The Mayor, the ex-Mayor, Sir Samuel Bignold, Kt., 
Dr. Copeman, and W. J. U. Browne, C. Evans, Nathaniel Palmer, Horatio Boling- 
broke, Edw. Willett, J, Wright, Hy. Browne, J. G. Johnson, J. H. Gurney, M.P,, 
Wm. Freeman, Osborn Springfield, A. Towler, J. Betts, Henry Woodcock, R. 
Chamberlin, John Sultzer, R. J. H. Harvey, R. W. Blake, Charles Winter, Chas. 
E. Bignold, Fredk. Brown, Robert Fitch, A. J. Cresswell, Robert Seaman, Henry 
Willett, and J. 0. Taylor, Esqrs. 

Judge of the Borough Court of Record. — Nathaniel Palmer, Esq. 

Registrar of Court of Record. — Henry Miller, Esq. 

Town Clerk. — Wace Lockett Mendham, Esq. 

Clerk of the Peace. — A. Dalrymple, Esq. 

Clerk to Magistrates. — William Day, Esq. 

Clerk to Local Board of Health. — Henry Blake Miller, Esq. 

Clerk to Burial Board. — Arthur Preston, Esq. 

City Surveyor. — T. D. Barry, Esq. City Treasurer. — F. Simpson, Esq. 

City Coroner. — Wm. Wilde, Esq. Chief Constable, — Mr. Rbt. Hitchman. 

Sanitary Inspector. — Mr. Samuel Clarke. 



174 OFFICEES OF NORWICH CORPORATION. 

Collector op Tonnage Duties. — Mr. Joseph Dixon. 

Collectors of Market Tolls. — Messrs. S. Clarke, W. Bone, and H. Lucas. 

Revising Assessors. — Samuel H. Asker and Henry Pulley, Esqrs. 

Clerk to Visiting Justices of Gaol and Asylum. —E. S. Bignold, Esq. 

Inspector of Corn Returns. — Mr. T. S. Day. 

Clerk to Tax Commissioners. — Frederick E. Watson, Esq. 

Summoning Officer. — Edward Peck. Messenger. — Wm. Chapman. 

Town Crier. — Josiah Berry. Water Bailiff. — Nicholas Bone. 

Beadle and Hallkeeper. — Francis Widdows. 

Shei-iff's Officers. — Edward Provart and Henry Goreham. 

The Guild Hall, a large antique edifice, chiefly of flint, at the north 
end of the market place, was originally a small thatched building, erected 
for the purpose of collecting the market tolls, whence it took the name of 
the Toll booth. In Edward the Third's reign, a room built of stud, and 
covered with straw, was added ; and it then assumed the dignified title of 
Guild Hall, though it contained only sufficient sitting room for the first 
magistrate and six other persons. In 1407, when Henry IV. granted them 
a charter for a mayor, instead of the two bailifi's, the corporation determined 
on building a new Guild Hall, prisons, &c., and for this purpose they had a 
warrant " to raise money, and press all carpenters, carters, and other 
workmen." But the whole building was not completed till 1413, when the 
windows of the council chamber v^eve glazed, chiefly with stained glass, illus- 
trative of scriptural and municipal subjects, with the arms of some of the 
contributors ; but all these ornaments have disappeared, except in the three 
east windows, and even these have been much mutilated. The furniture of 
this room is of the time of Henry VIII., and the woodwork is ornamented 
with the linen pattern. Small figures of a lion, greyhound, and dragon are 
used as poppies, and in the panels are the arms of the city, of Henry VIII., 
and of several of the cit}'' companies. There are also many paintings in 
this chamber. On each side of the entrance are two fine full lengths — on 
the left that of Sir Benj. Wrench, and on the right that of Thos. Emerson, 
Esq., both painted b}^ Heias. Besides these there are several fine old por- 
traits ; amongst the rest, Archbishop Parker, Chief Justice Coke, Alan 
Piercy, f priest, 1549,) Serjeant Windham, (recorder,) Sir Peter Reade, Knt, 
Sir Joseph Paine, Knt., Sir Thos, White, Knt., Wm. Doughty, (founder of 
Doughty's Hospital) , and many others, who were either members of the cor- 
poration or benefactors to the city. Several paintings were removed here 
from St. Andrew's Hall, in 1844. Here is also the sword of the Spanish Ad- 
miral, Don Xavier Winthuysen, taken at the battle off Cape St. Vincent, in 
1797, by Rear- Admiral Sir Horatio Nelson, and presented by him to the 
city ; it is enclosed in a glass case, with appropriate embellishments, and ac- 
companied by the original letter, in the handwriting of the Norfolk hero. The 
principal court is on the ground floor, towards the west ; it is neat, but not 
very remarkable. The OrandJury chamber is on the east side of the porch, 
and immediately over the fire-engine house. The Common Council chamber 
lies to the west, and was much enlarged and improved in 1806. There was 
a chapel on the south side, dedicated to St. Barbara, the peculiar saint of 
prisoners, but falling into deca}'-, it was pulled down, and a porch and other 
offices erected on its site. This porch was rebuilt in 1861, with Town 
Clerk's ofiices, waiting room, two cells, &c., at a cost of £'800. A winding 
staircase still leads from the porch down to several dark, damp, unhealthy 
dungeons, undoubtedly the oldest parts of the building. In the lowest of 
these, which has a groined roof, the pious martyr Bilney spent the last 
hours of his life. The east end of the hall is ornamented with curious 
chequer work of flint and freestone, with the royal and the city arms, now 
much defaced. The Assizes and Quarter Sessions for the city are held 
herC; and Petty Sessions are held daily, at twelve noon. The Guildhall is 
also used for determining the municipal and parUamentary elections, and 
all other matters relative to the city. The Sheriff is the returning officer. 



HISTORY OF NORWICH. 175 

The city regalia consists of a gold chain, worn by the mayor, presented by 
Matthew Goss, in 1757 ; another gold chain, used by the deputy mayor, 
purchased with £'100 left by Thomas Hall, in 1715 : a sword of state, pre- 
sented by Saint George's Company, in 1705 ; a curious mace, given by 
Queen Elizabeth, of silver gilt, vnth. a beautiful crystal ; two maces, silver 
gilt, presented by the Duke of Norfolk and Sir Robert Walpole, in 1670 
and 1734; four beadles' staves, with silver heads, &c., &c. The hall is sur- 
mounted by a transparent clock, given by Henry Woodcock, Esq., during 
his mayoralty in 1849-'50. 

The CiiY Police Foece and Fire Brigade consists of a chief constable, 
1 superintendent, 4 inspectors, 9 sergeajits, 1 warrant officer, and 75 con- 
stables. The annual cost, amounting to nearly ^6000, is defrayed out of the 
borough rates. Mr. Robert Hitchman is the chief constable, and has his 
office at the Guildhall ; J. S. Garthon, Esq., is the surgeon ; Wm. Barnard, 
superintendent; and Wm, Curtis, Henry Waller Moore, George Steward, 
and Edward Peck, inspectors. 

St. Andrew's Hall is a noble structure, in the perpendicular style of 
architecture, with some few details of an earlier date; and is used for the 
general assemblies of the corporation, for the triennial musical festivals, and 
for other pubUc meetings. Having by long neglect become much dilapidated, 
it was beautifully restored in 1863, at a cost of about ^65000, so that it is 
now one of the handsomest and best proportioned civic halls in the king- 
dom. In was erected early in the 15th century, probably about the same 
time as the west front of the Cathedral, and was originally the nave of the 
church attached to the Convent of Dominican or Black Friars, the choir of 
which is now partitioned off as the Dutch Chiu'ch. The Black Friars first 
located themselves in Norwich in 1226, and soon obtained great wealth and 
influence. Their first establishment was on the north side of the river in 
St. George's Colegate parish, and covered a large extent of ground ; but in 
1307 they obtained a grant of the house of the dissolved Friars of the Sack, 
which stood a httle north of the site of St. Andrew's HaU, and immediately 
commenced the erection of a new house in the decorated style, to which they 
removed in 1309. The beautiful cloisters and other lai*ge portions of these 
buildings still exist, and for many years were used as part of the Workhouse, 
but are now attached to the Commercial School, which was built in 1862. 
The site of the present HaU does not appear to have been fuUy acquired by 
the community till 1345, and it is probable that they then erected a new 
church upon it, instead of that of wluch the building now known as Becket's 
chapel is beheved to have been the crypt. An accidental fire in 1413 so 
materially damaged the convent as to oblige the friars to return to their 
old house beyond the river, where they remained until another fire there, in 
1449, induced them to return again to St. Andrew's parish, where they had 
doubtless some years before commenced the erection of the present magni- 
ficent structure, though it was not completed till 1470. Blomefield asserts 
that the building was commenced in 1415, by Su' Thomas Erpingham, and 
finished by his son Sh Robert, who was a monk on the foundation, but his 
only ground for saying so, appears to be, that the Erpingham aims are be-, 
tween each of the clerestory windows outside, and also in painted glass in 
those windows. Sir Robert died in 1445, and very probably apphed the 
Erpingham property in aid of the funds for the erection of the conventual 
church, which induced tlie brethren to commemorate him in the manner 
stated ; but the ai'chitecture of the clerestory is of the later period of the 
perpendicular stj^le, and cannot have been erected earlier than 1450. At 
the dissolution of the monasteries, the site and buildings were, by the 
strenuous exertions of Alderman Steward and others, obtained for the city, 
with leave to " make the church a fair and large hall for the mayor and 
his brethren, with all the citizens to rej)aLr unto at a common assembly." 
The nave of the church was then converted into a civic hall, the choir 



176 HISTORY OP NORWICH. 

became a chapel for the corporation and the several guilds, and the other 
buildings were made into granaries. The ancient and numerous guild, 
called Saint Georges Company, usually held their meetings in the south 
aisle. They were first associated in 1385, as a society of brethren and 
sisters, for the purposes of charity and posthumous prayer. In 1416, they 
received a charter of incorporation. From that time this guild was in great 
repute, and reckoned among its members some of the first persons of abihty, 
rank, and fortune ; and at one period its annual festivals were held in the 
grand hall of the Bishop's palace. After the Reformation, it assumed 
more the form of a municipal than of a religious society. The annual feast 
or guild was held on St. George's day, and was a sumptuous festival. On 
this occasion a procession was made through the city to the cathedral, by 
the magistrates, corporation, masters, brethren, and sisters of the company, 
all on horseback. One of the brethren was dressed to represent St. George, 
and one of the sisters personated St. Margaret, called the Lady of the 
Guild. The procession was preceded by the figure of a dragon, called 
" Snap," constructed of wicker-work, covered with canvass, and painted 
and gilt. In 1731, the remaining members of the company resigned then* 
charters to the corporation ; their plate and paraphernaHa were sold, their 
debts paid, and their meetings dissolved. In 1544, the first mayor's feast 
was held in St. Andrew's Hall. Among the distinguished guests enter- 
tained here at various periods, were Queen Elizabeth and Charles II. with 
his Queen. By degrees the use of the hall and chapel for rehgious pur- 
poses passed out of the hands of the Established Church, and about the 
beginning of the I7th century, the Dutch were in the habit of using the 
hall for divine service. They subsequently obtained a grant of the chapel ; 
and an annual sermon in Dutch is still preached there, bat at other times 
the place is used by a body of dissenters called the " Free Christian 
Church." Other portions of the conventual buildings were subsequently 
used by Presbj^terians, Baptists, and Independents. Between the years 
1650 and 1725, the corporation several times proclaimed the hall " a public 
exchange for the despatch of business between merchants and tradesmen," 
and about the beginning of the 18th century it was used for the city assizes, 
courts being built at each end for the purpose. In 1796, the hall was 
opened as a Corn Exchange, and continued to be so used till 1828. The 
beautiful octagon steeple which stood between the nave and choir was built 
about 1459, and fell down in 1712. It was of two stories above the church, 
and -was a gi*eat addition to the external appearance of the building. The 
hall is 124 feet long, and consists of a nave 32 feet wide and two aisles 
of 16 feet each. The nave is divided from the aisles on either side by six 
lofty but slender moulded columns, having handsome moulded arches over ; 
above which is a celestory pierced by fourteen handsome four-light tracery 
windows of late perpendicular character. There is a splendid five-light 
perpendicular window at the west end of the nave, and beneath it is a 
spacious and handsome doorway. The aisles have each six elegant tracery 
windows, besides one at either end, all of perpendicular character, except 
five of those in the south wall, which are decorated, and appear to have 
belonged to the old building. A door at the north-west communicates with 
the cloister of the old priory, but the principal entrance to the hall is near 
the south-west end, through a handsome porch. This porch is situated 
in the second bay from the west, and has a chamber or parvise above it. 
There is another entrance under the window in the fifth bay from the west 
end. The organ and orchestra are at the east end of the nave, and occupy 
the space over which the tower formerly stood, which has been recently 
opened to the hall by the insertion of a magnificent stone arch, nearly 30 
feet wide. The roof of the nave consists of hammer beams and arched ribs, 
deeply moulded, but the rafters, which were originally exposed, are now 
plastered beneath, and form oblong panels. The aisle roofs are formed of 



ST. Andrew's hall. I77 

straight timbers, moulded, and divided into panels like the nave, the prin- 
cipals having circular brackets filled with tracery. The roofs are beautifully 
decorated throughout, and have a very fine eff'ect, especially when the hall 
is Hghted by the nine magnificent brass coronae, which are pendant from 
the roof. The panels are coloured deep blue, filled in with gold stars ; the 
hollow moulded parts of the timber are of bright vermiUion, those form- 
ing the arched ribs of the roof and those surrounding the clerestory windows 
being ornamented with gilt fiowers at stated distances. The remaining 
timbers are of drab and oak colour. The walls are decorated with more than 
50 valuable paintings, chiefly portraits of the mayors of Norwich, but there 
are also portraits of Queen Anne, George, Prince of Denmark, Robert, Earl 
of Orford, Horace Walpole, Lord Hobart, and Admiral Lord Nelson. The 
latter, by Wm. Beechy, is esteemed the best likeness ever painted of the 
illustrious hero, and was the last for which he sat. The flag of the French 
ship Oenereux, taken by Lord Nelson, is also suspended in the hall. 
Several excellent rooms for the use of committees and for retiring rooms, 
were erected on the north side of the hall during the recent restorations, 
and some of the windows will shortly be filled with stained glass represent- 
ing the arms of the past mayors of Norwich and of the boroughs of Lynn, 
Yarmouth, &c. 

The old City Gaol was in the rooms at the end of the Guild Hall until 
1597, when it was removed to a building, anciently the Lamb Inn, on the 
site of the present x^ubhc library, where it remained till the completion of 
the City Gaol and House of Coerection, at the end of St. Giles' street, 
in Heigham hamlet. This commodious prison was begun in 1824, and 
finished in 1827, from a plan by Mr. Philip Barnes, a native arcliitect. It 
cost about 5680,000, and is a large quadrangular building, with towers at 
the angles of the four wings, and encloses an area of 1a, 2r. 34p. The 
front elevation is massive, and has three pediments supported at the re- 
cessed entrance by two rusticated Tuscan columns. In the wings are 
niches, with cross arrows. It is conducted on the separate system, and 
contains 120 cells and eight airing yards. The prisoners are employed in 
mat making, and earn about ^130 a year. The annual expenses of the 
gaol amount to ^62300, of which about £'750 are for salaries of officers, of 
whom there are more than a dozen. The buildings are well ventilated, and 
are supplied with water pumped by the tread-wheel into the cisterns of the 
four towers, and sent thence in pipes to the various apartments. Six of the 
airing yards are sunk three feet below the others, so that the governor may 
command a full view of the whole, from the inspection gallery of his house. 
Mr. John and Mrs. Howarth are governor and matron ; Rev. Rbt. Wade, 
chaplain; W. H. Day, Esq.,swr^eo/i; Nathl. Bacon, scAooZm«s^^?- ; Rt. Far- 
rington and W. Armstrong, turnkeys ; Eleanor Alderton, female warder ; 
Chris. Hall, cooTi ; Dl. WsLnt, tasJcmaster ; and W. Green, iiatchman. The 
Old Bridewell, near St. Andrew's church, is one of the finest pieces of 
flint work in England. It is now occupied by a tobacco manufacturer, and 
is supposed to have been built by Wm. Appleyard, who was elected the first 
mayor of Norwich in 1403. It has good windows in the upper story, and 
the lower stoiy has windows of two wide lancets coupled, of the late decor- 
ated period. 

The Castle of Norwich, although it has undergone so many alterations, 
is still an interesting study for the antiquary. Tradition assigns a very 
early date to its foundation, and Gurguntus, son of Belinus, the twenty- 
fourth king of Britain, is said to have built a fortress here, which was com- 
pleted by his successor, Guthulinus. However this may be, there can be 
no doubt that the superior advantages of the site would be soon perceived 
and taken advantage of by the ancient Britons, and it was probably from 
this stronghold that the warlike and intrepid Boadicea issued forth upon 
her terrible work of retribution. Uffa, king of the East Angles, threw up 

M 



178 HISTOEY OF NORWICH. 

bold entrencliments here about the year 575, and for a long period after- 
wards it was the seat of royalty, but was frequently attacked, and several 
times nearly destroyed, by the marauding Danes. Alfred the Great is said 
to have considerably improved the fortifications, but they appear to have 
been thrown down again by Sweyn, whose son Canute afterwards rebuilt 
them. The hill on which the castle stands is chiefly the work of nature, 
and is of an irregular circular form, surrounded by a broad ditch. On its 
south side is a large open semicircular space, which was formerly enclosed 
by a bank and ditch, now levelled ; and on its eastern side is another space, 
called the castle meadow, which was also surrounded by a bank and ditch, 
of which some shght vestiges still remain. The Romans do not appear to 
have had a camp here, or to have altered the intrenchments ; for their 
stronghold at Caistor seems to have been erected because they could not 
obtain possession of Norwich until very late in their operations in this dis- 
trict, when fortresses had ceased to be a necessity. Blomefield conjectures 
that the castle built by Canute was taken down to make room for one erected 
by Roger Bigod, in the reigns of William I. and II., and afterwards repaired 
and beautified by Thomas de Brotherton, in the reign of Edward II. The 
only fragments now remainmg of the Norman buildings are the bases of 
two towers, one on each side of the top of the bridge, the arch of the bridge, 
and the great tower ; all vestiges of the chapel, Idtchens, halls, lodgings, 
and offices have been long swept away, and even the great tower itself has 
been so considerably altered by modern repairs as to have lost much of its 
interest and value. The bridge which crosses the moat on the south side 
of the castle is of the original span, but has been refaced with flints, and 
finished with white brick quoins. The gatehouse, which stood upon the 
centre of it, was destroyed about the middle of the eighteenth century. 
The great tower, or keep, stands on the south-west part of the hill, and is 
a massive pile, 96 feet long by 92 feet broad, and about 70 feet high. It is 
of plain Norman architecture, exhibiting flat buttresses the whole height 
of the building, with several tiers of long narrow windows between them, 
and is crowned by a battlemented parapet. Nothing but the shell of this 
once magnificent building now remains, the whole of the interior apartments 
having been removed, and a series of brick cells constructed in their stead. 
The approach to the first floor was by a flight of steps on the east side, 
leading to a platform j)rojecting from the wall, but now covered in and 
forming a spacious vestibule. The grand entrance is a very remarkable 
specimen of early Norman. One large arch encloses a large elaborately 
ornamented doorway and a smaller one to the right of it. The capitals of 
some of the columns remaining are decorated with carved figures of men 
and animals. The tower over the entrance is usually called Bigod's Tower, 
as it is supposed to have been originall}'- built by Roger Bigod, in the reign 
of William II., but it was entirely rebuilt in 1824. The grand entrance 
opened into a large and lofty hall, hghted by four windows in the north 
wall. In the south-east angle of the keep was a room which has been 
called the " Chapel," but it contains no trace of altar, piscina, or sedilia ; 
and the rude carvings which remain upon the wall, and have been called 
the " altar piece," are clearly but the efforts of some unfortunate prisoner 
to beguile his time. Several galleries remain in the thickness of the walls, 
but nothing more of the original apartments is to be seen save the arches 
and outlines on the face of the walls. 

In the 14th of Edward III. it was enacted that " gaols which were wont 
to be in the wards of the sheriffs, and annexed to their bailiwicks, should be 
rejoined to the sheriffs of counties." This was occasioned by the conduct 
of the Earls of counties, who fi-equently prevented the sheriffs from im- 
prisoning criminals in the royal castles, (of which the said Earls were 
commonly constables;) but this of Norfolli was a county gaol as early as 
1293, if not earlier, and from the date of the above-named act, it has con- 



NORWICH CASTLE. 179 

tinued as such, tlioiigli it was ciistomary for the king to appoint a constable 
for the defence of the castle and city in times of danger. In 1774, the ap- 
pearance of the castle hill was not very pleasing, and the ditch formed a 
common receptacle for rubbish. As an amendment, the sides of the hill 
were then planted with trees and shrubs, and a bank was raised round its 
summit ; but these being much damaged by the idle and ill-disposed, a 
successful remedy was provided by dividing the ditch into garden plots, let 
to private occupiers, in 1784. The outer ditches on the south side were 
levelled in 1738, since which time the cattle market has been kept there. 
In 1746, the Sliire House on the castle hill (built in 1578), was destroyed 
by fire, but was rebuilt in 1749. A large pile of buildings was added to 
the east side of the castle in 1793, at an expense of £'15,000, as a new 
gaol, but this and the old Shhe Hall were levelled to make room for the 
present gaol, which is on a more extensive and convenient plan. The 
Precincts of the Castle and Shire Hall were formerly extra-parochial, but 
now form part of the parish of St. John TimberhiU, and were added to the 
borough of Norwich by the Keform Acts of 1832 and 1835. They contain 
6a. 1e. 13p. Under an Act of Parhament, passed in 1806, the castle and 
precincts are vested in the justices of the peace for the county of Norfolk, 
in trust, by which they are empowered " to build, repak, or alter any part 
belonging to it, as they may think proper." 

The County Gaol and House of Coeeection, commenced in 1824, on 
the site of the old prison, on the east side of the castle, were completed in 
1828, at a cost of about £'50,000. The governor's house contains, besides 
the family apartments, a chapel and committee room. Brandling from it 
are tliree radiating wings, each containing two stories, with double rows of 
cells. The number of cells in these wings is 225, and there are 36 in the 
old keep. The diagonals, crossing the radiating wings at right angles, con- 
tain only a single row of cells, each having an arcade for the use of the 
prisoners when the weather will not permit their walking in the yard. Be- 
hind these are three other diagonal wings of larger dimensions, w th arcades 
below, and double rows of cells on the upper floor. The governor's house 
being octagonal, and x^laced in the centre, commands a view of all the wings 
and yards. The tread- wheel is on the right hand side of the entrance, 
and the prisoners are employed upon it in pumping water for the use 
of the establishment. It is arranged so that the prisoners cannot see 
or speak to each other; and the prison is conducted on the separate 
system throughout. Some of the prisoners are engaged in weaving mat- 
ting, making sacks, clothing, shoes, &c., and various other kinds of useful 
labour, producing an annual profit of over £200. The average daily 
number of prisoners confined here in 1862 was 134, and the total num- 
ber 862, of whom 103 were debtors. The Officers of the Gaol are about 
20 ui number, and their united salaries amount to £1443, whilst the total 
expenditure of the gaol is about £3654. Mr. Geo. Pinson is the governor , 
Rev. J. L. Brown, chaplain ; Alfred Master, Esq., surgeon; Mrs. Pinson, 
matron; John Harrod, Thos. Caton, and Robert Revell, turnheys ; John 
Jay, John Bertram, and James Smith, uarders ; Wm. Smith, taskmaster ; 
Robert Frost, engineer ; Saml. Leeds, sc/iooZwas^^?'; and Levi Kemp, ^;oit^r. 
An annuity of £9, left by a Mr. Morris, is expended in donations of books 
or small sums to well-conducted prisoners. The Visiting Committee, con- 
fiisting of 14 magistrates, meets every Saturday. 

The Shiee Hall, erected from a plan by Wm. Willdns, Esq., was com- 
menced September 9th, 1822, and opened September 27th, 1823, and is a 
wretched imitation of the Tudor style of architecture. It stands on the 
north-east side of the castle, and is a substantial brick edifice, cemented in 
imitation of stone, and possessing all the usual accommodations. Attached 
to the cro-«Ti court is a small room, called the prisoner's lobby, communi- 
cating with the cells on the castle hill, from whence prisoners are brought 

m2 



180 HISTORY OF NORWICH. 

by a descending shaft through a subterraneous passage. In the gi*and jury 
room are excellent portraits of Lord Wodehouse and the late Earl of 
Leicester, painted by Sir T. Lawrence, and one of the late Henry Dover, 
Esq., chairman of the Quarter Sessions. The whole of the new buildings 
on the castle hill are enclosed by a high wall, cased with Scotch granite, 
and terminated wdth freestone battlements. The upper boundary of the hill 
is 360 yards, enclosed with iron palisades, fixed in a basement of stone; 
these are continued upon the parapet of the bridge, and terminate at 
the porter's lodge. The boundary at the bottom of the hill is about 570 
yards in circuit. This is likewise encircled by iron palisades of larger 
size, elevated by a low wall, and lighted by lamps. The hill is open to the 
pubUc, and commands an interesting panoramic view of the city and neigh- 
bourhood. The headquarters of the County Gonstahulary are near the 
Shirehall, at the base of the castle mound. Lieut. -Colon el Black is chief 
constable ; Mr. Hemy Atthill, secretary ; and Mr. Francis Palmer, chief 
clerk. (See page 21.) 

The County Court is held at the Shirehall every month. Thomas J, 
Birch, Esq., of Wretham Hall, is judge ; Jonathan Townley, Esq., trea- 
surer ; Thos. H. Palmer, Esq., registrar ; Mr. Wm. Wilde, jun., high bailiff; 
and Henry Goreham, assistant bailiff. The County Court OrncE is in 
Redwell street, and the Norwich District comprises Acle, Alpington, Arm- 
inghall, Ashby, Attlebridge, Barford, Bawburgh, Beeston St. Andrew, 
Beighton, Bergh Apton, Bixley. Blofieid, Bowthorpe, BraconAsh, Bracon- 
dale, Bradiston, Bramerton, Brooke, Brundall, Buckenham, Burlingham St. 
Andrew, St. Peter, and St. Edmund, Caistor St. Edmund, Cantley, Carleton 
East and St. Peter, Carrow, Old and New Cation, Claxton, Colney, Colton, 
Cossey, Cringleford, Crost^yick, Drayton, Dunston, Earlham, Easton, 
Eaton, Felthorpe, Fishley, Flordon, Framingham Earl and Pigot, Fretten- 
ham, Hainford, Hardley, Hassingham, Heckingham, Heigham, Hellesden, 
Hemblington, Hethersett, HiUington, Holverstone, Honiugham, Horning, 
Horsford, Horsham St. Faith's, Horstead, Howe, Intwood, Keswick, Kirby 
Bedon, Old and New Lakenham, Langley, Lingwood, Ludham, Markshall, 
Marhngford, Great and Little Melton, Morton, Moulton, Mulbarton, New- 
ton Flotman, Newton St. Faith's, Nor\\dch, Panxworth, Great and Little 
Plumstead, Pockthorpe, Great and Little Poringland, Postwick, Rackheath, 
Ranworth, Bingland, Rockland St. Mary, Salliouse, SaxHngham Thorpe 
and Nethergate, Shottesham All Saints, St. Mary, and St. Martm; Sisland, 
Spixworth, Sprowston, Stanninghall, Stoke Holy Cross, Strumpshaw, Sur- 
lingham, Swainsthorpe, Swardeston, Taverham, Thorpe Hamlet and St. 
Andrew, Thurton, Trowse, Tunstall, Upton, Walsham St. Lawrence and 
St. Mary, Weston, Wliitlingham, Witton, Woodbastwick, Wroxham, and 
Yelverton. 

The Quarter Sessions and Assizes for the city are held at the Guild- 
hall, and for the county of Norfolk at the Sliirehall. Only one assize and 
general gaol dehvery was held here yearly till 1832, when an Act of Parha- 
ment was obtained for the removal of the Lent Assizes from Thetford, for 
which petitions had been frequently sent from Norwich during the pre- 
ceding fifty years. These assizes generally occupy nearly a week, which, 
from the great attendance of company, is the gayest period known to the 
inhabitants of Norwich. Petty Sessions for the Hundred of Taverham are 
held at the ShirehaU every Saturday, and Roger Kerrison, Esq., is clerk to 
the magistrates. 

The Walls and Gates which formerly environed the city, are already 
noticed at pages 140, 149, and 150. Seven of the twelve city gates were taken 
down in 1792, and the other five were all removed before 1809 ; but many long 
pieces of the wall stiU remain, to show its ancient form and strength. The 
ditches have been filled up, and the houses built upon them are considered 
to be within the ambit of the city, though on the outside of the walls. The 



HISTORY OF NORWICH. 181 

Dungeon Tower, in St. Giles' Hospital meadow, at the eastern extremity of 
the city, on the west bank of the Wensum, is a circular building, about 52 
feet in height and 24 in diameter, -with the remains of a spiral staircase 
reaching to the top. It was an advanced post and watch tower to the 
castle for the defence of the river pass, though Blomefield thinks it was 
built " in order to levy the river tolls then belonging to the prior and 
church ;" and says it was used as a prison for the jurisdiction of the cathe- 
dral. It is said to have been rebuilt in 1390, at the expense of the city. 
The Governor's Tower, in the parish of St. Peter Southgate, is the finest 
and largest of the towers of the city walls. It is faced with flint, and occu- 
pies a commanding situation. The Boom Towers, near Carrow Bridge, 
stand on opposite sides of the river, and between them the boom or chain 
was formerly hung to prevent the entrance of hostile vessels. They are 
round towers, built of flint, and form picturesque ruins. Between St. 
Martin's gate and the river there is another tower, the basement story of 
which has a good groined ceiling. 

The Cavalhy Barracks, on the opposite side of the river, in Pockthorpe, 
were built by Government in l791-'2, and '3, on the site of the old manor 
house, called Hasset's Hall, at a cost of about £'20,000, including the pur- 
chase of the land, more than ten acres, enclosed with a high wall. These 
Barracks are built of red brick in a very substantial manner, and consist of 
a central building facing the south, with large wings on the east and west, 
forming three sides of a square, and containing commodious lodging rooms 
and stables for three troops of cavahy. There are no permanent barracks for 
infantry in Norwich, though two large buildings in Coslany street were 
converted to tliat use during the late French war. 

The Inlamd Revenue Office is on Orford liill, and Wm. Brown, Esq., 
is the collector ; Messrs. John Baker and Wm. Hawkins, supervisors ; and 
Joseph Buxton and E. L. Brooksby, clerTts. The Stamp Office is in 
Bank street, and F. G. Foster, Esq., is the distributor for all Norfolk, ex- 
cept Yarmouth and Ljiin, and Messrs. R. Cocksedge and John L'Estrange 
are his clerks. The Tax Office is at Orford liill, and Messrs. H. Haworth 
and F. Horner are the surveyors for Norwich and the surrounding district. 
There are also the following surveyors for otiier parts of the county, viz. : — 
Messrs. George Browne, Yarmouth ; J. Walker, Dereham ; W. S. Lecky, 
Lynn; John Yule, Falienham; John Wilcox, North Walsham ; and G. C. 
Barker, Thetforcl. Mr. R. G. Hedgeman, of Norwich, is inspector of stamps 
and taxes. 

The Board of Health was established in 1851, under the powers of 
the Public Health Acts of 1848-'9, and is now managed in accordance with 
the provisions of the recent Local Government Act, by a committee of the 
corporation, subdivided into a " Paving, Sewage, Cleansing and Lighting 
Committee," a " Sanitary Purposes Committee," and a " Finance and 
Rating Committee." The sanitary condition of the city has gradually im- 
proved, and the rate of mortahty decreased, o'^^ong to the wise and judicious 
measures which have been so well carried out by the Board, which now 
expends about i;16,000 per annum in paving, improving, lighting, cleansing, 
and watering the streets and pubhc thoroughfares; scavenging courts 
and alleys ; emptying privies, cesspools, and dustholes ; paying interest on 
mortgages, &c. The whole of the city hamlets are now Ughted, and in 
1859 about ^610,000 were spent in draining the noi-thern pai-t of the city. 
The rates levied by the board during the year ending August 31st, 1862, 
amounted to ^£12,831, besides which the sum of iglOOO was obtained on 
loan, and of this sum 563367 were expended in the i^urchase of property 
for the improvement of streets. Henry B. Miller, Esq., is clerh ; Thos. D. 
Barry, Esq., surveyor ; and Mr. Samuel Clarke, inspector to the hoard. 

The Tonnage Act for levying a duty on all goods brought up the river 
into the city, for the reparation of the bridges and staithes and the ap- 



182 HISTORY OF NORWICH. 

proaches thereto, was obtained by the corporation in 1725. This Act was 
amended by another Act, passed in 1839, under which the tonnage dutie, 
are now let by the corporation for iJ2300 per annum, besides which the^ 
receive, for the same purposes, one-fifteenth of the profits of the Norwicl 
and Thetford tui*npike. 

Gas Works were first established in Norwich under an Act passed ii 
1820, and the gas was generated fi-om oil ; but in 1825 the oil works, Avliicl 
Btood in St. Stephen's Back street, were sold to the British Gas Ligh 
Company, who, in 1826, obtained an Act of Parliament to amend and en 
large the powers of the former Act; and in 1830 erected new gas works 
near Bishop bridge, in the hamlet of Thorpe, at a cost of nearly ^640,000 
In 1851, additional works were erected in AVorld' send lane ; and in 1858 
a new Act of Parliament was obtained in heu of the former ones, with th( 
requisite powers to enable the company to Hght the city and its suburbs 
Gas is now supplied at 4s. per 1000 cubic feet. There are five gasholderi 
capable of containing 700,000 cubic feet ; 220 fireclay retorts ; 45 miles o 
main piping; and about 1000 pubhc lamps. Roger Kerrison, Esq., is cler'l 
and secretary to the company, and Mr. Chandler Tadman is engineer o^ 
the tvorJes. 

The Waterworks, of which the steam engines, depositing reservou-, an( 
filter beds are at Heigham, supply the city with water from the river Wen 
sum, which after filtration is forced up to the distributing reservoir at Laken 
ham, at a height of 134 feet above the level of the river at C arrow Bridge 
whence it flows by gravitation to all parts of the city and suburbs. TIk 
present company has a capital of ^800,000, in .£10 shares, and was incor 
porated under an Act of Parhament passed in 1850, the powers of whicl 
have been enlarged by subsequent Acts, so that pure and wholesome watc: 
is now constantly supplied at liigh pressure and on reasonable terms 
Excellent provision is made for a gratuitous supply of water for the ex 
tinguishment of fires, by fixing hydrants at every 100 yards, from wliich i 
voluminous jet of water, suflicient to flow over the tops of the houses is in 
Btantaneously afl'orded. The city was supphed from a very early perio( 
from works on the river belonging to the corporation, wliich were let oi 
lease, together with the New Mills, the lessees being bound to supply th^ 
inhabitants according to a table of charges" fixed by the corporation. Thi 
New Mills were first built by the city, in 1430, and for several centuries al 
the city bakers were obliged to grind their corn there ; but the abbo 
of St. Bennet's-at-Holme, considering his property injured by these mills 
persecuted the city, and the dispute ended in a riot in 1441, when tlie flood 
gates were pulled up and destroyed. The New Mills and Waterivorks wer^ 
rebuilt in 1710. Water was conveyed from thence in the reign of Elizabetli 
to the Guildhall and to the Cross in the Mariict place ; but the general sup 
ply of the inhabitants was not attempted till 1G97. The works were greatl; 
improved and extended between tlie j'-ears 1790 and 1800, and were let oi 
lease for 99 years in 1793, but the present company purchased the lease ii 
1850. Ai'thur Dalrymple, Esq. is secretary ; Thos. Hawksley, Esq., C.E 
engineer; and Thomas Ayris, Esq., C.H., manager. The oflices arc ii 
Surrey street. 

Improvements. — The new paving of the city commenced soon after tlii 
passing of the Act in 1800, but this necessary work suflered several lonj 
interruptions for want of money. During the last fifty years the im 
provemcnts and enlargements of the city have been vcr}"- extensive, thougl 
it still retains a number of crooked, narrow streets, with projecting gable 
and quaint huH'-timbcrcd fronts. ]\Iany new streets and handsome rows o 
houses [have been built on the site of and be3'ond the city walk 
and the largest of these modern suburbs is the New City, extend 
iiig from St. Stephen's to St. Giles' gate, and laying chiefly in the parishe 
■of St. Stephen and llcigham, the latter of which has now more than 14,0Ui 



IMPROVEMENTS IN NORWICH. 183 

inliabitants, though in 1811 it had only 842. A similar increase has taken 
place in St. Clement's, St. Stephen's, Lakenham, and Thorpe, and some of 
the other parishes have more than doubled their population since IbOl. 
The approaches to the Market-place have been much improved by the for- 
mation of Exchange, Post-office, and Duke streets-, and Davey place ; and 
the -widening of Briggs street, London street, Bridge street, and some other 
public avenues, where obstructions have been removed, and the angles 
rendered less acute. Among other improvements are the rebuilding of 
Foundry Bridge, the formation of Victoria street, the renewal of the em- 
banlonent along the river between Carrow and Foundry Bridges, the widen- 
ing of St. George's bridge street. Golden Dog lane, St. Giles street. Wen- 
sum street, and Tombland corner, where projectmg houses have been partly 
taken down and new fi'onted. Recently, a fine new road has been formed 
from the Castle meadow to Foundry Bridge, thus giving a better access 
to the Thorpe Ptailway station. It is called the Prince of Wales Road, and 
has been carried out by a public company at a great cost, but will probably 
prove remunerative. The old Shirehall Tavern has also been taken down, 
by which means an easier entrance to the Cattle Market from the Prince 
of Wales road and Rose lane has been obtained, instead of the former nar- 
row and often dangerous approach. The centre of the castle hill has been 
lowered so as to afford easier gi'adients in the road from the SMre Hall to 
Golden Ball street and Orford hill, and the surplus soil has been used to 
form a more level approach on the side next Pump street. The road 
between Golden Ball street and the Bell Inn has been lowered, and the 
Ball Inn and some adjoining j)roperty have been removed, so as to obtain a 
commodious entrance to the Cattle Market from Ber street. 

The Markets, held every Wednesday and Saturday, are abundantly 
supplied witli provisions of every description, and the latter is one of the 
largest corn and cattle marts in the kingdom. Tomhland Fair, held on the 
day before Good Friday, is a large fair for horses and cattle, which are now 
exposed for sale in the cattle market, but stalls for toys, sweetmeats, &c., 
formerly set up in the open square called Tombland, adjoining the entrance 
to the Cathedral close, are now set up in Castle Meadow. The two ancient 
fah's formerly held on Tombland, on the feast of St. Mary Magdalen, and 
the Tuesday after Michaelmas day, have long been obsolete, ^and the plea- 
sure fau's held at Bishop's bridge on Easter and ^Vhit- Mondays and Tues- 
daj^s, are nearly so. The Maeket Place is about 200 yards long and 110 
broad, but haK of the area on the western side of the south end is occupied 
by the Guildliall, the church of St. Peter Mancroft, and some other 
buildings. The Cross, or market-house, wiiich stood in the centre of the 
area, was erected in the reign of Edward III., and contained a small chapel, 
or oratory ; but after beiug rebuilt in 1503, and subsequently repaired and 
used for various purposes, it was taken down in 1732. A handsome iron 
piUar, supporting four gas lamps, was erected on or near its site in 1837, 
and this in its turn gave place in 1851, to a bronze statue of the Duhe of 
Welling t07i, 8 ft. 6 in. high, erected by subscription, at a cost of .i'lOOO. This 
statue is upon a granite pedestal, sui-rounded by a low raihng, with lamps 
at the corners. The Seed and Skin Market is held in the Old Hay- 
market, at the south end of the Market place, the whole of which is now 
well paved and lined with weUstocked shops, though some of the buildings 
are ancient. The Fish Market is on the western side of the Market 
place. It consists of two rows of shops, with an open space between, and 
w^as rebuilt at a cost of ^£0000 a few years ago. The Cattle Market is 
held on the south side of the Castle hill (see page 17 'J) every Saturday, and 
presents a busy and interesting scene. The alterations and improvements 
it has recently undergone at a cost of more than j£30,000, render it the 
largest and most commodious provincial Cattle market in the kingdom. 

The Corn Exchange, in Exchange street, is a massive sti'uctui'e of brick, 



184 HISTORY OP NORWICH, 

with stone dressings, and was erected by a company of shareholders in 1861, 
at a cost of £17,000, inckiding the site. A smaller building, which was 
erected for the same purpose in 1826-'8, at a cost of £6000, was taken down 
to make room for it. It is internally 125 feet long, 81 feet wide, and 66 
feet high to the apex of the roof. Its roof is chiefly of glass, and at the 
east end of the hall are full-length portraits of John Culley, Esq., the 
originator of the building, and Thomas Wm. Coke, of Holkam, afterwards 
Earl of Leicester, who is justly regarded as the father of Norfolk agricul- 
ture. The corn market is very extensive, and was held in St. Andrew's 
Hall from 1796 till 1828. 

The Old Street Architecture of Norwich is rapidly vanishing before 
the hand of modem improvement. Many of the half-timbered lath and 
plaster houses, remarkable for their grotesque gables and picturesque ap- 
pearance, having given place to plainer, but more comfortable and con- 
venient dwellings, some of which have handsome fronts, especially in the 
principal streets, where there are many elegant and well-stocked retail shops. 
There are, however, numbers of ancient and half-timbered buildings still 
remaining, and many of them are either sufficiently remarkable in them- 
selves or are connected so intimately with the history of the city, as to be 
not only worth preservation, but to deserve the special attention of the 
antiquary. The Duhes Palace, wliich was a large quadrangular building 
near Blackfriars Bridge, is entirely gone, and its site covered by modern 
buildings ; but one of the rooms of the Museum is supposed to have formed 
part of the chapel attached to it. Tliis palace was purchased by the Duke 
of Norfolk in the reign of Henry VIII., and rebuilt on a larger and more 
splendid plan in 1602, by Henry, Duke of Norfollj, whose grandson defaced 
it, owing to the mayor's refusal to allow his company of comedians to enter 
the city with trumpets, &c. From that time it was entirely neglected, and 
after being used as a common staith, and partly as the Workhouse, the site 
was sold to various persons. Among its accommodations for amusement 
were a theatre, tennis court, and bowling alley, the latter said to have been 
the largest in England. In 1671, Charles II. and his court were sump- 
tuously entertained at this splendid palace ; and Evelyn, who was present 
describes its choice jewels and gems, rare cabinets, pictures, tapestries, and 
plate, and tlie state and magnificence maintained, as surpassing the treasures 
and grandeur of any prince in Europe. The drinking cups were of gold, 
and even the fire-irons of silver ;and dancing and banquets were kept up 
nightly. Near St. James' Church is a house now occupied by a baker, 
formerly the residence of Sh John Fastolfi, Knight, and called Fastolff's 
Palace. In Siu'rey street, a portion of Surrey House, once the occasional 
seat of the Earl of Surrey, still forms part of a private house. Opposite 
the east end of St. Andrew's church is the entrance to a very curious speci- 
men of ancient domestic arcliitecture. The portal bears the merchant's 
mark of John Clarke, mayor in 1515 and 1520. The vaulted and groined 
roofs of the building now used for cellars and offices are in excellent pre- 
servation. The projecting angle of the house is supported by a richly 
carved bracket. At a house opposite the alley leading to St. Julian's 
church is a brick vault of the 14tli century, with a verj'- good doorway witli 
decorated mouldings and fiiiial. The external doorway is also decorated, 
and has a well moulded ogee arch, with a perpendicular doorway built over 
it. The house occupied by Messrs. Page and Son, at Fye Bridge, is a 
curious antique structure, and was formerly the residence of Robert Woody 
sheriff and mayor, who was knighted by Queen Ehzabeth on lier visit here 
in 1578. The interior of some premises in Church alley is well worth in- 
spection. In the small court yard are the remains of an open gallery and 
other buildings. This was the residence of Alexander Thurston, mayor in 
1600 and M.P. in 1601. On a chimney-piece of the house are his mark and 
the date in one spandril, and the arms of his wife in the otlier. Adjoining tliis 



OLD HOUSES IN NORWICH. 185 

is an old flint house, in which is a large spandril, with the date 1570, and a 
smaller one with the initials of John Aldrich and his wife. Here is also 
an ancient carved door, which, from the inscription upon it, appears to 
have been brought in the time of Henry VIII. from the residence of the 
priors of Walsingham, on St. George's plain. It is dated 1503. A house on 
the Walk in the Old Haymarket, was once occupied by John Curat, sheriff 
in 1529, the rebus of whose name occurs in various devices upon many 
curiously carved oak panels. In the parish of St. John Madder-market is 
a fine old hall of a mansion of the time of Hemy VIII. It has long been 
used as a storehouse, and is traditionally termed the Strangers Hall. It is 
nearly perfect, and retains the original bay window and its groining, and 
the well-moulded tie beam and king-post of the roof. At one end are two 
small doorways, and the other end is cut off by a partition through which 
is an entrance to the priest's house connected with the adjoining Roman 
Catholic Chapel. The Sothertons owned the house in the time of Edward 
VI., and some of the family made great alterations in it about the time of 
James I., when the staircase and some other windows were inserted. The 
entrance portico is groined and vaulted, with two perpendicular doorways 
and an original external staircase, ornamented with a sculptured griffin. The 
Old Music House, in Lower King street, was so called from haviug been at 
one time the resort of the City Waits. It has long been a pubUc house, 
and appears to have been built about the I7th century, but there is an 
older building attached to it, which from its ecclesiastical style seems to 
have formed part of the chapel of Alan de Freston, archdeacon of Norfolk, 
who resided here iu 1290. In 1626, it belonged to John Paston, Esq., and 
in 1633 it was the city residence of Chief Justice Cohe. On the south side 
of St. Saviour's church lane is the house in which Jeremiah Ives, the founder 
of a family of municipal celebrities, resided till 1742. The dining room 
contains a beautiful marble chimney-piece, elegantly ornamented. 

Worthies. — To sketch the actions and characters of the numerous 
eminent men who hold a place in the Norwich temple of fame, would furnish 
ample materials for a large anfl interesting volume ; we must therefore con- 
fine ourselves to a brief enumeration of a few of the most distinguished, 
passing over the Bishops of Norwich and some others already noticed. 
Matthew Parher, born here in 1504, was archbishop of Canterbury, and 
author of that excellent work, " Antiquitates Britannicae." John Kay, 
better known by the latinised name of Caius, born here in 1510, was an 
eminent physician, and founder of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. 
He was also distinguished as a linguist, a critic, an antiquary, and his- 
torian. Edward Brown, another eminent physician, was bom here in 
1642, and died at Northfleet, in Kent, in 1704. Dr. 8. Clarice, a learned 
polemical divine, was bom here in 1675, and died in 1730. Wm. Cunning- 
Itam, a physician of Norwich, bom in 1531, wrote several learned treatises 
on astronomy, cosmography, chronology, and medicine, and died in 1559. 
Luke Hansard, the celebrated printer of the parliamentary debates, 
was born in 1752, in St. Mary's parish. Those distinguished botanists, 
Lindley, HooTter, and Sir James Smith, were also natives of Norwich. 
Thomas Legge was a learned antiquary, and twice filled the office of vic- 
chancellor of Cambridge University. He died in 1G07. John Cosin, another 
native, bom in 1594, became bishop of Durham in 1061, and died in 1672. 
Edivard King, F.R.S. and F.S.A., an erudite antiquar}'-, was born here in 
1734 ; was for some time recorder of Lynn, and died in London in 1807. 
Sir John Fenn, born here in 1739, was editor of " Original Letters from 
Persons mentioned in our early History," in 5 vols., among which are the 
" Paston Letters," for which he was knighted by George III. in 1787. 
Timothy Goodwin, archbishop of Cashel, was born here, and died in 1729. 
Thomas Amyott, F.R.S. , treasurer of the Society of Antiquaries, and editor 
of " Speeches in Parliament of the Right Hon. Wm. Windham," and many 



130 HISTORY OP NORWICH. 

historical subjects, was a native of Norwich. Peter Barlowe, F.R.S., wag 
born in St. Simon's parish in 1776, and was a distinguished mathematician 
at the mihtary school at Woolwich. Charlotte Elizabeth, the celebrated 
poetical, religious, andpoHtical writer, was the daughter of the Rev. Michael 
Browne, Rector of St. Giles, and was born here in 1790. 3£rs. Elizabeth 
Fry was the third daughter of John Gurney, Esq., of Earlham Hall, and 
was born in 1780. She married Jph. Fry, of London, in 1800, and died in 
1845. Her labours as a prison philanthropist have earned for her a world- 
wide fame, and few v/omen have done more real good to suffering humanity. 
Her brother, the late beloved Josej)h John Gurney, Esq., was born in 1788, 
and was an excellent classical and oriental scholar. He aided Mrs. Fry in 
many of her schemes for improving prison disciphne, and travelled over 
most of Europe and America, endeavouring everywhere to amehorate the 
condition of the unfortunate and miserable. He died in 1847 amidst the 
universal lamentations of his fellow citizens, who had long looked up to 
him as a father, and esteemed him as a friend. Mrs. Amelia Opie, the 
well known authoress, was the daughter of Dr. James Alderson, and was 
born in Calvert street, in 1769, and died in Norwich in 1858. Miss Har- 
riet Martineau, the celebrated writer on political economy, &c., was also 
born in this city. Edward Maltby was born here in 1770, and became 
bishop of Durham. Of the Taylor, Martineau, Dah-ymple, Bacon, Steven- 
son, and some other families, of which nearly every member has been more 
or less distinguished, it is impossible to say more within the limits of this 
work than that Norwich has every reason to be justly proud of them. 

The Norwich Public Library, which was commenced in 1785, occu- 
pies a handsome building with a Doric portico, erected for its use in 1837, 
on the site of the old city gaol, opposite the Guildhall, in the Market place. 
It contains a valuable collection of 28,000 volumes. The proprietary sub- 
scribers are about 300 in number, and pay an admission fee of ^65. 5s., and 
a yearly contribution of £1. Is. ; but others are admitted to the use of the 
library for an annual subscription of i^l. Os., or a quarterly subscription of 
7s. 6d. A president, vice-president, and coniinittee are elected yearly. Mr. 
Edward Laugton, the librarian, attends daily (Sundays and hohdays ex- 
cepted), from ten in the morning till nine in the evening. J. W. Dowson, 
Esq., is president. 

The Norfolk and Norwich Literary Institution occuioies part of a 
large and handsome building in St. Andrew's street. It was established in 
1822, and has now more than 20,000 volumes in the various departments of 
literature. The shareholders (of ,£5. each), pay £1. lis. 6d., and the other 
subscribers ^62. 2s. yearly. The number of members is about 280. The 
library is open from ten morning till nine evening, and Mr. John Quinton 
is the librarian. 

The Norfolk and Norwich United Medical Book Society was in- 
stituted m 1824, and now comprises about 50 subscribers, possessing a 
library of more than 4000 volumes, in rooms in connection with those 
occupied by the Literary and Philosophical Institution. Dr. Copeman is 
the secretary. 

The Norfolk and Norwich Museum is in the same building, and was 
founded in 1K24. This museum of natural liistory, antiquities, and curiosi- 
ties, is extensive and highly interesting. It contains a splendid collection 
of birds, many Celtic, Roman, and Saxon curiosities found in the neigh- 
bourhood, a valuable herbarium, numerous illustrated books, and many 
objects well worth inspection, and is open gratuitously to the public on 
Mondays and Saturdays, from ten to four. On other days subscribers and 
their friends only are admitted. There are about (iO subscribers of 21s., 
162 of lOs. 6d., and 12 of 5s. i)cr annum. The Earl of Leicester is patron ; 
J. II. Gurney, Esq., 'M..V.,2}residcnt ; Ily. Stevenson, Esq., hon. secretary ; 
Messrs. Ilarveys and Hudsons, treasurers; Mr. J. Quinton, assistant secre- 
tary ; and Mr. J. llccvc, curator. 



HISTORY OF NORWICH. 187 

The Dean and Chapter Library, in the Close, comprises about 6200 
volumes, chiefly theological and classical works, many of which were con- 
tributed by the late Dr. Sayer, in 1817. 

The Free Library, a large and handsome building at the comer of 
St. Andrew's Broad street and Duke's Palace street, was erected in 
1856-'7, at a cost of more than <£8000, and adjoins the Norwich Museum. 
It was opened in 1857, and is ]'egulated by the " Public Libraries Act" 
of 1855, by which the corporation is empowered to levy an annual rate 
not exceeding Id. in the pound for the purchase of books and speci- 
mens of art and science, and the general expenses of the institution. 
Many donations, both of money and books, have been received by the 
committee, and the library now contains about 4000 volumes, besides 
nearly 2000 volumes which formerly belonged to the City Library. The 
building is of brick, with stone dressings, in the Italian style, and 
contains thi'ee spacious vaults in the basement, now let as stores ; the 
ground floor contains two lai-ge rooms occupied by the library and museum, 
the first story also has two rooms, one of which is let to the Literary In- 
stitution ; and the upper story has two large and four smaller rooms, occu- 
pied by the School of Art. Mr. E. D. Rogers is lion. sec. to the committee, 
and Mr. George Hai'per, librariaji. The parochial Library and Reading 
Room of St. Mark's, Lalcenham, is at the corner of St. Catherine's plain, 
nd contains about 800 well-selected books, besides a good supply of the 
London and county newspapers. Its subscribers pay 4s., 6s^, or 8s. per 
annum ; and in winter, interesting lectures are delivered in connection witli 
the institution. 

The School of Art occupies the upper floor of the Free Library building, 
and is attended by about 200 pupils, many of whom display considerable 
talent. Besides those who attend the central school, about 400 pupils are in- 
structed in the national and other schools of the city. The fees payable for 
the private or public classes for ladies and gentlemen are 21s. and 10s. 6d. 
per quarter, in addition to entrance fees of 5s. and 3s. respectively ; the arti- 
zan classes pay 23. per month and Is. entrance fee. The school derives about 
5^90 a year from voluntary subscriptions, and ,£160 from fees. B. B. Cab- 
bell, Esq., F.R.S., IB president ; Robert Cochrane, Esq., headtnaster j F. T. 
Keith, Esq., hon. secretary ; and Mr. Wm. Hohnes clerk and collector. 

The Norfolk and Norwich Archaeological Society was established 
in December, 1845, to collect the best information on the arts and monu- 
ments of the county, including primeval antiquities, numismatics, architec- 
ture, genealogy, manorial rights, civil and ecclesiastical history, &c. Four 
general meetings are held in each year, when interesting papers are read 
by members of the society. Many of these papers have been published, 
and akeady fill six large volumes, containing an immense mass of valuable 
and interesting matter, amply illustrated by numerous woodcuts, htho- 
graphs, &c. The Prince of Wales and the Bishop are 2Jatrons ; Sir J. P. 
Boileau, Bart., F.R.S., Y.I',S.A., president ; Robert Fitch, Esq., F.S.A., 
and the Rev. C. R. 'M.simimg,'M..A., hon. secretaries ; and Mr. John Quinton, 
collector. There are also local secretaries in various parts of the county. 

The Church of England Young Men's Society, in St. Peter's street, 
has for its objects the jDromotion of the moral and spiritual welfare of young 
men, by bible classes and lectures. It has a good Hbrary, a well supplied 
newsroom, and a very numerous list of honorary and benefit members. 
The Bishop is patron ; Archdeacon Hanldnson, j^^'^sident ; R. A. Gorell. 
Esq., treasurer; Rev. E. Hall and Mr. F. J. Page, secretaries; and Mr. 
S. Sutton, librarian. 

The Young Men's Christian Association was established in 1856, and 
has similar objects to those of the above-named society. It has comfort- 
able rooms in St. Giles' Broad street, with a library of about 800 volumes, 
and a reading room containing all the principal newspapers and periodicals. 
J. J. Colman, Esq., is president; Hemy Bii-kbeck, Esq., treasurer; and 
Messrs. C. Moore and R. Maystou, lihrarians. 



188 HISTOBY OF NOEWICH. 

Four Newspapers of considerable circulation are now published in Nor- 
wich, viz. : the Norwich Mercury (2d.) commenced in 1721, as an advocate 
of Whig principles; the Norfolk Chronicle and Norwich Gazette (3^d.), 
established in 1761, and professing Conservative politics; the Norfolk 
News (2^d.) commenced in 1845, by a body of proprietors of the Advanced 
Liberal School ; and the Argus (Id.) established in 1863, and professing 
Independence in poUtics. The Mercury is published every Wednesday and 
Saturday, and the others on Saturdays only. The Nonvich Spectator is a 
monthly Magazine, published by Messrs. CundaU & Miller. Two monthly 
time tables and several almanacks are also published here. 
..-• The Freemasons' Hall, which occupies the site of the College-in-the- 
iPields, was built in 1754, as an Assembly House, and continued to be used 
for balls, concerts, and other public meetings, until 1860, when it was pur- 
chased by Benj. Bond CabbeU, Esq., F.R.S. & F.S.A., the highly esteemed 
Provincial Grand Master of the Freemasons of Norfoll?, and presented by 
him to the fraternity. This munificent gift was suitably acknowledged at 
the Prov. G. Lodge, held August 2lst, 1868, when a life-like portrait of the 
venerable P.G.M., who is now in his 87th year, was presented to him on 
behalf of the brethren by Sir H. J. Stracey, Bart., M.P. The picture, which 
cost two hundred guineas, is from the pencil of H. O'Neil, Esq., A.R.A., 
and is a three-quarter length, representing the right worshipful brother 
sitting in an arm chaii-, wearing the coUar and badge of his high office. 
For nearly half a century Bro. Cabbell has been known throughout the 
kingdom for his masonic zeal and benevolence, and since 1856, when he 
was appointed to preside over the brethren of Norfolk, he has by his 
example, liberahty, and careful attention to the business of the province, 
not only raised the craft to its present high position, but gained the love and 
esteem of every individual member. There are 10 lodges in Norfolk, of which 
the following is a list, with the dates of their establishment, their numbers on 
the register of the Grand Lodge of England, and their days of meeting : — 
No. Name. Place and day of meeting. Date of Warrant. 

52 ZJmow.— Norfolk Hotel, Norwich, First Tuesday 1736 

(Old warrant lost. Warrant of Confirmation dated 1819.) >^ ?-* v^; 
85 Faithful — Exchange Rooms, Harleston, Mon. on or before F.M. 1753 

93 Social — Freemasons' Hall, Norwich, Second Tuesday 1755 

(Old warrant lost. Warrant of Confirmation dated 1797.) 
100 Friendship.— Cvovm and Anchor, Yarmouth, Fourth Monday ... 1757 
102 Unanimity. — King's Arms, North Walsham, Mon. next F. M... 1758 

107 Philanthropic. — Duke's Head, King's Lynn, First Monday 1759 

213 Perseverance. — Freemasons' Hall, Norwich, Third Tuesday 1795 

313 United Friends. — Star Hotel, Yarmouth, Second Monday 1797 

807 Cabbell — Freemasons' Hall, Norwich, Last Thursday 1863 

943 Sincerity. — Freemasons' Hall, Norwich Fourth Tuesday 1863 

Royal Arch Chapters are attached to Lodges 52, 102, 107, 213, and 807. 
There is also an Encampment of Knights Templar held quarterly in the 
Freemasons' Hall, Norwich, and called the " Cabbell," in honour of the 
Prov. G.M., who is also P.G. Superintendent of R.A. Masons, and P.G. 
Commander of the Templars. The Hall is of red brick, and has a Grecian 
front. The spacious vestibule has a richly panelled ceiHng, mth centre 
flower and Grecian cornice ; its walls are decorated with festoons and pilas- 
ters, and the gallery is formed with moulded balustrading, cornice, and 
Corinthian columns and capitals. The two rooms right and left of tlie 
entrance measure respectively 22 ft. 10 in. by 21 ft. 4 in., and 27 ft. 6 in. by 
21 ft. 6 in., and have plain panelled ceilings. At tlie furtlier end of the 
vestibule are two larger rooms, that on the right being 66 feet long by 26 ft. 
8 in. wide, and that on the left, in which the regular lodge meetings are held, 
is 50 ft. 6 in. in length by 27 ft. wide. Both these rooms have Grecian 
moulded cornices, panelled ceilings with centre flowers, galleries, &c., and 



HISTORY OF NORWICH. 189 

are liclily painted and gilt, the walls being enriched with festoons, 
wreathed flowers, &c. The annual provincial grand lodge meets here in 
August. W. Leedes Fox, Esq., of Harleston, is the Prov. Grand Secretary, 

The Temperance Society, established in 1858, has a numerous list of 
members, and has been the means of reclaiming many drunkards from their 
miserable vice. Weekly meetings are held in the lecture room of the Free 
Library, when instruction and amusement are aflorded by speeches, songs, 
recitations, &c.'; and there are numerous open-au' meetings, and occasionaUy 
a gala or a fancy fair to further the objects of the society. A small Hbrary 
has been formed, and will be gradually increased as the fands permit. J. 
W. Dowson, Esq., is president ; "Mr. Jas. Porter, treasurer ; Messrs. Harbord 
and Newhouse, secretaries ; and Mr. N. Smith, ageiit. There is a Ladies' 
AuxiUary in connection with the society, of which Mrs. Dowson is presi- 
dent ; Mrs. Newhouse, treasurer ; and Miss Greaves, secretary. 

The Norfolk and Norwich Anglers' Society, formed in June, 1857, 
for the prevention of illegal fishing in the rivers Wensum and Yare, and the 
sale of fish of a size proMbited by law^ is supported by a number of mem- 
bers paying 5s. each per annum. R. N. Bacon, Esq., is president ; E. S. 
Bignold, Esq., treasurer ; and Mr. James Skippon, to whom the society 
chiefly owes its origin, is the honorary secretary. 

The Norfolk and Norwich Horticultural Society was estabhshed 
Oct. 22, 1829, and holds five exhibitions of flowers, fruit, and vegetables 
every year, when prizes are given both to members and cottagers, amounting 
to about ^6150. The society possesses several large and handsome mar- 
quees, so that the exhibitions can be held conveniently wherever the com- 
mittee may wish. R. J. H. Harvey, Esq., is, president ; John Kitson, Esq., 
treasurer ; Mr. Hy. Pulley, hon. sec. ; and Mr. W. Hussey, assistant sec. 

The Norfolk Agricultural Association, as already noticed at page 
63, was formed in 1840, and holds an annual exhibition at midsummer at 
one of the market towns, when premiums amounting to about ^500 are 
annually given. The Prince of Wales is patron ; Sh- Willoughby Jones, 
Bart., president; Wm. Burroughes, Esq., and Rev. Philip Gurdon, hon. 
secretaries ; and Mr. E. C, Bailey, of Norwich, acting secretary. 

The Chamber of Commerce was estabhshed in June, 1847, for the 
promotion of measures calculated to benefit and protect the trading interests 
of the city. J. H. Gurney, Esq., M.P., ispresident; R. J.J. Harvey, Esq., 
treasurer ; and Mr. C. S. Gilman, sec. Theoj6&ce is in St. Giles' street. 

The Norfolk and Norwich Microscopical Society was estabhshed in 
1852, and holds monthly meetings at the houses of the members alternately. 
The presideiit, Thos. Brightwell, Esq., has recently presented to the society 
a valuable microscope and a collection of more than one thousand objects. 
Mr. J. Mottram is the honorary secretary. 

Norfolk Volunteer Service Association was established three years 
ago, and occasionally offers prizes to the amount of from ie200 to ^£300 to 
the best shots amongst the Norfolk Volunteers. 

The Musical Festival, which has been held triennially in September, 
in St. Andrew's Hall, since 1824, for the benefit of the Norfolk Charities, is 
celebrated all over the kingdom, and has the Hberal support of the 
nobihty and gentry of the county. The profits of each festival vary from 
^eiOOO to X'3000, and the large sum of ^9070 has been already contributed 
out of them to the following charitable institutions, viz. : — £'5768 to the 
Norfolk and Norwich Hospital; ^679 5 West Norfolk and Lynn Hospital ; 
^67 70 Yarmouth Hospital; ^£'38 7 Norwich Dispensary; ^6292 Eye Lifirm- 
ary: £287 Blind Hospital; £230 Sick Poor Society; £140 Lying-in- 
Charity; £140 District Visiting Society; £105 Shipwrecked Mariners' 
Association ; £50 Benevolent Society for Decayed Tradesmen ; £65 Jenny 
Lind Infirmary; £30 National Life Boat Association; and £10 to the 
Stanley Home. At the recent Festival in September, 1863, the gross 



190 HISTORY OF NORWICH. 

receipts were about ^5000, and after payment of the necessary expenses 
there will be a very handsome sum at the disposal of the committee for 
purposes of charity. The Earl of Leicester is president ; Lord Suffield, 
chairman of committee ; F. J. Blake, Esq., treasurer ; and I. O. H. Taylor, 
Esq., lion, secretary. 

The Theatre is a large and commodious building, in the street to 
which it gives name, erected in 1826, near the site of the old one, built 
in 1757. It has been the nursery of many eminent performers, amongst 
whom may be mentioned Louisa, Countess of Craven, Miss Faucit, Miss 
Greville, Mrs. Henry Siddons, Mrs. Webb, and Quin. The Koyal Bazaae, 
in St. Andrew's street, is a large and handsome building, the first stone of 
which was laid on Sept. 8th, 1881, the Coronation day of WilKam IV. It 
was built by a company of shareholders, but is now the property of Mr. 
Samuel Jarrold, who lets it for concerts, auctions, lectures, &c. The Ball 
and Concert Room, in Theatre square, belonging to Mr. Noverre, is 70 
feet long by 35 feet wide ; and has convenient ante-rooms, a conservatory, and 
a fine lawn in connection with it. The Choral Society, which was com- 
menced in 1824, had its origin in the establishment of the Musical Festival, 
which has since been held triennially in St. Andrew's Hall, as noticed at 
page 189. This society is partly supported from the funds of the festival, 
and is highly celebrated for musical talent, both vocal and instrumental. 
Its members meet for practice at St. Andrew's Hall once a fortnight, and 
and Mr. J. F. Hill is conductor, and Mx. J. Harcourt, organist. The 
Philharmonic Society meets weekly at Mr. Noverre's rooms during the 
winter, and gives two concerts every season. The Madrigal Society 
meets weekly at St. Andrew's Hall during the winter. Here is also a 
Church Choral Association, which gives a service at the Cathedral once 
a year. Races were formerly held on Mousehold heath (enclosed in 1810), 
and they were revived at the coronation of her Majesty (June 28th, 1838), 
but have not been held since 1842. 

The Norfolk and Norwich Savings' Bank is a provident institution 
for the beneficial investment of the savings of the humbler classes, esta- 
blished in April, 1816, at 07, Broad street, but removed in 1844 to a hand- 
some building erected for its use, in the Haymarket, at a cost of <£'3000, 
including ^'1500 paid for the site. It is in the Italian style, and has a 
dwelling for the actuary. The bank is open every Monda}^, Wednesday, 
and Saturday, from 12 to 2. The deposits on the 20th November, 1862, 
amounted to ^349,706. 19s. 2d., belonging to 11,820 individuals, and 151 
Charitable and 86 Friendly Societies ; and the surplus fund in the hands of 
the Commissioners for the Reduction of the National Debt, and the trustees 
of the Bank, was i'4983. 4s. 6d. The Earl of Leicester, the Rev. Lord Bayn- 
ing, the Dean of Norwich, H. N. Burroughes, Esq., Sir Samuel Bignold, 
Knt., Chas. Evans, Esq., and the Rev. Chas. Fellowes, are the trustees ; R, 
J. H. Harvey, Esq,, is the treasurer ; the Rev. Edward Cole, B.A., lion. sec. ; 
and W. C. Hotson, Esq., sujierintendent. Interest at the rate of ^2. 18s. 4d. 
per cent, per annum is allowed, and sums as low as Is. are received. 

The Norwich Union Fire Insurance Society, established in 1797, 
was the first to introduce the principle of returning a portion of the profits 
to the insured. It now ranks as the third ofiice in the kingdom, having a 
capital of £'550,000, and insuring property to the amount of .£70,000,000. 
Partly under the same management, but distinct in its capital and accounts, 
is the Norwich Union Life Insurance Society, commenced in 1808, 
on the equitable principle of mutual guarantee, and now liavmg a capital 
of £2,000,000. This society has issued above 36,000 policies, and paid to 
the representatives of 8000 deceased members about £6,500,000. The 
offices for both are in Surrey street, and Sir Samuel Bignold, Knt., is the 
secretary. The Norwich Equitable Fire Insurance Society has its 
pfiaces in Bank street, and was established in 1829, with a capital of 



HISTORY OF NORWICH. 191 

J100,000. "NVm. Skipper, Esq.,, is registrar and secretary. The General 
Hail Storm Insurance Societt, established in 1844, with a capital of 
£'150,000, in £10 shares, has its offices in St. Giles' street, and Charles 
Suckling Gilman, Esq., is the secretary. The Norfolk Farmers' and 
General Assurance and Investment Company (limited), estabhshed in 
1849, with a capital of £50,000, and the Norwich and London Accident 
and Casualty Insurance Association, established in 1856, have their 
head offices in St. Giles' st., and Chas. Rackham Gilman, Esq., is the sec. 

Besides the provident institutions alread}^ noticed, there are in the city a 
number of Friendly Societies, for mutual assistance in sickness, superan- 
nuation, &c. : and partaking of these benefits here are many Lodges of Odd 
FeUoiis, Druids, Orangemen, Foresters, d-c, &c. 

Ecclesiastical History. — Nor^dch was distinguished at an early period 
for its numerous monasteries. In the reign of Edward the Confessor it is 
stated to have contained twenty-five 7?rtroc/?!aZ churches, and in the time of 
the Conqueror forty-three chapels were in the patronage of the burgesses, 
most of which were afterwards made parochial. During the reign of Ed- 
ward III. there were 58 parish churches and chapels ^^ithin the walls. 
Besides these there were the cathedral ; a monastic college and chapel in 
the precincts ; also, four houses of friars, with a chapel to each ; a conven- 
tual church, four hospitals, with their chapels, &c. ; in addition to which, 
were several cells and other small religious foundations, amounting in the 
whole to seventy-six places of Christian public worship. At the same time 
here were several anchorages for recluses ; each of the twelve gates had its 
hermit, and outside five of them were lazar-houses, each of which was 
doubtless provided "udth its oratoiy and chaplain. Here was also a 
Jewish synagogue. There are at present within the city and county of the 
city no less than 43 churches, exclusive of the cathedi'al ; the Bishop's 
Chapel, which is used by the parishioners of St. Mary-in-the-Marsh ; the 
French and Dutch churches ; and about thirty places of worship belonging 
to dissenters. Nine of the churches are in. the suburban hamlets. 

Cathedral. — It has been seen, in the History of the Diocese (see pages 
40 to 57) ih^ii Bishop Herbert de Losinga removed the See from Thetford to 
Norwich on the 9th April, 1094. He was consecrated on the same day by 
Thomas, Archbishop of York, most probably in an ancient church, wliich 
there is good reason to believe stood on the site of the present cathedral, 
and was dedicated to the Holy Trinity ; but as he had purchased the bishopric 
and other ecclesiastical preferments of WilKam Rufus, he was enjoined by 
Pope Paschal II. to build certain churches and monasteries, as an atone- 
ment for these simoniacal practices. In obedience to this injunction, he 
laid the first stone of the Cathedral in 1096, and in five years had pro- 
ceeded so far with his work as to be able to place 60 Benedictine monks in 
the Priory on the south side, endowing it with sufficient lands to maintain 
the same; and on the 24th of September, 1101, the Cathedral Chiu'ch was 
dedicated to the Holy Trinity. Herbert lived eighteen years after this, 
but how much of the fabric he completed is not clearly defined, tliough 
according to Blomefield, the origiual church, as left by him, was " the 
whole of the choir, tower, and two transepts, T\-ith the north and south 
aisles of the choir, beyond the transepts, and the extent of it then was to 
the division between the nave and ante-choir, and no further." Eborard, 
his successor, is said to have built the whole nave and its two aisles, from 
the ante-choir or rood-loft to the west end ; but it is more probable that 
the entire monastery and church were completed before the death of 
the founder, if not before the consecration ; for in every direction we find 
traces of Early Norman work, rude and plain, evidently the work of Bishop 
Herbert's time ; nor is it likely that any architect would have ventured to 
raise the tower so high above tlie roof of the choir and transepts without 



192 HISTORY OF NORWICH. 

the support of a building on its western side. Thus the building stood, 
though not fitted up, till 1171, when it was damaged by fire ; but it was re- 
paired by John of Oxford, the fourth bishop of Norwich, in 1197. About 
1247, Bishop Sufiield built St. Mary's, or the Lady Chapel (since de- 
stroyed), at the east end, which is supposed to have completed the edifice 
as it stood in 1272, when a great part of it was burnt, and many of the 
ecclesiastics were killed by the citizens, who assembled for the purpose of 
punishing the monies for the disorderly conduct by which they had long 
disgraced their profession. For this retribution, however, the city was 
placed under a papal interdict ; all concerned in the riots were excommuni- 
cated, many of the lower order put to death, and the principal citizens were 
condemned to pay a sum of 3000 marks, with which sum, and the liberal 
donations of the great, the cathedral was repaired in 1278. A new tower is 
likewise said to have been built by Bishop Walpole, in 1295, at his own ex- 
pense ; but it was doubtless the spire and not the tower wliich that prelate 
erected. The old chapter-house, and that part of the cloister which extends 
from the chapter-house to the grand door into the church, were also erected 
by Bishop Walpole, and three more arches on the same side were erected by 
Richard Uppehalle, the clerk of the works. The remaining five arches, and 
the south side of the cloister to the door leading into the ancient refectory, 
were erected by Bishop Salmon, with the assistance of the monks, who on 
tliis occasion suppressed the office of Pittancer, and expended on the work 
ihQ inttances of the convent. The north side, towards the church, was 
built by Henry de Well, who gave 210 marks himself, and obtained several 
donations to carry on the work. He was also allowed a portion of the 
pittance-moiwy. The west side, with the highly ornamented entrance to 
the refectory, the lavatories, and the doorway into the pilgrims' hall, were 
built by Jeffery Simonds, the then rector of St. Mary-in-the-Marsh. The 
part extendmg from the pilgrims' hall doorwaj^ to the entrance into the 
church inclusive, was the work of Bishop Wakering, who, in his life time, 
erected a new chapter -house, which was afterwards destroyed in the civil 
wars. The rest of the cloister was successively executed by the sev- 
eral famiUes of Morley, Scales, Erpingham, Gournay, Mowbray, Thorpe, 
Savage, &c., whose arms and cognizances were to be seen emblazoned in 
the windows before the fine stained glass was demohshed. Towards this 
work; Walter de Burney, citizen of Norwich, had previously made a dona- 
tion of ^6400. Thus, A.D. 1430, in the 133rd year from its commencement, 
was finished this spacious, elegant, and justly celebrated cloister, in the 
prelacy of Bishop Alnwyk. 

In 1361, a violent ^wmmwe blew down the upper part of the steeple, 
and did much injury to the choir. For the reparation of this damage 
Bishop Percy gave .£400 out of his own purse, and obtained an aid of nine- 
pence in the pound from all his clergy. At that time the present spire was 
built. About 1430, the west door and window were inserted and other 
architectural alterations made in the west front by Bishop Akiwyk, whose 
arms, with the arms of the See, are in the spandrUs of the door, enclosed in 
a garter with the inscription, " Orate pro anima Domini WiUelmi Almvyk, 
Epi." In the year 1463, the church was much damaged by hghtning, but 
was repaired and considerably improved by Bishop Lyhart, by whose 
generosity, and that of his powerful coadjutors, many ornamental additions 
were made. At this time the cathedral was paved, the stone rood loft 
erected, and an elegant tomb raised over the ashes of the founder ; but the 
latter was demolished in the civil wars. During Lyhart's prelacy, the noble 
stone roof of the nave was constructed and adorned witli sculptures re- 
presenting various stories from the Old Testament. His successor. Bishop 
Gold well, beautified the tower, erected the present light and elegant cleres- 
tory and stone roof over the choir; fitted up the choir with collateral 



NOEWICH CATHEDEAL. 193 

chapels, and covered the whole vaulting with lead. In 1509, the transepts 
being injured by fire, were repaired by Bishop Nix, and covered with a 
roofing of stone, similar to the other parts of the church, by which the 
whole roof was completed in an uniform manner. 

At the Dissolution of the monasteries, much curious work was destroyed 
in the cathedral, and several crucifixes, images, niches, tabernacles, and 
even paintings, were removed. In 1601, part of the spire was again struck 
by Hghtning, but was speedily repaired. Thus it remained till the civil 
wars in 1643, " when that contempt for the venerable remains of the arts, 
which pervaded the majority of the people, under a pretence of extraordinary 
zeal and purity, could only be exceeded by the folly with which it discarded 
the wisdom of antiquity." Then the puritanical reformers entered all the 
churches, " defacing the ornaments, breaking the windows, filing the bells, 
and robbing the stones and monuments of then' brasses," and Sherifi" Tofts 
is said to have stolen from the cathedral alone no fewer than 100 brasses. 
They demoHshed the organ and carried away the vestments, which, with 
the singing and service books, they burnt in the Market place. The cathe- 
dral was partially fitted up again at the Restoration, when a new organ 
was erected, and the corporation gave <£100 towards the communion plate. 
From that time to the present, repaii's and restorations of various portions of 
the building have been repeatedly efiected at considerable cost, and in many 
instances with very questionable taste. The cathedral is situated so low, 
and is so much surrounded by buildings, as to prevent its being viewed as a 
whole from any near point. It is seen to most advantage from the rising 
ground near the church of Thorpe Hamlet, whence it appears to possess 
all the dignity and importance of a cathedral of the first magnitude. The 
tower and spke are, however, the only features which possess any external 
attractions ; the rest of the building presents but a mean and irregular ap- 
pearance, unrelieved by the buttresses, which are too flat to be called pro- 
jections ; and it is perhaps fortunately almost entirely concealed from pubHc 
view by the cloisters, the bishop's palace, and other premises which sur- 
round and adjoin it. The edifice was dedicated by its founder to tlie Holy 
Trinity, but since the reign of Henry III. it has been commonly called 
Christ's Church, by which name it is still designated. 

The architecture of this noble pile of building is chiefly of the early 
Norman style, wherein the semichcular arch and massive short column 
are the leading features. These are considerably varied in size, moulding, 
and ornament in difierent parts of the edifice. The plan displays a nave 
with aisles, transept without aisles, and a choir with a semicirciilar east-end 
and an aisle surrounding it. Attached to, but projecting fi-om this aisle, near 
the east end, is a small chapel dedicated to Jesus, and of exti'emely curious 
form and character. Its walls are portions of two intersecting ckcles of 
difierent diameters, having a round projection at the point of intersection. 
The windows are pointed, and evidently modern insertions. Above them 
is an arcade of round-headed arches upon short plain circular pillars, and 
higher still a series of blank Norman windows. A similar adjunct on the 
opposite side, at the south-east angle of the church, is called St. Luke's 
chapel. A square building, projecting from the south side of the choir, is 
now used as the Consistory court. Between this and the ti-ansept is Hey- 
do7is chapel and the old Chapter house. Adjoining the south transept is 
St. Edmund's, or the Prior s chapel. West of this, and attached to the 
south side of the nave, are the Cloisters. Such are the component parts of 
the cathedral, which adjoins the bishop's palace on the north side and the 
deanery on the south. The length of the whole fabric, from east to west, is 
407 ft. ; the length of the transept is 178 ft. ; and the length of the nave from 
the west door to the screen, is 204 ft. ; and its breadth, with the aisles, 72 ft. 

The Cloisteks form a square of 174 feet within the walls, and are sur- 
passed by none in beauty of architecture and solemnity of efi'ect. They 

N 



194 NORWICH CATHEDRAL. 

branch off from the south transept, and enclose a square court or area ; 
eleven noble mndows or arched openings are on the western side, twelve 
on the east, eleven on the north, and eleven on the south. All these 
windows are divided into three lights by two columns, and decorated with a 
variety of beautiful tracery. They are of decorated architecture, except 
eight on the north side, which have perpendicular tracery in decorated 
arches. The upper portion of the tracery of all the windows appears to have 
been once filled with stained glass. The roof is supported by groins, spring- 
ing from clustered columns, and ornamented with very bold elaborately 
carved bosses at their points of intersection, representing a number of scriptu- 
ral subjects. The door -way leading from the eastern aisle of the cloisters to 
the nave is very curious, being a pointed arch with four columns on each 
side, having corresponding archivolt mouldings, in front of which are seven 
canopied niches with richly sculptured crockets, and each containing a 
statue. That in the centre is our Saviour, and the other figures represent 
two angels, a bishop with a model of the church in his hand, a Idng, St. 
John the Baptist, and Moses with the tables of the law. Into these clois- 
ters are passages from several of the prebendal houses ; and over three sides 
of the quadrangle is an upper story, lighted by small windows looking into 
the court. In the east wall of the cloisters are tliree beautiful decorated 
arches, now filled with a light iron railing of appropriate pattern, but for- 
merly used as the door and windows of the vestibule of the chapter house, 
which has been entirely destroyed. Near these are several walled-up 
doors, which used to lead into the dormitory, the slype, &c. Very little 
remains of the monastic buildings, the dormitory, refectory, kitchen, and 
strangers' hall being almost entirely destroyed, except those portions which 
form the walls of the cloisters. The ancient lavatories remain at the south- 
west angle in an almost perfect state, and at the north-west angle is a modern 
door, which has replaced the ancient one, leading into the great locutory 
and entrance to the monastery. This is now the kitchen and larder of one 
of the Canon's houses, and has some noble Norman arches over the eastern 
part, but the fine west window and the rest of the vaulting is early Enghsh. 

The West Front has none of that dignity and magnificence for which 
many of the western fagades of other cathedrals are so justly celebrated. It 
presents a large central compartment, fronting and corresponding with the 
width and height of the nave ; also two lateral divisions corresponding with 
the side aisles. The elevation of the former displays an immense perpendi- 
cular window of nine lights, divided by a transom, an exact counterpart of 
the west window of Westnmister Hall, and which, however beautiful and well 
proportioned in itself, is far too large for its position, and 'constitutes a great 
defect in the appearance of the west front, both externally and internally. 
Above it is a gable with a small window in it, and on the top an ornamental 
cross. Beneath it is the grand entrance, formed by a deep vaulted portal 
of perpendicular architecture, within a square head, and having its spandrils 
and side fascia much enriched with mouldings, niches, pedestals, and other 
sculptured decorations. The lateral divisions of this front retain their 
Norman character, except that the small stairway turrets at each extremity 
are now, like the central turrets, disfigured by modern jDinnacles. Above 
each of the doors opening into the aisles is a series of four blank arches, 
separated by small columns, over which are three other arches, in the centre 
and largest of which a pointed window of two lights has been inserted. 
The battlements are of the perpendicular period. 

The Nave and Aisles display in their external elevation five tiers of win- 
dows and arcades, though part of the lowermost is obscured by the cloisters. 
A-bove this is a series of blank arches or arcades, of the Norman style, 
divided into fourteen compartments by a flat buttress between each, and 
every division consists of seven arches. In the next tier upwards each com- 
partment shews tliree semicircular arches, tJie central of which is opened 



NORWICH CATHEDRAL. 195 

and glazed, whilst the two latter are blank. Over this is a flatly pointed arch 
window, with two mnllions in each division. This constitutes the eleva- 
tion of the aisle, which is unusually lofty and narrow. Above this is a 
modem parapet. The clerestory displays in each compartment a pointed 
arch window in the middle, with a semicu'cular moulding over it, and two 
lateral blank ai'ches. The sides and front of the transepts nearly cor- 
respond in the number and style of arches with the division just described. 
At the intersection of the transepts with the nave and choir, rises a lofty 
toiver, surmounted by an elegant spire, the whole height of which is 313 ft., 
exceeded only by that at Salisbury. The tower exliibits four stories, be- 
sides that of the battlements, and each is covered with arcades, columns, 
and tracery -mouldings of very varied and curious workmanship. It is an 
interesting and highly ornate specimen of the Norman style of ai'chitecture, 
exemphfjong it at that period when the semicircular and intersecting arches 
with tall light columns were prevalent, and just before the pointed arch was 
generally adopted. The battlements and pinnacles at the angles are of the 
perpendicular period, as also is the octagonal spire, which has bold crockets 
attached to and running up the ribs at each angle. 

In the exterior of the Choir and its Aisles a very dissimilar style of archi- 
tecture is exhibited ; for the former has large lofty windows with pointed 
arches, ornamented with transoms, mullions, and tracery ; whilst the latter 
display several with square heads, divided by three mullions and tracery. 
These windows are curious and rare examples of form. Bold flying buttresses 
project from the upper part of the choir, across and over the aisles. As 
akeady observed, the east end of the choir is semicircular, with an aisle 
and projecting chapels, &c., and presents curious traces of the original 
structure built by Bishop Herbert de Losinga; but the clerestory above it is 
pentagonal, and is siu-mounted by a richly decorated and embattled parapet. 

The Interior is grand and solemn in the general effect, and the piers, 
columns, arches, and mouldings are of bold and substantial workmanship. 
The nave is of fourteen bays, and the arches, which are all semicircular and 
of great depth and solidity, are ornamented with the billet moulding, and 
rest upon massive piers, except in two instances, where instead of piers are 
placed cylindrical columns of vast thickness, ornamented with spiral 
flutings, one on each side of the nave and opposite to each other. The 
triforium is of great height, and is composed of piers and arches similar to 
those on which they stand. These arches exhibit the chevron moulding, 
and are not subdivided by a pillar and smaller arches as is usually the case. 
The arcade above this is unusually low, and contains three semicircular 
arches in each compai'tment, with very simple mouldings resting on short 
cylindrical columns ; the middle arch being three times the span of the 
outer ones. Through the larger arches are seen the clerestory windows. 
The magnificent stone vaulting of the nave was the work of Bishop Lyhart, 
whose rebus occurs frequently on the corbels of the shafts which support 
the roof. The sculptured bosses contain a complete series of historical 
figures, commencing at the tower end with the Creation, and ending at the 
other extremity with the Last Judgment. Exactly in the centre of this 
roof, between the choir screen and the west door is a circular opening of 
considerable size, from whence was suspended the large censer swung 
lengthwise in the nave at the festivals of Easter and Whitsuntide, and fi:om 
which a white pigeon was let fly to symbohze the coming down of the Holy 
Ghost. The great west window is filled with stained glass, of great bril- 
liancy of colouring, but in very bad taste. It represents the Adoration of 
the Magi, the Finding of Moses, the Ascension, the Brazen Serpent, Christ 
Blessing Little Children, Moses with the Tables of the Law, and figures of 
patriarchs, prophets, evangehsts, &c. ; and is a memorial to Bishop Stanley, 
who died in 1849. About half way down the nave on the south side, 
betwixt the 6th and 7th piers, is the tomb of Chancellor Spencer, upon 

n3 



196 NORWICH CATHEDRAL. 

which the chapter rents were formerly received ; and the stone is com- 
pletely worn by the frequent ringing of the money. Between the 7th and 
8th piers on the same side, is the beautiful monumental chapel of Bishop 
Nix, in the latest perpendicular style, with elaborate vaulting, and highly 
ornamented panels, niches, and canopies. In it are still visible the reredos, the 
piscina, and the u'onwork on which the bell hung. The chou: screen appears 
to have been originally erected by Bishop Lypart. Behind it, on each side 
of the central door, were small chapels enclosed in wooden screens, the 
altar on the north side being dedicated to St. William (a boy said to have 
been crucified by the Jews in 1137), and the other to St. Mary. The pis- 
cina of the former stni remains. The ante- choir occupies the space imder 
the organ loft, between two columns, and was in mediaeval times a chapel 
dedicated to our Lady of Pity. The side aisles of the nave are nearly in 
their original state ; their vaulting is exceedingly plain and ponderous, 
without any mouldings, ribs, or bosses ; and they contain several stained glass 
windows. The transepts are of the same height as the nave and choir, and 
like them are richly vaulted with stone. They contain several stained glass 
windows, but have no aisles, and are intercepted by the choir, which is 
partly under the central tower and stretches beyond it to the third pillar 
in the nave. On the east side of the north transept is an apsidal chapel, 
now used as a sextry, and formerly dedicated to St. Anne. There was for- 
merly a similar chapel on the east side of the south transept, but it has 
been long destroyed, and on its site is the present vestry, which is of the 
decorated period. The bosses of the roofs of the transepts have carved 
figures, representing the Nativity and various subjects illustrative of the 
early history of Christ. The choir is of unusual length, and very imposing 
in its effect. The lantern of the tower is set upon four semicircular arches 
with plain mouldings, and supported by four massive piers of the same 
solid description. Above these arches is a bold and simple arcade, pierced 
with a passage leading to the roofs of the bmlding. Above it, another 
arcade just reheves the plain wall, except at the extremity of each face, 
where it is pierced by a large circular aperture, which does not, however, go 
quite through the wall. Higher still, the wall is again recessed for another 
passage, in front of long narrow windows, three on each side, the shafts of 
the columns being of considerable length, and admirably proportioned to 
the great height at which they are placed. Nine of these windows are 
fiUed with stained glass, and though the ceiling above is of stucco, and 
very poor and out of place, the effect of the whole lantern is very grand 
and beautiful. The stall- work of the choir is very good perpendicular 
work, and has been recently judiciously restored. The stalls are sixty- two 
in number, and each of them retains its siibsellium or miserere, most of 
which have elaborate designs carved upon them with great vigour and 
skill. The side pillars and arches of the chou' are concealed by screens of 
richly decorated perpendicular work, surmounted by elegant perforated 
parapets. The arches of the apse are not concealed, and retain their 
original Norman character, as also does the triforium all round the chou'. 
The clerestory of the choir is magnificent, and is one of the finest spe- 
cimens in tliis country of the pointed style engrafted on original Norman 
work. It is of the perpendicular period, and the windows are of four lights 
each, lofty and weU-proportioned, with transoms and elaborate tracery. 
Between the windows on both sides are lofty, deep niches, feathered and 
canopied, which doubtless once had statues. The windows in tlie cleres- 
tory of the apse are of the same size and character as those on each side of 
the choir, but they are so close together that there is no room for anything 
between them but a cluster of three slender shafts, from the top of which 
spring the main ribs of the vaulting, which is similar to that of the nave 
and transepts, but much less ornate. This part of the clerestory is pen- 
tagonal, and is very cleverly set upon the triforium of the apse, which is 



NORWICH CATHEDRAL. 197 

semicircular. The three easternmost windows are filled with stained glass 
of appropriate design. Below the steps of tlie high altar a simple slab 
marks the spot where Bishop Herbert, the founder of the cathedral, lies 
buried ; but, doubtless, a sumptuous altar tomb once existed iu its place. 
The monument of Bishop Goldwell, in the ai'ch betwixt the sixteenth 
and seventeentli pillars on the south side of the choir, was erected about 
1499, and consists of an altar-tomb of white marble, with several niches, 
canopies, and pedestals at the sides and ends, a recumbent effigy of the 
bishop on the top, and a canopy adorned with panelling, arches, freize, 
parapet, &c., of perpendicular architecture. The e^gy of the bishop, now 
much defaced, is distinguished by the richness of its vestments, consisting 
of the cope with a rich border of lace, closed on the breast with a large 
square morse or fibula ; beneath the cope is the dahnatic, alb, stole, &c. ; 
and hangiug from the left arm is the maniple. The crozier and mitre, for- 
merly richly ornamented, have long been mutilated. The head rests on 
two cushions, and the feet against a crouching lion, on which is an open 
book, and a small broken figure of a clerk or priest. At the top are the 
bishop's arms. The magnificent monument of Bishop Bathurst was erected 
in November, 1841, and stands in a recess between the seventeenth and 
eighteenth pillars on the north side, where Queen Elizabeth sat during her 
visit to this city. The figure is of the purest Carrara marble, somewhat 
above the natural size, and seated, in full episcopal costume. The counte- 
nance is peculiarly expressive of the benevolence, frankness, and mild intel- 
ligence which characterised the venerable prelate. It is said to have been 
the last work of Sir Fras. Chantrey, but appears more fitted for a college- 
hall than for an ecclesiastical edifice. In the north-east angle of the recess, 
and almost behind the pedestal of the monument, is a glazed quatrefoil, 
which for a long time formed a subject of discussion amongst antiquaries, 
and was usually supposed to have been a confessional ; but there appears 
no reason to doubt that it was the speculatory through which the sepulchre 
light could be watched during the ceremonies at Easter, without entering 
the chou'. The lectern is ancient, and represents a pelican vulning herself ; 
with figures of a bishop, a priest, and a deacon at the bottom. The side 
aisles of the choir are of the same age and style as those of the nave, and 
vaulted in a similarly plain and ponderous manner. In the south aisle is 
a fine decorated arch leading into the noble chapel said to have been 
founded by one WiUiam Beauchamp, and now used as the Consistory 
Court. The roof is groined, and has bosses illustrating the life, death, and 
assumption of the Virgin. There remains on the east side a beautiful niche 
with elaborate canopy on the north side of the altar ; and a ledge for images 
on the south sid-e. The piscina has also been recently uncovered in the 
south wall. A similar chapel, dedicated either to St. Andrew or St. 
Stephen, formerly existed next the north aisle, but all trace of it has been 
long obliterated. St. Luke's and Jesus chapels have abeady been de- 
scribed. The painted wooden reredos of the latter is now in the vestry. It 
is of the fourteenth century, and is divided into five compartments, repre- 
senting The Scourging, Bearing the Cross, Crucifixion, Resurrection, and 
Ascension. The backgi-ounds of these paintings are ^ded, and diapered 
in curious patterns, and some of the ornaments are in slight rehef. In the 
north aisle is a low vaulting of the decorated period, supporting a gallery 
raised a few feet above the level of the floor of the choir. There are two 
bays of this vaulting, and in the head of the arch of the eastern one is the 
before-mentioned quatrefoU speculatory, or hagioscope. The original Nor- 
man Lady Chapel was of an oval form, but gave place in 1265 to a large 
oblong chapel of eariy Enghsh architecture, erected by Walter de Suffield. 
This is said to have been a very noble building, 70 feet long and 30 feet 
broad, and was disgracefully destroyed by Dean Gardiner. It was entered 
from the aisle by two acutely pointed arches, with bold mouldings, and the ^ 



198 HISTORY OF NORWICH. 

dog-tooth ornament, resting on a lofty central shaft, with a quatrefoil open- 
ing in the space above. 

The Bishop's Palace, an irregular edifice, on the north side of the 
cathedral, is an extensive pile, erected by various prelates, in the different 
styles of architecture which prevailed when they respectively flourished. 
During the usurpation of Cromwell this palace partook of the general in- 
juries committed by the Puritans in all ecclesiastical buildings. The 
greater part of it was let off" in tenements, and the grand hall converted 
into a puritanical meeting house. At the Restoration, Bishop Reynolds, 
with some difficulty and at great expense, made the palace habitable ; and 
it has since been frequently repaired and beautified by succeeding bishops, 
so that it is now a convenient residence. One of the rooms is lined with 
ancient but richly carved oak wainscot, brought from the abbey of St. 
Bonnet's at Holme, and placed here by Bishop Rugg. On the upper row 
of panels are the names and profiles of several worthies of ancient times. 
Formerly there was a covered way, vaulted with stone like the cloisters, 
from the door of the north transept to the entrance of the grand hall, 
which was 110 feet long and 60 broad, but was destroyed by the Puritans 
after they had used it some time as a preaching-room. In the garden, be- 
tween the palace and St. Martin's gate, stands a fine ruin, known as Bishop 
Salmon's gateway. It is an interesting specimen of decorated arcliitecture. 
In 1858, the palace was restored and improved at a cost of about ^£'5000. 

The Bishop's Chapel, at the east end of the Palace, was built by BishoxD 
Reynolds, in 1662, near the site of the old one, which was erected by Bishop 
Salmon, and had its windows filled with beautiful stained glass, represent- 
ing bishops and saints ; but these and a great part of the building were 
destroyed by Sheriff Tofts, Alderman Lyndsey, and their Puritan followers. 
The present chapel is ornamented with Connthian pilasters, and fitted up 
•with wainscot sides, and a flat stuccoed ceiling. It is now used by the 
parisliioners of St. Mary's-in-the-Marsh as their parish church. Near the 
altar is a monument and bust of the founder. 

The Deanery stands near the south side of the cathedral, and was 
anciently the porter's lodge. It is a large square pile, originally built by 
Bishop Herbert, but has undergone so many alterations at different times 
that no part of the original structure remains. It contains several fine 
windows and arches of the early English decorated and perpendicular 
periods; and near it are the Prehendal Houses, and three massive clustered 
columns of great antiquity. These pillars were opened out to view when 
the Dormitory was taken down for the purpose of improving the entrance 
to the deanery in 1804. They are of the late Norman period, and their 
shafts appear to have been painted green, and the capitals gilt. At the 
general dissolution, the revenues of Norwich Cathedral Priory were seized 
by the crown, but the prior ant? monhs being converted into a dean and 2)r€- 
bendaries, they were restored, and William Castleton, the last prior, be- 
came the Jirst dean in 1538. 

The Charnel House, near the west end of the cathedral, was built by 
Bishop Salmon, about the year 1316. He dedicated it to St. John the 
Evangelist, and endowed it for four priests, one of whom was to be custos, 
to sing mass for his soul, those of his parents, and of all his predecessors 
and successors in the See for ever. It was afterwards converted into a 
charnel house, but in the reign of Elizabeth became the property of the 
Corporation, when the Free Grammar School was transferred to it from the 
infirmary of the Black Friars. It consisted of a chapel, with offices for the 
priests, and a crypt beneath. The latter has a groined and vaulted roof, 
and is divided lengthwise by a row of pillars 14 feet high. In it the sacrist 
was allowed to deposit all bones proper for removal, " to be reserved tiU 
the day of resurrection." The buttresses at each end of the south side are 
ornamented with columns representing trunks of trees, with branches spring- 



OATHEDEAL PEECINCTS. 199 

ing from the tips, and were built in 1702. The portico at the south end is 
a low vaulted structure, with curiously sculptured bosses and niches, and 
was built by Bishop Lyhart. 

There are two principal Gates communicating with the cathedral close 
and precincts, and one forming the entrance to the palace garden. Erping- 
Tiam Gate, which leads to the west front of the cathedral, is a curious piece 
of architecture, which Blomefield says was built by Su' Thomas Erping- 
ham, at the instance of the warlike Bishop Spencer, as a penance for his 
being an abettor of Lollardism, or favourer of WicMiffe ; but this is a very 
improbable story, as the knight did not marry his second wife till 1411, and 
the arms of both his wives ai)pear upon the gate, whilst Bishop Spencer 
died in 1406. The style of architecture leads to the inference that the gate 
was erected about 1420. Its outer elevation displays a lofty pointed arch, 
and is enriched with columns, mouldings, and thirty-eight small statues of 
male and female saints, &c., designed with great freedom and elegance, 
under canopies of luxuriant foliage, exquisitely carved. The spandrils are 
highly decorated with tracery, mouldings, and shields, and the whole is 
enclosed in a sort of square frame, with semi- octagonal buttresses. Each 
of these is divided into four compartments, covered with statues, niches, 
shields, pedestals, &c., and on numerous scrolls is the word " yenJc" 
(think), which was mistaken by Blomefield for " p)enay In a canopied 
niche in the pediment (which is plain, and composed of flint), is a kneeling 
statue of the founder. The inner front is plain and quite unworthy of its 
beautiful exterior. The house in which Sir Thomas Erpingham resided 
stood in the parish of St. Martin-at-Palace, at the further end of World's 
end lane, and was pulled down in 1858. St. Ethelbert's Gate, which leads to 
the south end of the Upper Close, was built by the citizens, as a recom- 
pense for the old gate and the church of St. Ethelbert which adjoined it, 
both of which were burnt down in the conflict between the citizens and 
monks in 1272. The chapel over it was for some time used by the now 
dissolved parish of St. Ethelbert. This gate has a modem pediment over 
the west front, composed of stone tracery, inlaid with flints. Beneath is a 
series of blank niches, with a statue in the centre, and four small windows, 
or loop-holes, now closed up. In the spandrils of the great arch are figures 
in basso-relievo, of a man with a sword and a round shield, attacking a 
dragon. The east front consists of stone tracery and flint, with a pointed 
arch window in the centre. Attached to this gate is a porter's lodge, this 
being the only place of egress or ingress to the precincts during the night. 
St. Martin's Palace Gate, leading to the palace garden from St. Martin's 
plain, was founded by Bishop Ahiwyk, who did not live to complete it, 
but made a provision for that purpose in his will. It has a lai'ge pointed 
arch of several mouldings, with shields and tracery on each side of it. The 
principal door has much carving, as also has a smaller one, on which 
amongst other ornaments, a heart and mitre frequently appear — the sup- 
posed rebus of Bishop Lyhart. 

The Peecincts of the Cathedeal include the Upper and Lower Close, 
Life's Green, and 15a. 2e. 38p. oi garden ground, extending eastward to the 
river Wensum, between Sandlins Ferry and Bishop's Bridge. This dis- 
trict is enclosed on every side, except next the river, by walls and houses, 
and forms a peculiar jurisdiction of the Dean and Chapter, and the p)arish , 
of Trinity, or St. Mary-in-the-Marsh. The whole is the property of the 
Dean and Chapter, and the gardens, building sites, &c., ai'e let to various 
persons on 40 years' leases, renewable every 14 years, by paying fines equal 
to 1\ year's rent. In 1782, the Loiver Close was enclosed by Dean Lloyd, 
and a handsome garden made. A great quantity of the mould, mixed with 
human bones, being brought out of the cloister gi-aveyard to level this plat, 
it obtained the name of Skeleton square, and some severe lampoons were 
published on the occasion. In 1806, this square was further improved by 



200 HISTORY OP NORWICH. 

taking down several houses at the north-east corner. In 1825, the Upper 
Close was enclosed with iron palisades, and laid out in a similar manner. 
In 1863, a beautiful new residence for one of the Canons was built on 
Lifes Oreen, at a cost of ^62500, in lieu of an old house, which adjoined 
the south-west corner of the cathedral, and is now removed. The building 
is of flint, coloured brick, and cut stone, and of Venetian Gothic design. 
Before the erection of the cathedral this pecuhar jurisdiction was called 
Cow Holm, being the marsh where the cows fed. Cow Holm was anciently 
in the parish of Thorpe, and had a chapel till 1094, when Bishop Herbert 
de Losigna removed tlie See to Norwich, and purchased this district for 
the site of his cathedral, palace, prebendal houses, &c. The old chapel was 
pulled down to make room for the cathedral, but the bishop built in its 
place a parochial church, called St. Mary-in-the-Maksh. This church 
stood near Life's Green, but was desecrated by Bishop Parkhurst, in 
1562, and converted to the use of the cathedral, where the parishioners 
were allowed the use of the chapel of St. John the Baptist. In 1563, it 
was purchased by Dr. Gascoigne, then chancellor, who x)ulled the greater 
part of it down, and the rest was subsequently converted into a dwelhng, 
but was finally demolished in the year 1760, when a handsome row of houses 
was built partly on the site. The inhabitants now use the Bishop s Chapel 
as theu' parish church, but until recently they used the chapel of St. Luke 
the Evangelist, at the east end of the cathedral. The living is a perpetual 
curacy, valued in K.B. at ^£5. Os. lOd., and now at ^6110. It was aug- 
mented with ^600 of Queen Anne's Bounty, from 1737 to 1767. The Dean 
and Chapter are the patrons; the Rev. J. C. Matchett, M.A., is the rector ; 
and John Elmer, clerk. 

The Monastic Institutions which existed in Norwich before the Refor- 
mation amounted to no less than nineteen, at the head of which was the 
Benedictine Priory at the cathedi'al, founded by Bishop Herbert de Lo- 
singa, as noticed at page 191. To this was di Benedictine Cell, dedicated to 
St. Leonard, and estabhshed by the same founder, on Household Heath, 
opposite Bishop's Bridge, and much resorted to on account of its miracu- 
lous image of Henry VI. At the dissolution, it was granted to Thomas, 
Duke of Norfolk, whose son, Henry, Earl of Surrey, built a sumptous 
house upon the site. Near this priory cell was 8t. Michael's Chapel, which 
was served by the monks, and afterwards became the rendezvous of Kett 
and his associate rebels (vide page 152), from whence it obtained the name 
of Kett's Castle. The Benedictine Nunnery, at Carrow, was founded in 
1146, by two sisters, named Seyna and Leftelina, and received a consider- 
able endowment from King Stephen. It was dedicated to the Virgin Mary, 
and had a prioress and nme nuns. The boundary wall, part of wliich 
remains, enclosed an area of about 10 acres. It was granted to Sir J. 
Shelton. The seal of this nunnery is now in the possession of Robt. Fitch, 
Esq., F.S.A., and was found amongst the debris of St. Paul's Church, Nor- 
wich, during the reparation of that edifice in 1841. It is of lead, of an oval 
pointed form, and represents the Virgin crowned, sitting upon a throne, 
holding our Saviour in one hand and a sceptre in the other. The Chap)el 
of our Lady -in-the- Fields, founded about 1250, by John le Brun, was ori- 
ginally a hospital, but in a short time became a noble College, consisting 
of a dean (the founder being the first), a chancellor, precentor, treasurer, 
and seven other prebendaries, with six chantry priests. The premises were 
extensive, and were granted by Henry VIII. to Miles Spencer, the last 
dean. The Theatre and the Freemasons' Hall stand on the site. The 
Austin Friary stood near the church of St. Michael, in Conisford, where it 
was founded m the reign of Edward I. The monks afterwards obtained 
hcense to add that church to their estabhshment, and unite its parish with 
St Peter-per-Mountergate. They re-built the church in 1300, and dedicated 
it to St. Mary the Virgin and St. Augustine. Their possessions, bounded 



MONASTIC INSTITUTIONS. 201 

on the north by St. Faith's-lane, extended as far as the river, and were 
granted at the Dissolution to Sir Thomas Heneage. A great source of their 
wealth was derived from a chapel called Scala Cell, of which kind there 
were only two others in England (at London and Westminster), all of them 
having equal privileges with respect to indulgences, &c,, as one of the same 
name at Rome. The Black or Dominican Friars first settled here in 1226, 
in the church of St. John the Baptist, which occupied the site of the pre- 
sent Octagon Chapel, and which they made their conventual church, and 
united the parish to St. George at Colegate; hut the friars afterwards 
removed to a more magnificent establishment, part of which is now St. 
Andrew's Hall. (See page 175.) The Grey or Franciscan Friars settled 
here about 1226, on the site now partly occupied by Cook's Hospital, in 
Eose-lane, and their possessions were granted to Thomas, Duke of Norfolk, 
who sold the premises to the Corporation. Their church, dedicated to St. 
Francis, was of magnificent proportions, the nave being 150 feet long from 
the west window to the folding doors of the tower and steeple (probably a 
transept tower), and 50 feet from thence to the folding doors of the choir. 
The breadth of the nave and aisles was about 80 feet, and the cloister was a 
square of the length of the nave. Connected -udth this church were two 
anchorages. The White or Carmelite Friars had a flourishing convent 
near the bridge to which they gave name, and part of the cloisters remain 
in the cellars of a public -house, si ill called the White Friars. Their church 
was completed in 1343, and must have been a splendid building, the cloister 
having been 60 yards square, the nave 46 yards long, and that and two 
aisles 36 yards broad, and the transepts 30 yards. John Bale, author of 
the " Enghsh Votaries," and a great instrument of the Reformation, was a 
monk in this priory, which was granted at the Dissolution to Richard An- 
drews and Leonard Chamberlain. The Friars de Domina founded a con- 
vent in 1290, on the west side of King street, on the south side of St. Julian's 
churchyard, but they perished in the plague of 1349, and their convent 
became private property. The Friars of St. Mary had a small priory in 
the churchyard of St. Martin in Balliva, but on the reduction of the lesser 
orders they were united to the White Friai-s. The Friars de Pica had a 
house at the north-east comer of the churchyard of St. Peter-per-Mounter- 
gate, but being obhged to join one of the four principal orders, their house 
became the property of the Hospital of Bek, at Billingford, the master of 
which made it his city house. The Friars de Sacco had a house in 1250, 
opposite St. Peter's-of-Hungate church, but it was granted to the Black 
Friars in 1307. The Domus Dei or Gods House, in St. Giles'-street, was 
founded as an almshouse, by Jolin le Grant, in the reign of Edward I., and 
rebuilt by Bishop Lyhart, whose successors nominated the almsmen till the 
Reformation, when the hospital became private property. Hildehrondes 
Hospital, founded about the year 1200, by Hildebronde, the mercer, for a 
master and brethren, was dissolved at the Reformation, though merely a 
charitable institution. Five Lazar Houses existed here in the time of 
Edward III., for the reception of persons afflicted with leprosy, then a very 
prevalent disease. These houses were situated without the gates of the 
city, and were supported by the contributions of the inhabitants and tra- 
vellers. There was one without St. Augustine's gate, called the Hospital 
of St. Mary and St. Clement, and its site is now occupied by the Infirmary 
Asylum. The other four were without the gates of St. Bennet, St. Giles, St. 
Magdalen, and St. Stephen, and the latter was accounted part of the pos- 
sessions of the priory of Horsham St. Faith. All these five houses were 
in being, and had rehef out of the treasury for the King's Bench and Mar- 
shalsea, in 1602 and 1604. St. Giles Hospital, in Bishopgate-street, was 
founded by Bishop Suffield, for four chaplains to celebrate mass daily for 
his soul ; to support any poor and decrepit chaplains of Norwich diocese, 
and thirteen poor people in lodging and one meal a day. In 1256, the 



202 HISTOKY OF NORWICH. 

founder signed tlie statutes of the hospital, to which a provision was added 
for seven poor scholars to have their dinner daily. Edward VI. gi'anted 
this hospital, with all its revenues and appurtenances, to the corporation of 
Norwich, to be held for ever of the king in socage, by fealty only, as a 
place and house for the rehef of the poor, to be called God's House, or the 
House of the Poor, in Holme-street, in the city of Normch, " of the founda- 
tion of King Edward VI., and King Henry VIII. liis most noble father." 
It was now stipulated for the establishment to maintain a priest, to be 
chaplain to the parish of St. Helen and to the poor in the hospital, and 
another priest to be chaplain to the city gaol ; also a master and usher for 
a grammar school ; a caterer or steward ; a collector of rents ; a porter, and 
a convenient person to cook, bake, and brew for forty almsmen, with four 
women to attend them. It was also provided that as the revenues increased, 
the pensioners were to be augmented. This hospital was afterwards re- 
founded for the reception of aged poor, and is now called the Great Hos- 
pital, as wiU be seen in an account of the almshouses and other charities, 
at a subsequent page ; and its chapel is now the parish chiu'ch of St. Helen. 
The " Preachees' Money," formerly in trust with the Corporation in 
the " Sword Bearer's Account" is now dispensed by the city Charity Trus- 
tees. This fund now produces about ^£169 per annum, arising as follows : 
— ^126. 10s. from the site of the City Gaol, and seven acres of land ad- 
joining, left by 8ir John Pettiis, in 1613 ; ^£10 from a rent-charge in Great 
Hautboys, left in 1610 by Edward Nutting ; £18 out of the manor of Bar- 
sham, left in 1626, by John Suckling ; £9. 10s. fi'om tenements in St. Law- 
rence, left in 1619, by Henry Fawcett ; and £b from j£100, left by Lawrence 
Ooodwin. Out of the above, 2ls. is i^aid to each of the preachers in tlie cathe- 
dral, called the Norfolk and Suffolk preachers. On Easter-day and the Sun- 
day following Whit Sunday, Trinity Sunday, the four Sundays in Advent, 
and the six Sundays in Lent, and also on Christmas Day, the bishop, the 
dean, or one of the prebendaries or archdeacons preaches. On every other 
Sunday, and on seven other days (fasts or festivals) the incumbents of livings 
in Norfolk and Suffolk, or in the city of Norwich, are appointed by the 
bishop to preach in the cathedral, and each of such preachers receives 2ls- 
for each sermon ; or if, in case of absence, one of the minor canons preaches 
in his stead, the minor canon receives that sum ; but nothing is paid if 
the dean or one of the prebendaries preaches in his stead. The sums paid 
for such sermons in the cathedral, amount to about ^£45 per annum, and the 
rest of the income is dispensed pursuant to the wills of the donors, viz., 
about <£5 for sermons at the churches of St. Simon and St. Jude, St. 
Saviour, and St. Andrew ; £8. 6s. 8d. to the poor of tlie i)arishes of St. 
Saviour, St. Andrew, St. Augustine, and St. George's Colegate ; and the 
surplus, which, after x^ayment of incidental expenses, amounts to about £90 
a year, is paid into the city treasury, pursuant to the will of Sk John Pettus. 
The minister of St. Peter-per-Mountergate, has £2. 3s. 6d. yearly from tlie 
property left to the Great Hospital by Alderman Codd, in 1558. Thos. Hall, 
in 1713, left i:200 to the Corporation, in trust, to pay the interest thereof 
yearly for a monthly lecture, to be preached alternately in the churches of 
St. Peter Mancroft, St. Andrew, St. George Colegate, and St. John Timber- 
hill. The yearly sum of £8 is paid as the interest of this legacy. For a 
sermon every Thursday in St. Andrew's church, ^£20 per annum is paid 
from Benj. I'rappett's Charity. 

Ai.L Saints' Church, at the east end of Wastlegate, is a small plain 
edifice, comprising nave, chancel, north aisle, south porcli, and a square 
west tower containing three bells. The chancel contains some decorated 
windows, but the other portions of the church are perpendicular. The 
east window is modern, and isfilled with poor stained glass ; but there are 
■ some fragments of ancient stained glass, containing heads of bishops, &c., 
in the windows of the aisles. The font is octagonal, and is a fine specimen 



PARISH CHURCHES. 20S 

of perpendicular workmanship. On it are carved figures of St. Michael, 
St. George, the twelve Apostles, and other saints. It was restored a few 
years ago, and some of the figui-es were re-cut. There are three monu- 
ments with merchants' marks upon them. The rectory, valued in K. B. at 
^3. 14s. 7d., is consohdated with the rectory of St. Juhan and St. Edward, 
valued in K.B. at £,0. The joint benefices are now worth about ^300 per 
annum. They were augmented with ^600 of Q. A. B. in 1769 and 1810, 
and with £'200 given by John Drinkwater, Esq., in 1768, and £"500 given 
by Samuel Thornton, Esq., in 1800 and 1805. The Rev. C. F. Sculthorpe, 
M.A., is 2)(ttron, Rev. John Russell Jackson, M.A., rector, John Madgett, 
clerk, and Henry Drew, sexton. The church estate consists of three houses, 
let for 06I5 a year. The parish of St. Winewaloy, or St. Catherine in New- 
gate, was nearly depopulated in the great plague of 1319, after which it 
was consohdated with All Saints, and its church desecrated. 

St. Andkew's Chuech, in the Broad street to which it gives~name, is 
esteemed the best parochial church in the city, excepting that of St. Peter 
Mancroft. It is a fine large perpendicular structiu*e, consisting of nave, 
chancel, aisles, clerestory, and tower. The latter, which has seven beUs 
and a clock, was rebuilt in 1178, and the nave and chancel in 1606. The 
interior contains many ancient as well as modern monuments and inscrip- 
tions, and two brasses to John Gilbert, 1527, and Wm. Layer and his wife, 
1538. At the end of the north aisle, formerly the chapel of St. Marj'-, en- 
closed with iron palisades, is a sumptuous monument, on which are re- 
cumbent effigies of Sir John Suckling and his lady, erected by their son. Sir 
John Suckling, the poet. To the altar belongs a handsome and costly set 
of plate, of which two noble flagons, weighing neaily 60 ounces each, were 
given by Lawrence Goodwin, Esq., in 1701. In the east window was a 
beautiful representation in stained glass, of the Brazen Serpent and the 
stoning of the man who gathered sticks on the Sabbath ; but these devices 
are now nearly obhterated. The organ was erected in 1808. In one of 
the windows near the east end of the north aisle is a figure in stained glass, 
of Robert Gardener, a former mayor of Norwich. The blue and ruby in 
this glass are much admired. There are sediUa for three jDriests in the chan- 
cel, and several old stalls with misereres. The gallery which obscured 
the noble tower-arch, was removed in 1863, and the fine screenwork so lone 
hidden, has been brought to Hght. There is no chancel- arch, but the rood- 
stab turret still remains on the south side ; and under the east window, 
externally, are some good niches and panels. A beautiful carved stone 
reredos was erected in 185 6-' 7, by subscription, in memory of the late Rev. 
James Brown, B.D., who was incumbent of this parish fi'om 1807 to 1856. 
The church of St. Grouch, which stood near St. Andj:ew's, was demohshed 
in 1551, and its parish divided between those of St. Andrew and St. John 
Maddermarket ; l3ut the chancel remained till 1838, and formed part of the 
Hole-in-the-Wall Inn. St. Christopher's church, which also stood in this 
vicinity, was burnt down in the reign of Heniy III., and its parish united 
with St. Andrew's. Some curious crypt work in a neighbouring buildincy 
doubtless belonged to it. The benefice is 2i perpetual curacij, valued in 
1831 at £90, and augmented from 1756 to 1786, with £800 of Queen Anne's 
Bounty, and with a grant of £600 m I8l5. The Church estate is let on 
long leases for £22. 16s. a year, but is worth considerably more. Part of it 
was given by Robt. Davy. The parishioners are i\\Q patrons, the Rev. Arthur 
Chas. Copeman, M.B., incumbent, and Daniel Vyall, clerk. Wjn. Appleby, 
the first mayor (1403,) and Wm. Moore, the last mayor under the city char- 
ters, (1835,) both resided in St. Andrew's parish; and of the latter, there 
is a neat monimaent in the chiu'ch. The Parsonage House stands near the 
church, and is a plain but commodious building. A house for the minister 
was purchased by the parishioners in 1670 ; and in 1607, Mr. Rugg gave a 
house for the clerk's residence. The sacramental lecture is preached in 



204 HISTORY OP NORWICH. 

this church on the Fridays preceding the first Sundays in April, August, 
and December. (See page 202.) 

St. Augustine's Church, on the east side of Gildencroft, is mainly of 
perpendicular architecture, and consists of nave with aisles, chancel with 
aisles, south porch, and tower. The latter contains a clock and three bells, 
and it and the porch are of red brick, and bear the date 1726, as also does 
the ceiling of the chancel. The roof of the north aisle of the chancel is 
finely carved, and the clerestory is built of flint. The rood-stair turret still 
remains, and its upper portion being open to the church forms a pew, or 
very small gallery. The tower-arch is built up, and the pulpit is placed at 
the ivest end of the church. In the south aisle of the nave is a marble monu- 
ment in memory of Thos. Clabburn, manufacturer, who died in 1858. It was 
erected by the subscriptions of more than 600 weavers of Norwich, as a 
tribute of esteem to his many virtues. The rectory, valued in K.B. at 
£6. 7s. e^d., and now at i6150, was augmented in 1781 with i^200 of Queen 
Anne's Bounty, and in 1810, '11, and '21, with ^61400 in parliamentary 
grants. The Dean and Chapter are the patrons, the Rev. Matthew John 
Rackham, rector, and John Fiske, clerk. 

St. Benedict's Church, in the street to which it gives name, is a small 
perpendicular building, with nave, chancel, north aisle, and tower. The 
latter contains three bells and is round at the base and octagonal above. 
The chancel contains a piscina, and the font, which is octagonal, is now 
much mutilated, but was once finely carved. The church was re-roofed, 
thoroughly repaired and drained, and had a new east window inserted a few 
years ago at a cost of nearly ^6150, and the gaUery is about to be removed 
and the pews replaced by ox^en benches, at a cost of ^250. The Hving is a 
perpetual curacy, valued at <£95, and was augmented from 1739 to 1813, 
with ^1800 of royal bounty, partly laid out in the purchase of 20a. of land 
at Shelton. The parishioners ave patrons, the Rev. Wm. Goodwin, M.A., 
incumbent, and Wm. Metcalf, clerk. 

St. Clement's Church, in Colegate street, is one of the most ancient 
churches in the city, and belonged originally to the manor of Tokethorpe. 
It is principally of the perpendicular period, and has a square tower with 
three bells, a nave without aisles, and a chancel; and has a few old brasses 
and several modern monuments. The chancel contains four dedication 
crosses and is separated from the nave by a fine arch. The tower arch is 
blocked by the organ and gallery. The font is ornamented with flowers, 
&c. In the churchyard is a tomb to the memory of the parents of Arch- 
bishop Parker. Here is also the " Leper's Tomb," which tradition says 
was raised over the remains of a leper, who, being permitted burial here, 
bequeathed his lands, &c., to the church ; but Blomefield discredits this 
legend, and conjectures that the leper died in the Lazar-house, without St. 
Augustiae's gate, (now the Infirmary Asylum,) which entitled him to burial 
here, that building being in one of the detached parts of the parish. The 
communion plate weighs about 88 oz., including a silver gilt cup, given by 
S. Sofyld, in 1569. The three Parish Houses are let for ^£26. lOs. a year, 
which is applied with the church rates, except a reserved yearly rent of 
3s. 4d., payable to the Great Hospital, pursuant to a lease for 500 j^ears, 
granted in 1569. The rectory, valued in K.B at ^7. 9s. 2d., and now at 
^96, was augmented in 1738, with 56200 of Queen Anne's Bounty, and 
^6200 bequeathed by the Rev. Edward Brooke. It is in the patronage of 
Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, and incumbency of the Rev. Richd. 
Rigg, M.A., who is also rector of St. Michael Coslany. Wm. Burrows is 
the clerk. St. Clement's parish increased its population from 853 in- 
habitants in 1801, to nearly 4000 in 1861. This large increase occurred 
chiefly in that northern suburb of the city called New Catton, which in 
1842 was constituted an ecclesiastical district, and assigned to Christ 
Church, which had been built in the previous year, as afterwai'ds noticed. 



PARISH CHURCHES. • 205 

St. Anne's chapel, which was desecrated some centuries ago, stood in 
St. Clement's parish, neariy adjacent to the river ; and in Fybrigge gate 
or Wensum street were the churches of All Saints, St. Margaret, and 
St. Botolph the Abbot, of which no vestiges remain. 

St. Edmund's Chuech, in Fishgate, is a small fabric, of late perpen- 
dicular work, with nave, chancel, south aisle, and tower containing one 
bell. It was originally founded about the time of William the Conqueror. 
The arches of the nave are nearly flat, and the sub-arches are carried on 
shafts with moulded caps. Two of the piers have small narrow arches cut 
through them apparently to give greater lightness. The roof is of plain 
open timber work, and bears in the centre a large wooden boss, with the 
arms of the city, St. George, and St. Edmund, and a scroll inscribed, 
" S. Edmwidus,Jios Martirum, velut rosa aut lilium." The old parish chest 
is strongly bound with iron. Among the rehcs formerly preserved here was 
a piece of the shirt of St. Edmund the King and Martyr, kept in a box of 
crystal, and visited with great reverence. The rectory, valued in K.B. at 
£4.. 6s. 3d., and now at ^£165, was augmented in 1726 with ^£'200 given by 
the Revs. Wm. Stanley and R. Corey, and from 1726 to 1819, with £'1000 
of royal bounty. The Rev. G. Blake Everett, M.A., i^ patron and incumbent. 

St. Etheldred's Church, in King street, is supposed to be the oldest 
church in the city, and had in its burial ground a very ancient anchorage 
or hermitage, which continued till after the Reformation. It is a small pile, 
with nave, chancel, and tower. The latter contains one bell and is round 
at the base and octagonal above. It is chiefly of flint, but the upper portion 
has brick quoins and mouldings of the perpendicular period. The nave is 
thatched, and has a step gable at its east end. The south porch and some 
of the windows are perpendicular, and there are a few decorated windows ; 
but the south doorway and the mutilated piscina in the chancel are Norman, 
and the Norman stiings are still to be seen on the walls outside. A plain stone 
bench in the sill of a window formed the sedilia. The font is octagonal and 
panelled. In the chancel is a monument, dated 1611, to Wm. Johnson, an 
alderman of Norwich, with figures of himself, wife, one son, and three daugh- 
ters. The benefice is a perpetual curacy, certified at £2. 14s.. and valued at 
^677. It was augmented from 1745 to 1802, with ^800 of Queen Anne's 
Bounty. The Trustees of the Great Hospital are patrons ; the Rev. James 
Deacon, M.A., incumbent ; Rev. P. S. Aldrich, B.C.L., curate; and George 
Hawes, clerh. St. Edward's Church formerly stood on the west side of King 
street, and the east end of its churchyard extended nearly to the south-west 
comer of St. Etheldred's churchyard. It was desecrated some centuries 
ago, but its ruins were visible in Blomefield's time. Joining the west end 
of St. Edward's church was a chapel, founded by Hildebronde, a mercer, who 
also founded a hospital in connection with it, which was dissolved in 1540. 
The Music-House, the remains of which are still to be found in a public house 
on the east side of King street, nearly opposite St. Etheldred's churchyard, 
was used as a chapel for divine service by Alan de Freestone, Archdeacon of 
Norwich, but was disused after his death, about 1290. It obtained its name 
through being in former times the place of resort for the City Waits. 

St. George's Colegate is a large and handsome perpendicular church, 
rebuilt at different periods, viz., the tower and nave, about 1459 ; the chancel 
in 1498 ; the north aisle, with the chapel of St. Mary, in 1504, and the south 
aisle, with the chapel of St. Peter, in 1513. The tower is lofty, and has a 
clock and three bells. The rood-stair turret still remains on the south side. 
The church is neatly fitted up, and has a good organ. In the north aisle is 
a fine altar- tomb to Robert Jannis, a great benefactor to this church and the 
city; and near it is a beautiful mural monument to John Herring, Esq., 
(mayor in 1799,) executed by the younger Bacon. In the same aisle is a 
fine brass of Wm. Norwiche, dated 1475 ; and also a piscina. The east 
window is of three lights^ and is filled with painted glass, by Mr. Swan, 



206 HISTORY OF NORWICH. 

representing Faith, Hope, and Charity. The churches of St. Margaret at 
Colegate, and St. Olave, in Cherry lane, were taken down, and their cures 
consolidated with St. George's ; the former in 1349, and the latter in 1546. 
The living is a perpetual curacy, valued at ^098, and augmented from 1737 
to 1792 with ,£1000 of Queen Anne's Bounty. The Dean and Chapter are 
patrons, the Rev, Alex. Warham Durdin, incumbent, and C. Woolmer, clerh. 
The " sacramental lecture" is preached in this church on the Fridaj^s pre- 
ceding the first Sundays in January, May, and December. (See p. 202.) 

St. George's Tombland has a handsome square tower, which contains 
five beUs, and was erected by the parishioners in 1445. There is also a 
clock given by George Maltby, in 1786, and a sanctus bell. The nave, 
aisles, and chancel are covered with lead, and have spacious galleries and 
many monumental inscriptions of ancient and modern times, one of which 
has the representation of a man and his wife at the fald-stool. The build- 
ing is chiefly of the perpendicular period, but some portions appear to be of 
much older date. The living is a> perpetual curacy, valued at ^6144. It is 
in the gift of the Bishop, and was augmented from 1741 to 1817 with .flOOO 
of royal bounty, and in 1789 with ^£'200 given by Dr. Lewis Bagot, Bishop 
of Norwich, and in 18 L 7 with £200 given by the Rev. Charles Sutton, D.D. 
The Rev. K. Trimmer, B.A., is the incumbent, and J. P. Sturgess, clerk. 

St. Giles' Chuech was founded in the reign of Wilham the Conqueror, 
by Elwyn the priest, who gave it to the Monks of Norwich, and conse- 
quently it is now in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter. In ancient 
records it is frequently called St. Giles-ou-the-Hill. It is a fine perpen- 
dicular structure, and the eminence on which it stands commands an ex- 
tensive view of the lower parts of the city. It was wholly rebuilt in the 
reign of Richard II., and is now one of the handsomest churches in Nor- 
wich, though the chancel has been demolished since the year 1581, when 
the Dean and Chapter, to acquit themselves of the expense of repairing it, 
gave all the materials to the parish, for " a stock to be put out for the en- 
couragement of poor traders," which has long been lost. The east window 
now fills the chancel arch, and there is a small window over it. The tower- 
arch is blocked by the organ gallery. The nave is of five bays, and has a 
good open timber roof, supported by angels bearing shields emblazoned with 
the arms of England, France, and Castile. The clerestory windows have 
been modernised. The remains of a colossal fresco painting of St. Chris- 
topher were some time ago discovered on the waU of the north aisle, and 
may still be seen, but two consecration crosses found at the same time have 
been obhterated. The south porch has a fine groined vault with fan tra- 
cery, and is surmounted by a parvise and a rich parapet and cornice. The 
tower is 120 feet high, and contains a clock and eight bells. It is battle- 
mented and crowned with a small bellcot. The nave and aisles are 81 feet 
long, divided by slender piUars, and lighted by large and elegant windows. 
The costly altar plate is double gilt, and was given by Robert SneU, in 
1738. Here are many old brasses, and among the modern monuments is 
one to Sir Thomas Chiu-chman, Knight] The perpetual curacy, valued at 
£70, was augmented from 1744 to 1791, with £1000 of Queen Anne's 
Bounty. The Rev. Wm. Nottidge Ripley, M.A., is the incumbent, Rev. 
Edmund Hall, LL.B., curate, W. F. Cully er, clerk, and Alfred Ames, sexton. 
The Church Estate consists of several tenements, &c., given by Thos. Parker 
and others in 1534, and now let on long leases for £14 a year. 

St. Gregory's Church, in Pottergate street, is a lofty perpendicular 
fabric of great antiquity, but the chancel was rebuilt in 1395, and the whole 
pile has received many subsequent repairs. The nave and aisles, with tlie 
two chapels at the cast end, were new leaded in 1537. In 1597, a wooden 
spire, covered with lead, was erected on the tower, and was the only spire 
in Norwich, except that of the cathedral, but bemg considered unsafe, part 
of it was taken down after the vane had been blown off in 1806. In the 



PABISH CHURCHES. . 207 

towei* ai*e a clock and six bells, the latter given by the parishioners in 1818. 
The tower- arch is very lofty, and across it is the original stone gallery for 
the singers, with groined vaults above and beneath, the lower part forming 
a western porch opening into the north and south porches, which are also 
groined. There are four well-moulded arches on each side of the nave, 
with clustered shafts having embattled caps. The rood- stair turret remains 
on the north side of the church. The altar platform is raised on an arch 
over a street. The clerestory windows have decorated tracery, and tho 
windows of the aisles are of mixed character, under arches recessed in the 
walls. At the west end of the north aisle is a large and curious fi*esco 
painting of St. George and the Dragon, supposed to have been the work of 
a native of Norfolk. It was uncovered some years ago, and has been re- 
stored at the expense of Wm. Smith, Esq., one of the churchwardens, by 
whom and the incumbent about £'800 were collected in 1861, #or the pur- 
pose of restoiing the church and re-seating it with oak. Part of the old 
roof and a few old stalls in the chancel still remam, and there is also a 
curious brass scutcheon, which was formerly on the door, and had a knocker 
attached to it, called the " sanctuary knocker." The brass eagle-lectern is 
dated 1496. In the church is a paU of black stuff ornamented with needle- 
work, representing crowned angels bearing small figures, probably meant 
for souls; and under each angel is a fish hke a dolphin, swallowing a 
smaller one. It is apparently intended to symboHze death and immortality. 
The old altar cloth is of crimson velvet, woven with gold thread, and was 
made out of a cope ; but a beautiful new altar cloth has been wrought by 
Miss Blencowe, who also worked the one for Ely Cathedral. Among the 
monuments is one to Sir Francis Bacon, a judge of the Court of King's 
Bench in Charles the Second's time. Here are also some ancient brass 
inscriptions, but no efiigies. Of two " Parish Houses," held suice 1598, 
one is occupied rent free by the clerk, and the other is let on lease for £2, 
which is carried to the church rates. The perpetual curacy was certified at 
^£3, and is now valued at ^£120. It was augmented from 1747 tol8l2, with 
£'1400 of royal bounty, partly laid out in land at Ray don and Fritton. Tiie 
Dean and Chapter aie patrons, the Rev, Wm. Rt. Sharpe, M.A., incumbent, 
and John Moore, sexton. 

St. Helen's Chukch, in Bishopgate street, belonged to the monks, who 
demolished it, and consolidated the cure with the church of St. Giles' 
Hospital, now called the Great Hospital, on the opposite side of the street, 
soon after the foundation of the latter by Bishop Suifield, in 1250. The 
whole of this hospital church, which serves also as the parish church of 
St. Helen, and is partly converted into lodgings for the almspeople, is still 
standing, but it is encimibered with many excrescent buildings. It has a 
square perpendicular tower at the south-west comer, containing one bell ; 
the choir is turned into lodgings for the almswomen ; and that part of the 
nave and aisles extending from the tower to the south porch, is divided 
into apartments for the men ; the intermediate space, with a south chantry, 
being all that is left open for divine service. The altar is in the chantry, 
and opposite to it stands a modern seat of handsome Gothic carved work. 
The church is neatly fitted up in a similar style, with open seats. Kirk- 
patrick, the learned antiquary, who did so much for the History of Nor- 
wich, is buried here. The perpetual curacy received by lot ^£200 of Queen 
Anne's Bounty in 1816, and was valued in 1831, at i'16, exclusive of the 
glebe house, but it is now worth =£200 per ann. The City Charity Trustees 
are patrons, the Rev. \V. F. Patteson, incumhent, and J. S. Silcock, clerh. 
Nearly the whole of the small parish of St. Helen belongs to the Great Hos- 
pital. The parsonage is a commodious residence in the Hospital grounds. 

St. James' Church, in Cowgate, includes mthin its parish the hamlet 
of PocJithorpe, and part of Mousehold Heath, and was a weU endowed rec^ 
tory tiU 1201, when it was appropriated to the cathedral priory, and is now 



208 HISTORY OP NORWICH. 

a peculiar of the Dean and Chapter. It is a small fabric of poor architec- 
ture of the late perpendicular period. The tower is square and of stone at 
the base, but the upper part is octagonal and of brick and contains one 
bell. The rood-stair turret still remains on the north side. The porch has 
a parvise, which externally forms part of the aisle, and on its gable are three 
sitting figures as pinnacles, one of wliich represents a mitred bishop, but the 
others are so mutilated as to be undistinguishable. The font is octagonal, 
and richly ornamented with panels filled with figures representing the 
Apostles and Evangelists, and eight female saints. In 1860, the church un- 
derwent a partial restoration at a cost of <£318, raised by subscription. The 
perpetual curacy, certified at 20s., and now valued at ^150, with Pockthorpe 
annexed, was augmented from 1740 to 1765, with 5O6OO of Queen Anne's 
Bounty. The Dean and Chapter are patrons, Rev. Thomas Clark, M.A., 
incumbent, and N. Stewardson, clerh. For many years, till 1843, the curacies 
of St. James and St. Paul were united. 

St. John's Maddeemaeket is an ancient but large and handsome 
perpendicular church of flint and stone, consisting of a nave, two aisles, two 
porches, six bells, and a fine tower under which is an arched road, and on 
the top are four figures at the angles. The lead was removed and the roof 
covered with slate in 1835. In the interior is a fine-toned seraphine, and 
many ancient sepulchral inscriptions, with nine brasses, and several mural 
monuments. The fine decorated east window is of five Hghts with flowing 
tracery, and seems to be built into the chancel arch, for although a street 
passes immediately beneath, it is probable that there was formerly an arch 
across it to carry the chancel, as in the adjoining church of St. Gregory. 
The north porch has a richly-groined vault, and its outer doorway is deeply 
recessed. The roofs of the chapel of All Saints at the east end of the north 
aisle, and of St. Mary the Virgin in the south aisle, are boarded under, and 
painted with angels holding books and scrolls, with sentences from the Te 
Deum, the Angehcal Salutation, &c., and diapered with the monograms 
I.H.S. in a crown of thorns, and MR. crowned. This church has just been 
restored at a cost of ^61200. Lady Margaret, Duchess of Norfolk (second 
wife of the Duke who was beheaded in Elizabeth's reign), died at the 
Duke's Palace in this parish in 1563, and was interred with great pomp on 
the north side of the chou', v.'here a mural monument was raised to her 
memory by Lord John Howard, of Waldon, in 1791. The benefice is a 
discharged rectory, valued in K.B. at £,1. 10s. 2d., and now at £110. It 
was augmented from 1714 to 1814, with 5^1800 of royal bounty. It is in 
the patronage of New College, Oxford, to which it was granted by Hen. VI. 

St. John Sepulchere is a large church, at the south end of Ber street, 
dedicated to St. John the Baptist and the Holy Sepulchre, and founded in 
the Confessor's reign. It consists of a nave, chancel, a sort of transept 
chapel on each side, and a lofty tower with five bells and a clock. It is of 
perpendicular architecture. The font is octagonal, and is ornamented with 
angels, hons,]&c. The east window is of three lights, filled with stained glass, 
the centre light having a figure of St. John Baptist. It is in memory of the 
Rev. Saml. Stone, M.A., incumbent of this parish, who died in 1848. Here 
is a fine mural monument of the Watts family. The rood-stau* turret still 
remains, and on the south side of the chancel is a fine consecration cross. 
The living is a. perpetual curacy, certified at .£9. Is., and now valued at ^'144, 
It was augmented from 1737 to 1812 mth ^61600 of royal bounty. The Dean 
and Chapter are patrons, the Rev, Thos. Calvert, MA,, incumbent, Robert 
Butler, clerh, and Wm. Rumsby, sexton. Five tenements, let for £6. 6s. a 
year, were left by Thos. Doughty in 1621, for augmenting the minister's in- 
come, and paying lOs. yearly to the clerk, who has also a yearly rent-charge 
of 21s., left by an unknown donor. The church of St. Bartholomeiv, in Ber 
street, was desecrated in 1549, when its bells and ornaments were carried to 
St. John Sepulchere. A portion of this church was standing in 1814, but 
converted into an outhouse. 



HISTOBY OP NORWICH. 209 

St. John's Timberhtll, at the north end of Ber street, (or Burgh street, 
as it was anciently called, because it led to the burgh or castle,) was founded 
soon after the Priory of Norwich, to which it was apj)ropriated ; and it was 
dedicated to St. John the Baptist. It has a naye, chancel, south porch with 
parvise, and two aisles with chapels at their east ends ; that on the north, a 
part of which is now used for the vestry, was called our Lady's Chapel. The 
tower, which was square, and contained five bells, on the largest of which 
was the inscription, "■Per mejideles invocantur ad preces" suddenly fell 
down on Aug. 26th, 1784, and considerably damaged the west end of the 
church. Its foundations still remain, but the bells were sold to pay for the 
repairs, and a wooden cupola with a single small bell, was substituted on 
the west gable. There is a hagioscope, or squint, on the south side of the 
chancel, and near it is a small decorated piscina. The font is cu'cular and 
Norman, The whole building is in a very dilapidated state, and needs a 
thorough restoration. The jJ^^'p^tual curacy was augmented from 1738 to 
1813 with XIOOO of royal bounty, and valued m 1831 at £75. The Dean 
and Chapter are j;airo/z5, the Rev. Samuel Titlow, M.A., has been the m- 
cwnhent since 1831, and Thomas Dann is the clerh. The " sacramental 
lecture" is preached in this church in the afternoon of the Fridays preceding 
the first Sundays in Feb., June, and Oct. (See p. 202.) The "Parish 
House and Yard," given by John Forster, in 1542, are let for ^13 a year. 

St. Julian's Church, in King street, is a very small and ancient church, 
founded before the Conquest ; and comprises nave, chancel, north porch, and 
tower. It is principally of the Norman period, but the tower, which is 
round, is by some believed to be Saxon, and most of the windows are deco- 
rated and perx^endicular insertions. The tower has a deeply recessed Nor- 
man arch, slightly pointed, and having shafts with caps and bases. It has 
also a small Norman loop window in the thickness of the wall, splayed both 
inside and out. The south doorway is a very fine specimen of Norman ar- 
chitecture, and was restored in 1845, when the chancel was rebuilt and the 
church thoroughly restored at a cost of £'500. The east window was at 
the same time fiUed with stained glass given by Mr. Baxter and friends, 
representing our Saviour seated and surrounded by the emblems of the evan- 
gehsts. The font is perpendicular, cup-shaped and panelled. In the church- 
yard was a hermitage or anchorage for a female recluse, demolished at the 
dissolution. The rectory, certified at ^£19. 3s. Id., has long been consolidated 
with All Saints, as has been seen at ]). 203 and the cure of the desecrated 
church of St. Edward, in Conisford street, was um'ted with it in 1269. The 
Rev. C. F. Sculthorpe, M.A., is patron, the Rev. J. R. Jackson, M.A., rector, 
and James Manthorpe, clerJe. 

St. Lawrence's Church, in St. Benedict's street, was founded in the 
Confessor's reign, on the site of an ancient quay for landing fish, but the 
original church was taken down in 1460, and the present one completed 
about 12 years after. It is of the late perpendicular period, and consists of 
nave, chancel, aisles, north and south porches, clerestory, and a fine tower, 
112 feet high, containing six beUs. There is no chancel arch, but the arches 
of the nave differ from those in the chancel. The tower arch is blocked up, 
and a gallery is in front of it. The rood-stair turret still remains, and at 
the right-hand side of the priest's door, on the south side of the chancel, is 
the old holy water stoup. The roof is of open timber, and the spandrils are 
pierced with elegant open w^ork. The font is perpendicular, and its cover 
is of the time of Laud. The south porch has a good panelled door. In 
the spandrils of an arched door, on the western side, are two ancient can--- 
ings, one representing the cruel martyrdom of St. Lawrence, (broiling on a 
gridiron,) and the other a number of Danish soldiers shooting arrows 
into the body of King Edmund, whose head is seen lying in a thicket, as 
described in the legend. The windows ai'e large and handsome, and 
were formerly decorated with painted glass, all of which was demoHshed by 



210 HISTORY OF NORWICH, 

the Puritans, in 1643. Here are several good brasses, one of GaKridus 
Langley, prior of St, Faith's, rexDresenting a priest in his surplice, but 
the canopy has been destroyed. Two others, to the memory of John 
Asgar and Thos. Childes, bear the respective dates 1436 and 1452. The 
curfew is still rung at this church at eight o'clock every evening. The 
rectory was in two medieties, divided between the abbey and the rector, and 
the yearly payment of a last of herrings was reserved to the former, but the 
medieties were joined about the reign of WiUiam II. It is valued hi K.B. 
at ^64. 13s. 9d., and was augmented with ^400 of Queen Anne's Bounty in 
1764 and '92, and with a parliamentary grant of ,£1000 in 1813. Its present 
annual value is ^682. The Lord Chancellor is patron, Rev. Edw. Augustus 
Hillyard, B.A., rector, Wm. Griggs, clerh, and Saml. Drake, sexton. The 
Church Estate, on which a factory has been built by one of the lessees, is 
let for ,£22 a year. It was given by the Rev. John Bobet and Robert 
Theckstone, in 1535 and 1549. St. Lawrences Well was a pubhc spring in 
the reign of Edwai'd I., and in 1576 was granted to Robert Gibson, on con- 
dition that he should bring the water in a leaden pipe into the public street, 
and there erect a pump at his own expense. 

St. Margaret's Church, Westwick street, has a square tower, with a 
spacious nave, chancel, and south aisle, which were covered with blue slate 
in 1830, when four of the five bells were sold to assist in defraying the 
expense. It is a plain building of the perpendicular period. The rood- 
stair turret remains on tlie north side of the church, and on the south side 
of the altar is a small pedestal, on which the bell rung at mass formerly 
stood. There is a fine old parish chest in the vestry. The rectory, valued 
in K.B, at £5. 4s. 9d., and now at £80, was augmented from 1789 to 1814 
with £1000 of royal bounty. The Bishop is patron, Rev. John Wm. Cobb, 
rector, and James Widdowes, sexton. 

St. Martin's-at-Oak, in Coslany street, has a square tower with three 
bells, nave, chancel, and south aisle, the latter being an addition made by 
Alderman Wilkin, who died in 1491. It derived the latter part of its 
name from a large oak, formerly standing in the churchyard, with the image 
of St. Mary in it. This was much visited in the reign of superstition, and 
many legacies were given towards repairing, dressing, and painting it. 
Another oak was planted on the sgme spot in 1656, but that now growing 
in the churchyard was planted about eight years ago. There are a few mon- 
uments and brasses in the church ; and on one of the former are effigies of 
Jeremiah Ravans and his wife, in alabaster. She died in 1711, and he in 
1727. The st>uth porch is now used as a vestry, and the outer doorway is 
built up. The building is of flint and stone. It is of perpendicular archi- 
tecture, and contains some good slender piers. In 1852 the chancel was 
rebuilt, and a new organ was placed in the church, and in 1862 plain open 
benches were substituted for the pews in the chancel, at a cost of £40. The 
benefice is o. perpetual curacy, certified at 20s., and now valued at £102. It 
was augmented with £200, given by WiUiam NockeUs in 1722, and £1000 
of royal bounty, obtained from 1723 to 1824. The Dean and Chapter are 
imtrons, Rev. Chas. Caldwell, B.A., incunibent, and Thomas Kerridge, clerTt. 
The Topers' pubhc house, now let for £9 a year, was given many years ago, 
by Jonas Bungay, for the repahs of the church. 

St. Martin's-at-Palace stands opposite the entrance to the Bishop's 
Palace. It has a nave with aisles, chancel with aisles, clerestory, and a 
tower with five bells. It was founded before the Conquest, but tlie upper 
portion of the tower is modern. It is of plain perpendicular architectui-e, 
and contauis a good panelled octagon font, with eight shafts to the stem, and 
panels between them. The two eastern angles of the chancel have very 
decided long- and- short work, but it appears to be old material worked uj) 
again. The north aisle of the chancel contains a fine altar tomb against 
the east wall, to the memory of Elizabeth Caltrop. It staiids befteatJi a 



PARISH CHURCHES. 211 

three-liglit window of stained glass, inserted by Lord Caltliorpe. There is 
another stained window on the north side of the same chapel. At the east 
end of the south aisle is a stained window to the memory of the Rev. Thos. 
Beckwith, M.A., incumbent of this i^arish fi-om 1781 to 1807, and Jane, his 
wife, erected by their childi*en in 1861. The east window of the chancel is 
also filled with stained glass, representing the adoration of the Magi, the 
Crucifixion, the Resurrection, the Annunciation, Bearing the Cross, and 
canying the Sacred Body to the Sepulchre. The building was thoroughly 
restored and reseated a few years ago, and in 1863 a new organ was placed 
in it at a cost of i'90. In 1300, a boy's singing school was kept here; and 
in 1500, John Blomefield gave a robe of worsted, lined with blue silk, for 
the use of the " Boy Bisliop" The living is 2i, perpetual curacy, valued at 
^70, and augmented from 1743 to 1813 with £'1800 of royal bounty. The 
Dean and Chapter are patrons, and the Rev. Saml. Bache Hanis, M.A., 
incumbent. The " Parish House" is let for iSlO. 8s. a year. 

St. Mary's Coslany is a fine cruciform perpendicular church, with a 
tall round tower of flint, containing six bells. There are no aisles. The 
south porch has a good groined vault and a richly moulded doorway, with 
a parvise or chamber above. The chancel has a panelled ceiling with 
rich perforated work. The pulpit is ancient, and has tracery in the upper 
part of the panels with the Imen pattern below, and a perforated iron 
j)rojection for the book-rest. The font is octagonal, and has painted shields 
of arms in its upper panels. The rood-stair turret is at the intersection of 
the north transept and chancel. At the west end of the nave is an old 
parish chest, and in the south transept is a square-headed foliated piscina. 
There are several ancient stalls remaining, and in the north wall of the 
chancel is an EUzabethan tomb of stone, dated 1578, and having incised 
figures of Martin Vankermbeck, M.D., and his wife. The perpetual curacy 
was augmented from 1733 to 1821 -with £-2-200 of royal bounty, and is valued 
at £121. The Marquis of Townshend is jiatron, Rev. Chas. Morse, LL.B., 
incumbent, Thomas Hayden, clerk, and James Barker, sexton. 

St. Mart's-in-the-Marsh stood in the cathedral preciucts, but wag 
desecrated in 1653, and the only vestige of it remaining is the font in St. 
Luke's Chapel in the Cathedral, which, though much mutilated, has been 
very handsome, and had the seven sacraments and the crucifixion carved 
upon it. The parishioners now use the Bishop's chapel, as noticed at p. 198. 

St. Michael's Coslany, commonly called St. Miles, is a spacious and 
handsome perpendicular church, with a lofty square tower and eight musical 
bells. The nave was rebuilt by John and Stephen Stallon, who were she- 
riffs in 1511 and '12. The south aisle was begun by Gregory Clerk, and 
was finished by Ms son, who was mayor in 1514. At the east end of the 
latter is a chapel founded by Robert Thorp, in the reign of Henry VIL, 
dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and encrusted externally with black flinta 
and freestone, forming a pecuhar sort of tracery, the appearance of which 
has been compared to that of certain old cabinets inlaid with ivory. Two 
of the windows contaui some ancient xDainted glass, but the heads of the 
figures were taken off to gratify the Puritans in the reign of Cromwell. 
The interior of the church is handsomely decorated. The altar piece, by 
Heins, represents the ResuiTection and the four Evangehsts, and the floor 
in fit'ont is paved with black and white marble, brought from the domestic 
chapel at Oxnead, and presented by Mr. Wm. Tuck. Here are a few 
ancient brasses and several modern mui'al monuments. The rectory. 
valued in K.B. at £13. 6s. 8d., and now at £117, was augmented in 1738 
with £200 bequeathed by the Rev. E. Brooke ; in 1818, with £200 given 
by the late rector; and from 1738 to 1818, with £1000 of royal bounty. 
Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, has the patronage of the living, 
which is usually given to the oldest bachelor of that college. The Rev. 
Richard Rigg, M.A., who is also rector of St. Clement's, is the incumbent. 

o2 



212 HISTORY OF NORWICH. 

St. Michael's-at-Plea, on the north side of Qneen street, was so named 
from the Archdeacon of Norwich holding in it his pleas or courts. It is a 
cruciform church with a low flint tower and a modern bell turret with two 
bells. Its transepts formerly were chapels dedicated to St. John the Bap- 
tist and the Virgin Mary. It coiitains several old paintings of the cruci- 
fixion, resurrection, &c., on the panels. About two years ago the tower 
was restored at a cost of ^250, The rectory, valued in K.B. at M. 10s., 
and in 1831 at ^£85, was augmented with ^600 of Queen Anne's Bounty, 
from 1774 to 1791, and with a parliamentary grant of ^1000 in 1816. The 
lords of the manors of Sprowston and Horsford (Sii' T. B. Lennard and J. 
Morse, Esq.,) are patrons alternately. The Rev. Charles Morse, LL.B., 
who is also incumbent of St. Mary Coslany, is the rector, and R. Wade, clerh. 

St. Michael's-at-Thorn, in Ber street, has still a large thorn growing 
in its chui'chyard. It is a smaU church, chiefly perpendicular, and has a 
tower built in 1436, containing three bells. The south doorway is 
Norman, and the door has the original ii'onwork, but the porch is perpen- 
dicular. The building has been recently restored and a new organ erected, 
at a cost of ^gSOO. The perpetual curacy, valued at ^88, was augmented 
from 1744 to 1812, with ^£2000 of Queen Anne's Bounty and parliamentary 
grants. The Marquis of Lothian is patron, and the Rev. Cyprian T. Rust, 
incmnbent. The church of 8t. Martin in Balliva stood anciently of a trian- 
gular piece of ground near the principal entrance to the barbican of the castle, 
but was demolished in 1562, and its parish united to that of St. Michael. 

St. Paul's Church, in the square called St. Paul's ]3lain, is an ancient 
dilapidated building, with a small round tower, the upper jDart of which was 
octagonal, but was rebuilt about 1819, of white brick with stone coping. 
It has some decorated windows, but is cliiefly perpendicular. There is a 
north aisle, and at its east end is a parclose, the two screens of different 
patterns, but both perpendicular. The perpetual curacy was certified at 
only <£2, but was augmented from 1745 to 1749, with .£200 of Queen Anne's 
Bounty, and is now worth ^£150. The Dean and Chapter are patrons, and 
the Rev. Bell Cooke, incumbent. 

St. Peter Hungate Church, is on Elm Hill, at the west end of Princess 
street, which was formerly Hungate, or Hound's-gate, from the hounds 
anciently kept there for the use of the bishop, or perhaps from " Hun," a 
hill. The original church was demohshed in 1458, wdien tlie present one 
was commenced (and finished in 1460} by John Paston and Margaret, his 
wife. It is of black flint, in the form of a cross ; having a nave, chancel 
transepts, and square to'wer with two bells. On a buttress near the north 
door is represented the old tnmk of an oak without any leaves, to signify 
the decayed church ; and from the root springs a branch with acorns upon 
it, to denote the new church raised where the old one had stood. The east 
window of the chancel is filled with ancient stained glass, and contains an 
effigy of Thomas Andrew, who was rector in 1457, with an orate under him. 
He is clothed in a blue vestment and is kneehng in prayer. In another 
part of this window a priest is represented administering extreme unction. 
In the south transe^^t is a piscina and niche, and in the north an ambry. 
The roof of the nave is ornamented with figures of angels, &c. In 1861, 
the lath and plaster ceiling which had so long hidden the roof of the chan- 
cel and disfigiu'ed the noble chancel arch, was entirely removed and the 
church was much improved at considerable expense. Among the church 
plate are a very curious wrought standing-cup and cover, inscribed, " Ex 
dono TliomcB Lane et Maria iixoris ejus ;" a large paten with the inscription 
" Deo et ecclesi(s Sancti Petri de Hungate, 1675 ;" two flagons ; an ofleriug 
dish ; and a valuable modern cup, cover, and stand, given by Mr. Thomas 
Goss, who died in 1779. The porch was built by Nicholas Ingham, mercer, 
who was buried in it in 1497. One of the bells bears the legend, " In 
honore Sancti Marie Virginis." The rectory, valued in K.B. at ^3. Is. S^d., 



I 



PARISH CHURCHES. 213 

and now at ^£03, was augmented from 1743 to 1810, with ^£600 of royal 
bounty. The Lord Chancellor is patron, and tlie Rev. Saml. Titlow, M.A., 
has been rector since 1839. The Well by the Elm, on Elm hill, was made a 
common pump in 1G39, and is repafred at the expense of the parish. 

St. Peter Mancroft, (Magna CroftaJ near the Market place, is a large 
and handsome cruciform church of freestone mixed with flint, begun in 
1430 and finished in 1455, on the site of the old one, which was founded by 
Earl Ralph Waiet. It is a good example of the pei-pendicular style, and is 
considered the finest parish church in the city, measuring 212 feet in length 
and 70 feet in breadth, and having a noble tower 98 feet high, covered 
with paneUing, and containing an excellent peal of twelve beUs, a clock, and 
chimes. The bells weigh 183 cwt. 2 qrs. 14 lbs., and were exchanged for 
the old peal of ten, in 1775, at a cost of more than ^800 raised by pubHc 
subscription. The tenor weighs 41 cwt. 41b., and the ringers are in great 
celebrity. The nave and aisles are 90 feet long, and the chancel 60. The 
clustered pillars supporting the roof, witli the arches suiTaounting them, are 
lofty and slender, and the windows are large and numerous, so that the 
whole has a light and roomy appearance. The west door is deeply recessed, 
with rich sculpture in shallow hollow mouldings. There is a good window 
above it. Under the tower is a sort of lai-ge porch, with fine side arches 
and a groined vault, over which is a gallery open to the church by a lofty 
tower arch, but now hidden by the organ. The north porches have rich 
groined vaults, with paneUing and tracery, and over the piincipal one is a 
parvise. The roof of the nave is of fine open timber work, with a sort of 
wooden vault over each windov/ like a stone roof. The celestory has seven- 
teen fine windows on each side, with short transoms in the heads, and good 
tracery. The vaulting shafts ai'e brought down to the bottom of the celes- 
tory -windows, and have niches imder them. There is no chancel arch, the 
only division being the steps. On each side of the nave is a chapel or 
smaU transept. The font stands under a very remarkable pei*pendicular 
canopy supported by piUai-s'and foi-ming a baptistry on a raised platform, 
with room to walk round the font. The original veshy behind the altar 
under the east window, has two doors, one on each side of the communion 
table. The corner turrets at the east end are very curious, and have sin- 
gular open canopies. They are approached by stah's fr-om the vestry. The 
organ, erected in 1707, is large and finely toned. The crimson furniture of 
the altar is elegant, and the plate exceedingly grand, especially a superb 
standing cup and cover, given by Sfr Peter Gleane, Knight, in 1633, and 
embellished ^^ith a scriptural account of Abigail bringing presents to David, 
&c. In the north aisle is a picture rei)resenting the delivery of Peter from 
prison, which was painted by Catton, a native artist, and presented to the 
church by Aid. Stai-hng, in 1768. The east window is filled with beautiful 
stained glass, mostly ancient, and in the vestry are several old books, 
among which is a beautiful manuscript bible, written on velliun, in 1340, 
and a more ancient manuscript of the Epistles of St. Paul, with a comment, 
beautifully illuminated. Here are also several old paintings of St. HUda, 
St. Barbara, St. Paul, and the Resiu'rection ; and a portrait of the celebrated 
Sfr Thos. Browne. At the west end of the north aisle is a piece of tapestry 
dated 1573, representmg the Ascension, but the colours are much faded. 
In the vestry is a very curious old coloured carvmg in alabaster of nine 
female saints, among wliich is St. Margai-et holding down a dragon. A 
similar carving representing male saints is preserved in St. Stephen's 
church. Here is a fine brass to the memory of Sir Peter Reade, dated 1518 ; 
and many ancient and modern monuments, but some of the former have 
lost their inscriptions, and one or two mentioned by Weever are no longer 
to be found. The church was restored, the pews replaced by open oak 
benches, and a new pulpit, reading-desk, and altar-rail, handsomely and 
appropriately carved, were purchased in 1851. During the alterations a 



214 HISTORY OF NORWICH. 

vault four or five feet deep was discovered under the stalls of the cliou*. 
The outer wall of this vault supported the screen dividing the choir from 
the nave and aisles, and contained a range of about a dozen earthen jars, 
j)laced on their sides, with their mouths open to the vault. The use of 
these singular jars has never been satisfactorily settled, but similarly placed 
jars have been found in St. Peter-per-Mountergate Church, at Fountains 
Abbey, and elsewhere. The benefice is o. perpetual curacy, certified at .£10, 
and now valued at £,^7. It was augmented in 1746 with £200 given by 
the Rev. J. Francis ; with £100 of royal bounty from 1742 to 1810 ; and 
with £400 subscribed by the minister and parishioners in 1818. The ad- 
vowson was formerly attached to the college of St. Mary-in-the-Fields, but 
afterwards passed into private hands, and in 1581 was conveyed to feoff'ees, 
in trust for the parishioners, who purchased it and are still the patrons. 
The Rev. Chas. Turner, M.A., is the incumbent, and the Rev. John Fletcher 
Burrell, curate, Jas. Bishop, clerJc, and George Potter, sexton. The reader 
has £4 a year out of a house in Brigg's lane. The " sacramental lecture" 
is preached in this church on the Fridays preceding the first Sundays in 
March, July, and November. (See page 202}. 

St. Peter-per-Mountergate is a large perpendicular church in ICing 
street, deriving the latter part of its name from a gate formerly placed near 
the churchyard, at the foot of the Castle mount ; or, as some say, from Par- 
mentergate, parchment-dealers' street. The old church was a rectory in the 
patronage of Roger Bigod, and was by him given to the prior and convent of 
Norwich, who, assisted by several benefactions, rebuilt it in 1486. It is 
covered with lead, and has a nave, chancel, south porch with parvise, and 
a square embattled tower with five bells and a clock. In the chancel 
were 24 stalls, which belonged to a college of secular priests, at the north- 
east corner of the churchyard. There are no aisles, but the side windows 
are large and lofty. The octagonal rood-stau' turret and some portions 
of an ancient screen have been preserved. There is a good niche out- 
side the vestry, which is under the east window. The building has recently 
been restored and fitted with open benches, those in the nave being stained 
deal, and in the chancel, oak. The total cost was about £700. There are 
16 ancient stalls in the chancel; and beneath them, a vault vdth earthern 
jars similar to that in St. Peter Mancroft, was discovered some years ago. 
A large enclosed tomb, on the south side of the altar rails, was erected in 
1028, and has upon it recumbent efiigies of R. Berney, Esq., and his wife, 
with their family arms and emblematical figures of Faith, Hope, and Cha- 
rity. In the nave is interred the famous Thomas Codd, who was mayor in 
Kett's rebellion, and was a great benefactor to the city. The heads of his 
will are annually read here, on the Sunday before St. Thomas' day. The 
benefice is now a perpetual curacy, valued at £78, and augmented with £200 
of Queen Anne's Bounty in 1700, and with a parliamentary grant of £800 
in 1812. The Dean and Chapter are patrons, the Rev. John Durst, incum- 
bent, and John Swash, clerii and sexton. The church of 8t. John the 
Evangelist, which stood at the corner of Rose lane, was taken down about 
1300, except a small part left for an anchorage; and its parish was annexed 
to St. Peter-per-Mountergate, as was also that of St. Michael, in Conisford, 
in 1300, when that church was taken down to make room for the new church 
of the Austin Friars. St. Vedast's, or St. Faith's church, which stood on 
the east side of Cooke's Hospital, and was founded in the Confessor's reign, 
was taken down about 1540, having also been consolidated with St. Peter- 
per-Mountergate. 

St. Peter's Southgate, near the south end of King street, is an ancient 
church, with^ a nave, chancel, north chapel, south porch, and a square flint 
tower in which arc three bells. Tlie windows are chiefly square headed, 
and the arcliitccture is of the late perpendicular period and very poor. 
Tliere is a good cross on the east gable and some fragments of painted glass 



PARISH CHURCHES. 215 

in the windows. Part of an old screen remains in front of the north chax^el.' 
Here is a brass of a priest, and in the chancel are a piscina and sediHa, the 
latter being merely a plain stone bench. The rectory, valued in K.B. at 
^2. 17s. 8^d., and now at £61, was appropriated to the abbey of St. Bennet's- 
at-Holme ; and the Bishop of Norwich, as titular abbot of that dissolved 
convent, still has the patronage. It was augmented, ft-om 1737 to 1792, with 
£1000 of Queen Anne's Bounty, and is now in the incumbency of the Rev. 
Jas. Deacon, M.A. Rt. Smith is clerh, and R. J. Merry, sexton. St. Olaves 
Chapel, which was parochial before the Conquest, but was demolished before 
1345, stood near the waterside, a little to the north-east of this church. 

St. Saviour's Church, near Stump Cross and Magdalen street, is asmaU 
perpendicular structure, dedicated to the Transfiguration of our Saviour, and 
has a square embattled tower vnth. a clock and two bells. It has some mo- 
dern monuments, and was appropriated in Bishop Oxford's time to the 
almoner of the cathedral convent. The south porch is now used as a bap- 
tistry. The font has an octagonal panelled basin, and is supported by four 
shafts resting on lions' heads and carried through ogee canopies with pin- 
nacles between. The j^erjyetual curacy was certified at £S, and is now valued 
at £103. It was augmented, fi'om 1729 to 1813, with £1800 of royal bounty. 
The Dean and Chapter ave patrons, the Rev. William Harris Cooke, M.A., 
incumbent, and Robert Brown, sexton. 

St. Simon and St. Jude's Church, at Elm hill, adjoining Wensum street, 
has a nave, a chancel, and a low flint and stone tower with five beUs. It is of 
perpendicular arcliitecture, and contains a few old brasses and several mo- 
numents of the Pettus family, upon one of which Hes, in complete armour, 
the figure of Sir J. Pettus, the first of the family who was knighted. The 
tower arch is very fine, but it is blocked by the organ and gallery. In the 
vestry is a good panelled door, with the figure of St. Simon in one spandril 
and three fishes entwined in the other. The holy water stoup remains in- 
side the south doorway, and in the chancel are two consecration crosses. 
This church is of great antiquity, and was held by the bishops before the 
removal of the See to Norwich. The rectory, valued in K.B. at £3. 10s., 
and now at £65, was augmented fi.'om 1718 to 1799, with £2000 of Queen 
Anne's Bounty. The Bishop is imtron, the Rev. John Fras. Osborne, rector, 
and Jph. Metcalf, clerTi. A house, left for the repairs of the church by Sir 
J. Pettus, in 1613, is let on lease for £3, but is worth £18 a year. 

St. Stephen's Church, at the west end of Rampant Horse street, is a 
large and handsome edifice of late perpendicular architecture, with a nave 
and clerestory, two aisles, a chancel, two small chapels, and a square tower. 
The nave is divided from the aisles by fluted columns with pointed arches. 
The windows are large and numerous, and that at the east end is fiUed with 
stained glass, representing the whole history of the Blessed Vu'gin's life, and 
dated 1610. This church was founded before the Conquest, but has been 
all rebuilt at different periods— the chancel about 1520, and the nave in 1550. 
The roof is a fine specimen of open timber work, and is richly carved. The 
tower stands on the north side of the church, and beneath it is the porch. 
Near the south door is an old altar stone on which the crosses are stiU 
visible. The organ was purchased in 1814. The church contains some 
ancient stalls, nine old brasses, and many neat mural monuments of the last 
and present centui'ies. It was thoroughly restored and reseated in 1859, at 
a cost of £1500, and a new carved pulpit and reading-desk were erected at 
the same time. In the vestry is a manuscript description of the church, 
written by Benjamin Mackerell, author of a history of Lynn ; also an ala- 
baster carving, similar in execution to that in the neighbouring church of 
St. Peter, except that these are all male saints. A curious draughtsman of 
bone, foimd in the churchyard a few yeai's ago, and supposed to be of Danish 
workmanship, is in the collection of R. Fitch, Esq., F.G.S. The benefice 
is a discharged vicarage, valued in K.B. at £9, and now at £212. It was 



216 HISTORY OF NORWICH. 

augmented, from I7l5 to 1812, with ^1000 of royal bounty. Tlie Dean and 
Chapter are patrons, the Rev. Chas. Baldwin, vicar, Eev. J. S. Owen, B.A., 
curate, and Wm. Browne, derJc. The yearly rent of ^£10 from land and 
huHdings, left hy John Atkins, in 1558, is carried to the churchwardens' 
account, as also are the rents of ^11 from buildings left by Francis Scales, 
in 1633, and ^21 from a house, &c,, left by Richard Brown, in 1616. 

St. Swithin's Church, between St. Benedict's street and Lower West- 
wick street, is a small building with a square tower and three bells. The 
roof of the nave is supported on one side by modern square pillars and 
Tudor arches, and on the other by octagonal fluted columns and pointed 
arches of the perpendicular period. The side windows of the aisles are all 
decorated, the clerestory and roof late perpendicular. The east window is 
modern, but contains two small portions of ancient stained glass bearing 
symboHcal representations of the Sacred Trinity and the Blessed Sacrament. 
The tower arch is lofty, but plain. The rood-stair turret still exists, and 
part of the old screen still remains with figures of dogs for poppies. It is 
about four feet high, and does not appear to have ever been higher. On a 
panel belonging to this screen, but now loose and kept in the vestry, is a 
portrait of Edward the Confessor, of the time of Henry VII., which was 
found in 1834, nailed under one of the seats, where it is supposed to have 
been placed for security during the civil wars, or perhaps at the Reforma- 
tion. The altar-piece is a pamting of Moses and Aaron, and the plate is 
valuable. On the font are carved emblems of the Trinity, with the arms of 
East Anglia. There ai-e several brasses, and some stalls with misereres 
remaining. The rectory, valued in K.B. at £6. 3s. 4d., and now at ^105, 
was augmented in 1755, with i^200 given by Earl Harcourt, and from 1744 
to 1816, with ^£1600 of royal bounty. The Bishop is patron, the Rev. 
Robert Cory Cavell, incumhent, and Howlett Wilhmont, clerh. 

The nine Ohurclies in the Hamlets of the city are as follow: — Earlham 
Church, dedicated to St. Mary, is a small building, on the east bank of the 
Yare, about two miles W. of the Market place. It is chiefly of very poor 
and plain decorated architecture ; but the south porch which has a parvise, 
the west window, the rood screen, and the font, are of the perpendicular 
period. There is a small chapel on the north side, and at the west end is a 
low square embattled tower containing three bells and finely mantled with 
ivy. The chancel has arches recessed in the walls, and contains a decorated 
piscina with cinquefoil head. In the churchj^ard is the lid of a stone coffin, 
ornamented with a floriated cross. The east window is filled with stained 
glass ; and the altar-piece is of carved oak, and was given by John Gurney 
and his wife, in 3843. Here are mural tablets of the BacoDi, Lubbock, 
and other families. The church was restored, at a cost of .^250, in 1861. 
The perpetual curacy, valued in K.B. at ^65. 7s. 8^d., and now at £'120, with 
Bowthorpe vicarage annexed, is in the patronage of F. Bacon Frank, Esq., 
and incumbency of the Rev. John Hervey Payne, B.A. Wm. Green is the 
clerli. Eaton Church, dedicated to St. Andrew the Apostle, stands also on 
the Yare, about two miles west of St. Stephen's gate, and is a long ancient 
fabric, covered with thatch and having an embattled tower v/itli three bells. 
It was originally a Norman structure, but appears to have been rebuilt in 
the early English period, and to have been considerably altered in the latter 
part of the 15th century. The chancel contains a trefoil-headed piscina, and 
a plain recess for the sedilia. Near the north door is a holy water stoup, 
and there are still some vestiges of the doorway of the staii'case which led 
to the rood loft. About two years ago the church was thoroughly restored 
at a cost of about j£400, when a number of beautiful mural paintings were 
discovered, many of them in. a very perfect state of preservation and others 
much injured. Amongst them were well executed figures of St. John the 
Baptist, St. John the J^ivangelist, St. Helen, and St. Jane do A'^alois, and a 
highly interesting representation of tha martyrdom of Thomas a Becket, 



SUBUEBAN CHURCHES. 217 

containing six figures, that of Becket lia\T^ng been purposely defaced, in ' 
compliance with the edict of Henry VIII. for destroying all memorials "> 
of the martyr. These paintings have been again hidden by the colour- S 
ing of the walls. The living is a vicarage, not in charge, valued at ^87, (^ 
and augmented in 1732, with ^200 given by the Earl of Thanet, and 5j 
^£200 of Queen Anne's Bounty. The Dean and Chapter are patrons, 
the Rev. Geo. Day, M.A., incumbent, and Samuel Perfect, clerk. Heigham 
Church, dedicated to St. Bartholomew, stands on an eminence above 
the Wensum, about a mile W. by N. of the Market place, and is a 
small perpendicular structure, with a nave, south aisle, north porch, chan- 
cel, and a square tower in which are three bells. It has a mural mo- 
nument to the memory of the i)ious Bishop Hall, who was buried here in 
1656 ; and others to members of the Seaman, Hangar, Haylett, Smith, Un- 
thank. Parr, and Robins famihes. The hving is a rectory, valued in K.B. 
at £Q. 133. 4d., and now at ^£211. The Bishop is -patron, the Rev. George 
Chas. Hoste, M. A., incumbent, and the Revs. Wm. Bishop, H. Hethering- 
ton, and W. T. Morse, 'B.A., curates. Trinity Church, in Heigham parish, 
was commenced in August, 1859, and consecrated in August, 1861, to supply 
the great want of church accommodation which had long been felt in the 
southern part of this rapidly increasing suburb of the city. It stands in 
Essex street, near Unthank's road, and is a large and handsome building of 
the decorated style, and consists of nave, transepts, and apsidal chancel, 
with a tower containing one bell and surmounted by a slated spu-e rising to 
the height of 120 feet. The extreme length of the church is 135 feet, and 
there are 1120 sittmgs, of wliich more than 500 are free. The total cost, 
including ^£'700 paid for the site, was about ^£7000. Its ecclesiastical duties 
are performed by the rector of Heigham and his curates. The parish or 
hamlet of Heigham increased its population from 854, in 1801, to 13,894, in 
1861 ; and until the completion of Trinity Church, a building in Union 
place, originally a Baptist Chapel, was used as a chapel of ease, having been 
purchased and altered for that pui'pose in 1838, at a cost of £'624 ; but it is 
now converted into a school. Hellesden Chdech, about two miles W.N.W. 
of the Market place, stands in Taverham Hundred, though part of the 
churchyard is within the county of the city. It is dedicated to St. Maiy, 
and is a small building of mixed decorated and perpendicular architecture, 
with nave, chancel, north aisle, south porch with parvise, and an octagonal 
turret containing one beU, and surmounted by a small wooden spu'e. The 
porch was restored about four years ago, by W. Delane, Esq., at a cost of 
i'50, and the windows were restored and filled with stained glass at the ex- 
pense of J. H. Gui-ney, Esq., M.P. The north aisle contains some fine 
brasses of the latter part of the 14tli century. The font is antique, and 
there is a double piscina remaining, and also a low side window. The rec- 
tory, valued in K.B. at ^£12, and now at ^£700, is consolidated with Drayton, 
in the gift of the Bishop, and incumbency of the Rev. Hinds Howell, B.A. 
The Rev. D. S. Govett, M.A., is the curate, and George Ricebrook, cleric. 
Lakenham Church, about Ih mile S. of the Market place, stands on an 
abrupt acclivity above the river Yare, and is a smaU structure, dedicated to 
St. John the Baptist and All Saints. It has a tov/er with three bells. There 
are a trefoil-headed piscina and a square ambry in the chancel ; and the 
font, wliich is panelled and of the perpendicular period, has the emblems of 
the evangehsts upon it. The benefice is a vicarage, united to Trowse-Newton, 
and with it valued at £'361, in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter, and 
incumbency of the Rev. Alfred PownaU, M.A.; Matthev/ Ollett is the clerh. 
St. Mark's Church, in Lakenham, was consecrated Sept. 24tli, 1844, and 
is a commodious structure of debased perpendicular architecture, consisting 
of nave, (without aisles,) and an embattled tower with turrets, pinnacles, and 
three bells. It has about 900 sittings, most of which are free, and was 
finished at the cost of more than 4-4000, all raised by subscription, except 



218 HISTORY OF NOHWICa. 

^500 given by tlie Incorporated Society for Building and Enlarging 
Churches. It is situated in the now populous suburb called New Laken- 
ham, in a burial ground of two acres. The interior has commodious gal- 
leries, and is neatly fitted up. The font, communion plate, table, &c., were 
presented by several ladies, and the books for divine service by the JDean. 
The east window is of five lights, and contains representations in stained 
glass of the four Evangelists, and St. Peter and St. Andrew. The perpetual 
curacy, valued at ^£150, is in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter, and 
incumbency of the Rev. Nicholas Thomas Garry, M.A. The Rev. John 
Leach, B.A., is Hiq curate, and Wm. Howe Garnham, clerh. The parish or 
hamlet of Lakenham increased its population from 428 in 1801, to 4866 in 
1861, and is now divided into two ecclesiastical districts. Christ Church, 
in Neiv Catton, is a chapel of ease in the improving jiarish of St. Clement, 
which increased its population from 853 souls in 1801, to 3961 in 1861. It 
is a neat structure of flint and brick, in the early English style, and com- 
prises nave, chancel, transepts, and a bell turret at the west end. It was 
finished in Nov. 1841, at a cost of about ^2500, and has sittings for .£600 
hearers. It was built by subscription, and by the same means ,£800 have 
been invested for its endowment, and £200 for its reparation. The rector of 
St. Clement's is patrofi of the peri^etual curacy, valued at i'150, and now in 
the incumhency of the Rev. Robt. Wade, B.A. St. Matthew'sXhurch, in 
Thorpe hamlet, on the south-east side of the city, was built in 1852, at a cost 
of .£2300, for an ecclesiastical district comprising that part of Thorpe parish 
within the city liberties and now containing about 2500 inhabitants. It is 
a neat structure of Norman architecture, consisting of nave, transepts, and 
apsidal chancel. The five windows of the latter are filled with stained 
glass. The rector of Thorpe is patron of the perpetual curacy, valued at 
£130, which is now held by the Rev. George Harris Cooke, M.A., who has 
a handsome parsonage house, erected in 1863, at a cost of £1400, in the 
Tudor style. 

The Dutch Cpiurch, as has been seen at page 175, occupies the choir of 
St. Andrew's Hall, and was formerly the choir of the conventual church 
of the Black Friars. It is 100 feet long and 32 feet wide, without aisles or 
clerestory, and was originally lighted by ten noble five-light perpendicular 
windows, and an east window of seven lights of late decorated pattern, of 
enormous size and beautiful tracery. Some of these windows have been 
recently restored, and the roof, which is modern, retains a few i^ieces of old 
carving, some of which appear to represent St. Matthew, but all the old 
fittings are long smce gone. For some time this church was used as a 
chapel for the corporation, who leased it to the Dutch for 200 years, in 
1713 ; but in 1805 the lease was re-granted to the corporation for the use 
of the poor in the Workhouse, reserving to the Dutch congregation the 
right of burying their dead in the church, and of preaching one sermon 
yearly in their own language, and by their o^^ti minister, who comes from 
London for that purpose. It is endowed with £50 a year, of which £30 is 
paid to the Dutch minister, and the rest is divided among the few poor 
descendants of Dutch families now residing in the city. A religious body, 
calling itself the " Free Christian Church," and which originated in a se- 
cession from the Unitarian congregation, has, with the concurrence of the 
corporation, occupied the building since 1800, when the new Workliouse 
having been completed, it was no longer required for the use of the paupers. 
About £630 were expended in refitting and adapting it to its present pur- 
pose, and the Rev. Joseph Crompton is the minister. 

The French Church, in Queen street, formerly belonged to the parish 
of St. Mary the Less, which being united to that of St. George soon after 
the Reformation, this church was granted by the Dean and Chapter, for 
600 years to the city, at 4d. yearly rent. It was afterwards used as a hall 
for the sale of yarn ; country dealers being prohibited from selling any 



" FRENCH CHURCH. ^19 

where else in the city. In 1637, it was granted by the corporation on lease 
to the French or Walloon congi'e^ation, who afterwards obtained a grant of 
it in fee. Dutch and Flemish artizans were very numerous in Norwich as 
early as the reign of Edward III., (see page 149,) and they were greatly in- 
creased in the reign of Ehzabeth, by the arrival of the Walloons and other 
Protestant refugees who had fled fi-'om the rehgious persecution of the Duke 
of Alva, in the Netlierlands. They for some years assembled for rehgious 
worship under the Dutch pastor, but when most of the old Dutch famihes 
had died off, and their language had become neglected by the trading world 
for the French, the greater part of the foreigners then in. the city formed 
tliemselves into a French or Walloon Congregation, which became extinct 
about 40 years ago, the descendants of the settlers having gradually given 
up the use of the French or Walloon language, and joined other rehgious 
denominations. The chiu'ch is now let to the Swedenborgians, on condition 
that they keep it in repau-. It is a small and venerable edifice, with a 
square tower, nave, and chancel, but so closely encompassed with houses 
and other buildings, that very Utile of the exterior can be seen. Charities 
for the French or Walloon Congregation, left by Fliz. Taverneirs, m 1686; 
Tliomas Blondell, in 1730; Elisha Philipe, in 1671; and James Damee, in 
1717, produce about ^"150 per annum, arising from freehold and copyhold 
estates and two annuities. These charities, with unapphed income amount- 
ing to about ^eiOOO, (held by the Martineau family,) were made the subject 
of a suit hi Chancery in 1832, and the defendants submitted themselves to 
the decision of the court for the future apphcation of the charities, the 
Walloon congregation being extinct. Piu'suant to a decree of the Court, 
fifteen trustees were appointed, and by them the yearly income arising fi-om 
these charities is apphed towards the support of the French Protestant 
Hospital in London, except £'50 per annum for apprenticing five poor boys 
in Norwich. 

The Roman Catholics have two churches in Norwich. St. John's, in. 
the pai'ish of St. John Maddermarket, is one of the oldest Roman Catholic 
Churches in England. It is a plain brick building, erected in 1794, pre- 
vious to which the congregation had attended the chapel in the Duke's 
palace. It is commodiously fitted up, but is shortly to be replaced by a 
larger and handsomer church, which is to be built upon its site. The roof 
is supported by two rows of slender pillars, and over the altar is a painting 
of the Crucifixion. The Very Rev. John Dalton, Canon of Northampton, 
is the priest, and is well known as a Spanish and German scholar, and as 
the author and translator of several rehgious and historical works. The 
Church of the Holy Apostles in Willow lane, is a handsome building of white 
brick, exhibiting both the Corinthian and Ionic orders of architecture, and 
was erected in 1828 by the college of Jesuits, at Stonyhui'st, to be used instead 
of the old chapel in St. Swithin's lane, on the site of which a school was 
built in 1859, at a cost of £1300. The church is 90 feet long and 40 feet 
wide, and is elegantly fitted up ; the decorations of the interior having great 
richness in then' general effect, and pecuhar quainlness in their details. 
Over the altar, which stands in an apsis, is a large fresco painting on a 
gold gTound, representing the coronation of the Virgin in Heaven, which 
fi-om its gorgeous coloiu'ing and beautiful execution is well worth inspec- 
tion. The enthe sanctuary is painted in gold and colours, with rich scroll 
work and diapering ; and the ceihng of the church, the pilasters, window 
splays, and organ pipes are similarly decorated. The altar is a copy of that 
in the church of St. Ambrose, at IMilan, which dates from the year 850. It 
is richly coloured and gilt, and in the centre of the front is a painting of our 
Saviour, surrounded by the emblems of the apostles and evangehsts. All 
the windows are filled with beautiful stained glass, containing full lengtli 
figures of the Good Shepherd, the Vh-gin Mary, and the Apostles. The 
Rev. Wm. Mitchell and the Hon. and Rev. Jph. MaxweU are the priests. 



220 HISTOEY OF NORWICH. 

The Unitarians occupy the Octagon Chapel, in Colegate street, erected 
in 1756, on the site of the old Presbyterian Meeting House, built in 1687, 
at a cost of ^174. 15s. 8d. As its name imports, it is of an octagon plan, 
and has a portico supported by four Ionic columns. Its beautiful dome 
roof is sustained by eight fluted Corinthian columns, and the interior is 
admirably arranged. The Rev. Jas. D. H. Smyth is the present minister 
For endowment, see Chapman's Charity and the Presbyterian School. 

The Independents, or Congregationalists, assembled in Norwich before 
the year 1640, under the ministry of the Rev. W. Bridges, M.A., in a brew- 
house in St. Edmund's parish. In 1693, they completed the erection of the 
Old Meeting House, in Colegate street, St. Clement's. This is a large and 
handsome square building of brick, with Corinthian pilasters and other 
ornaments, and was built on land leased from the corporation, who held it 
for the benefit of the Girls' Hospital ; but the freehold was purchased in 
1862 for ^523, raised by subscription. The Rev. John Hallett is the 
minister. For its endowment, see Chapman's Charity and Balderstone's 
School. The Independents have another Chaxiel, in Princes street, of wliite 
brick, erected in 1819, at a cost of ^4500, including ,£1000 paid for the 
land. It will seat 1000 hearers, and is now under the j)astoral care of 
the Rev. John Alexander. Adjoining it is a large Sunday school, with 
numerous class-rooms, built in 1800, at a cost of £1300. The Ghajyel-in-the- 
Ficlds is a substantial and elegant building, which was erected by the Con- 
gregationalists at the cost of about £6500 between the years 1858 and 1802, 
and will seat about 900 persons. It is in the Norman style, and is sur- 
mounted by two turrets, each eighty feet high. In the front is a Catherine- 
wheel window of a more foreign type than is usually found in England, 
beneath which is a small arcade, and under it an open porch, with three 
Portland- stone arches. The interior is divided into nave and aisles by iron 
columns, which are carried quite up to the roof. The nave has a semi- 
circular roof, and is finished at the pulpit end by an apse, lighted by four 
stained glass windows and containing an organ. At right angles to the 
nave are five bays, arched and ceiled, in which arc galleries. Behind the 
chapel are lofty school and class rooms, vestries, &c., of similar architecture. 
The Rev. Philip Colborne is the minister. 

The Baptists have eight chapels in Norwich, but several of them are 
small. The General Baptists first congregated in 1680, in a hired building ; 
but they subsequently purchased part of the White Friary in Cowgate 
street, St. James', on the site of wliich the present chapel was erected in 
1812. It has an endowment of about £75 per annum, bequeathed in 1778, 
by Mr. Grantham KilHngworth, and is now under the ministry of the Rev. 
Hy. Wilkinson. The Particular, or Calvinistic Baptists, assembled about 
the same period as the General Baptists, and in 1744, purchased a Chapel 
in Southgate, St. Mary's, which was rebuilt in a more handsome manner in 
1811, and enlarged in 1838, at a cost of £1000. It has a very beautiful 
vaulted roof. The Rev. George Gould is the minister. They have a larger 
Chapel in Colegate street, St. Clement's, built in 1814, at a cost of £5000, 
for the congregation which had previously assembled in Peacock street, and 
is now under the pastoral care of the Rev. Thomas Archibald Wheeler. 
The Chapel in Pottergate street, of which the Rev. Henry Trevor is the 
minister, was built in 1790, as also was Providence Chapel, in Pitt street, 
which was enlarged in 1818. The Chapel on Timber Hill, was a warehouse, 
but was purchased by the Particular Baptists and converted into a chapel, 
at a cost of £1150, in 1832, and the Rev. John Corbitt is its minister. 
Ebenezer Chipel, Surrey road, was built in 1854, and is a large building, 
with sittings for 1500 persons. The Rev. Robert Govett is the minister. 
The Friends' Meeting House, in Oildengate, is also rented by the Par- 
ticular Baptists. 

Methodists.— The Revs. John and Charles Wesley paid their first visit 



DISSENTINa CHAPELS. 221 

to tliis city in 1764, but for several years tlieir votaries were few in number, 
and were treated for some time with much ridicule and persecution, so that 
they had no settled place of worship here till 1769, when they built a small 
chapel in Cherry lane, where the late Dr. Adam Clark was stationed in 1783, 
and began to display that mighty genius wliich afterwards " burst forth with 
so much splendour on the world." The Wesleyan Methodists have only one 
chapel in Norwich. It is in Lady lane, and was built m 1824. Here are 
two chapels belonging to the " United Methodist Free Church" That in 
Calvert street was erected in 1810 by the Wesleyan Methodists, and is a 
large brick edifice, witli about 1000 sittings and two hoirses for the ministers. 
The other is in Crooke's place, and was opened in 1839. The Primitive Me- 
thodists have chapels on St. Catherine's plain, Cowgate, and Dereham road. 

Lady Huntingdon's Connexion occupy the TABEENACLE,near St. Mar- 
tin's-at-Palace, built by the Calvanistic Methodists under Mr. Wheatley in 
the year 1772, at a cost of ,£1752, previous to which their temporary 
chapel on Timber hill had been unroofed and its windows broken by a 
misguided mob. In 1775, the Tabernacle was sold to the Countess of Hun- 
tingdon, who visited Norwich in the following year and vested the building 
in trust with four clergymen and three laymen, to appoint ministers whose 
preaching and sentiments are according to the articles and homihes of the 
Church of England. It has 1000 sittings. The present minister is the 
Rev. Hugh Adolphus Campbell, M.A. There is also a small Hunting donian 
Chaxiel on the Dereham road, erected in 1859 by the Rev. John Joseph Jas. 
Kempster, its minister. 

The Society of Friends forms a numerous and respectable body in this 
city, where it originated in the days of its indefatigable founder, George Fox, 
who was here in 1655, 1659, and 1667. During his first visit to Norfolk, 
he was taken up, with liis companion, by hue and cry, and carried before a 
justice on a charge of having broken into a dweUing-house on a certain 
night. The plot appears to have been poorly contrived, as it turned out that 
both had lodged during the night in question at Captain Lawrence's, at 
WrampUngham. " The magistrate regretted that they had not been found 
guilty, and they sharply rebuked hun on the impropriety of his conduct. The 
constable is said to have been much disappointed at their acquittal, for he 
had looked with longing eyes on the two horses wliich they had rode, ex- 
pecting to have them for his trouble, if the ' culprits ' had been committed 
to the castle. Capt. Lawrence, on becoming a Quaker, had abandoned the 
profession of arms." The history of this society is full of the many hardships 
its members endured in imprisonment, fines, &c., until the time of the Re- 
volution, when a milder system prevailed. In 1683 John Gurney and 14 
others were committed to Norwich gaol for refusing to take the oath of alle- 
giance, which was again tendered to them in 1685, but they still refused it, 
and were consequently re- committed to prison, nor does it appear when 
they were released. Their objection was merely because it was an oath, 
and not to its contents, for all the friends voluntarily signed a declaration of 
allegiance in an address to the members of the city. This persecuted John 
Gurney was the direct ancestor and the founder of the fortune of the pre- 
sent numerous family of the Gurneys, to whom Norwich owes so much of 
its prosperity, and many of whom are now fiUing the most distinguished 
stations in the commercial world. His son was a man of eloquence, a 
preacher inthe society, and a great friend of Sir Robert Walpole, who wished 
him to exchange the Friends' gallery for the House of Commons. The 
Friends have two Meeting Houses in Norwich, one in Goat lane, erected 
in 1676, but rebuilt in 1826; and the other in Gilden croft, built in 1680, on 
an acre of land purchased in 1670 for <£72. The latter building is a large 
square fabric, with a roof supported by two lofty oak pillars cut out of 
single trees, and is said to be the oldest chapel in Norwich. It is now let to 
a congregation of Particular Baptists, but the burial-ground is still used by 



222 HISTORY OP NORWICH. 

the Friends. Tlie present Meeting House, in Goat lane, is a handsome 
building of white brick with stone dressings, and has a Doric portico with four 
columns upon an elevated landing of four steps. The general proportion^ 
of tlie building are in unison with the Grecian style, but divested of many 
of its ornaments. The centre part of the building, fitted ux3 for divine ser- 
vice, is about 60 feet by 40, and receives most of its light from a large dome 
lantern. Behmd this is another building 40 feet by 25, used by the female 
Friends at their quarterly meetings. A sum of money was some time ago 
left by one John JacTison, for the purpose of apprenticing children of mem- 
bers of the Society of Friends ; and in accordance with a new scheme esta- 
blished in 1863, when the dividends are not all required for that object, the 
surplus is devoted to educational x^urposes. 

The SwEDENBORGiANs occupy the French Church, as already noticed at 
page 219 ; and the Jews, who are but few in number, have a Synagogue in 
Synagogue lane, St. Faith's lane, built in 1849, at a cost of .£1600. It is a 
brick building with stone dressings and a small doric portico. The Mop,^ 
MONiTES have a small chapel in St. Paul's opening, built in 1848 ; and the 
members of the Catholic Apostolic Church meet in a room in Clement's 
court, Redwell street. 

The Rosary Cemetery, in Thorpe hamlet, near Foundry bridge, was 
established in 1819, by the late Rev. Thomas Drummond, who being aware 
that many of the burial grounds attached to the Dissenters' places of wor- 
ship in Norwich, are held on leases under the Corporation, and considering 
that most of the churchyards had, from long appropriation, become objec- 
tionable, had for some time urged the necessity of a general cemetery on 
freehold land, so securely vested in trust that it could not at any subsequent 
period be perverted to other uses. The Rosary occupies about eight acres 
of land, commanding a fine view of the city aad surrounding country, and 
vested in trustees on behalf of the holders of shares. It is divided into sec- 
tions, separated by plantings of trees and shrubs, and contains a small 
chapel or oratory. It is not consecrated, and ministers of any denomination 
may officiate at funerals, there being no regular chaplain. Mr. Britiffe 
Edmund Dew is the superintendent, and resides at the Cemetery. 

The Norwich Cemetery at Heigham, on the west side of the city, com- 
prises about 35 acres of land, prettily laid out and planted. Itwas formed, at a 
cost of £7000, by the Burial Board established by the Corporation in 1856 for 
that purpose. Part of the ground is consecrated for members of the Church 
of England, and the remainder is for the use of Dissenters, except small por- 
tions set apart for Roman Catholics and Jews. There are entrances from 
the Earlham and Dereham roads. The two principal chapels are of early 
English architecture, with porches and apsidal terminations. The one which 
is consecrated has also a bell. There is a small chapel for the use of the 
Jews ; and one for Roman Catholics will probably be built. The Rev. J. 
J. J. Kempster is chaplain of the uiiconsecrated portion, and tlie clergy 
attend the funerals of their respective parishioners. Cornelius Taylor and 
Jas. Wm. Self are the superintendents of the Cemetery. The average num- 
ber of interments is 1400 per annum. Arthur Preston, Esq., is the registrar, 
and also clerJc to the Burial Board, which consists of fourteen members of 
the Corporation. 

The Religious Societies of Norwich are as numerous and as liberally 
supported as those of most other places. The Norfolk and Norwich Aux- 
iliary Bible Society, under the presidency of the Bishop, was established in 
1811, since which it has distributed 323,000 bibles, and remitted to the 
Parent Society more than £120,000. The Norfolk and Norwich Church 
Missionary Association was instituted in 1813, for the propagation of Chris- 
tianity throughout the world, especially in Africa and the East, and since 
that period it has raised more than £70,000. The Norwich Diocesan Com- 
DaittQQ of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge has its depositary 



BELJGIOUS SOCIETIES. g28 

^t Mr. S, Waller's, St. Andrew's hill. During the year 1862, 947 bibles, 
458 testaments, 2045 prayer-books, 9078 tracts, and 6544 other books were 
gold at reduced prices, and a donation of ^£50 was remitted in tlie same year 
to the Parent Society. The Prayer Booh and Homihj Society has its depo- 
sitary at Mr. Buckenham's, Tombland. The Nor\\icli Diocesan Association 
of the Incorporated Society for the Propagation of the Gosjiel in foreign 
parts, remits to that institution about ,£3000 a year, and here is also an As- 
sociation for Promoting Chiistianity among the Jews, founded in 1821. The 
Norwich Diocesan Church Building Association was established in 1836, 
and since that time has contributed more than ^£5000 towards the erection 
of new, or the rebuilding and enlargement of old churches. The Norfolk 
Book Hawking Association was established in 1855, for the sale throughout 
the county, by the agency of licensed hawkers, of bibles, prayer-books, tracts, 
and books and prints of a religious and instructive character. By its aid 
more than 21,000 such pubhcations are annually disposed of, chiefly amongst 
fai-m labourers and servants. Its depot is in the Upper close, and the 
Bishop is president, and the Rev. H. Howes and Mr. T. W. Hansell 
central secretaries. Here are also many other societies for tlie spread of 
rehgion, and especially for the support and dissemination of the principles 
of the Church of England. The City Mission Society, established in 1836, 
is supported by all rehgious denominations, and employs six or seven mis- 
sionaiies of both sexes, who visit the houses of tlie poor for the purpose of 
imparting religious instruction, in addition to which they are often the 
means of bringing seasonable relief to distressed famiUes in times of sickness 
and poverty. In connection with it is a Female Refuge, in Church path, 
New Lakenham, which has been the means of restoring many fallen j^oung 
women to respectable hfe ; and of which Miss Mills is matron. 

The first Sunday School in this city was established in St. Stephen's 
parish, in 1785, and since then others have been attached to most of the 
churches and chapels, and ample provision has been made for the education 
of those poor children who can attend, for instruction during six daj's in the 
week, as will be seen in the following summary view of the endowed and other 
Chakity Schools, which are attended by upwards of 5000 day scholars, 
many of whom are clothed as well as educated, and some of them likewise 
maintained, but most of them pay Id. or 2d. per week towards the expense 
of books, slates, &c. In addition to these, here are upwards of 8000 Sun- 
day scholars. 

The Free Geammar School, which now occupies the Charnel house, 
near the west end of the Cathedral, was founded by Bishop Salmon, in 
1325, and annexed to a small collegiate chantry. At the dissolution of this 
college, the corporation, by then* Hospital charter, granted in the first of 
Edward YI., were required to find a master and usher, and to remunerate 
them out of the ample revenues assigned to them by that charter. This 
trust was transferred in 1836 from the corporation to the " Charity Trus- 
tees." The school was originally kept in the fratory of tlie Black Friars, 
jbut after the Reformation it was removed to the Charnel-house, where the 
apartments of the chaplains were converted into a dwelhng for the master, 
and the chapel appropriated for the school-room. The master's salaiy was 
only ,£10 a year, but was advanced by the corporation in 1562, to <£20 ; in 
1602, to .626. 13s. 4d. ; in 1610, to £40 ; in 1636, to £50 ; in 1833, to ^80 ; 
and by the new scheme recently obtained, to its present amount. In 1568 
and '9, five scholarships were founded by Archbishop Parker, at Corjms 
Christi College, Cambridge, three of them for boys born at Noi'Tidch, and 
educated there or at Aylsham, and two of them for natives of Norwich, 
Wymondliam, or Aylsham, and students of their respective schools. Two 
of the scholars sent from Norwich were entitled to be preferred to the 
" Norwich Fellowships" in the same college. By the statutes framed May 
16th, 1860, there is now in lieu of these scholarships, &c., an e^^bition 



224 HISTORY OF NORWICH. 

of £24: a year, and a set of rooms in Corpus Christi College, to which the 
scholars of Norwich, Wymondham, and Aylsham respectively have the pre- 
ference. John Gains, M.D., who died in 1573, ordered his executors to 
purchase lands of tlie yearly value of ^6100, and settle them on Gonville and 
Caius College, Cambridge, where he appropriated his fellowships and 
scholarships to his own countrymen of the diocese and city of Norwich. 
In 1618, Wm. Branthivait founded four scholarships oi M per annum each, 
at Emmanuel College, Cambridge. In 1626, John Oostlin, M.D., gave ^5 
per annum each at Gonville and Caius College, to four scholars born in the 
city of Norwich, In 1635, Matthew Stockby founded, in the same college, 
three scholarships of ^5 each, and a fellowship of £16 ; two out of the three 
to be occupied by persons born in Norwich, but all three to be ap- 
pointed by the Bishop of Ely. The fellow has also 20s. and the 
scholars 10s. each per annum, for the rents of their chambers. In 1688, 
John Cosin, Bishop of Durham, left to the same college £28 a year for 
three scholarships, to be held by boys born in Norwich, and taught at the 
grammar school. In 1659, Edw- Coleman charged his estate at Wymondham 
with a yearly rent charge of ,£20, towards the maintenance of four scholars 
from the schools of Norwich and Wymondham, in either University. It was 
formerly the custom in this school for the head boy to deliver a Latin oration 
from the school porch to the mayor and corporation on the guild-day, after 
which the orator was conveyed in the mayor's carriage to the guild dinner. 
In 1858, a new scheme for the management of the school was settled by 
the Court of Chancery, and the following 21 trustees were appointed, viz: — 
The Hon. and Very Rev. the Dean of Norwich, Sir Wm. Foster, Bart., Sir 
Samuel Bignold, Knt., Rev. Charles Turner, Rev. G. C. Hoste, Rev. J. 
Crompton, and E. Freestone, C. Evans, J. Barwell, D. Dalrymple, F. J. 
Blake, R. Chamberlin, R. W. Blake, J. G. Johnson, J. Longe, W. Birkbeck, 
E. Willett, O. Springfield, J. O. Taylor, J. J. Colman, and G. Middleton, 
Esqrs. By this scheme the admission of free boys was ordered to be dis- 
continued, and the school was divided into two dex^artments, one to be 
called the Grammar or Upper School, and the other to occupy new and 
separate buildings erected for the i)urpose, and to be called the Commercial 
or Lower School. All boys of the age of eight, who can read and write 
and are free from any disease, are admissible to either school on appli- 
cation to the governors, and paying in advance £2. 12s. 6d. per quarter at 
the Grammar, and 13s. per quarter at the Commercial school. There is 
an annual exhibition of <£50 a year, tenable for three years, given by the 
Governors to the boy who passes the best examination in June, and is 
proceeding to the University. The Monk Prize, founded by the late 
Dr. Maltby, Bishop of Durham, for the promotion of classical scholarshix), 
amounts to about ^'12 per annum, being the interest of .£350 invested in 
the 3 per cents. There are also many book prizes given to the amount of 
nearly iJlOO a year. The head master of the Grammar School is the Rev. 
Augustus Jessopp, M.A., who has a house free of rent, rates, and taxes, a 
salary of .£200 a year, and a capitation fee of four guineas per annum for 
each boy in the school. The sub-maste?', the Rev. C.P. Lanchester, M.A., 
has a yearly stipend of ^6100, and a capitation fee of 28s. for each boy ; and 
the mathematical master, theRev.F.E.M.MacCarthy,M.A., has .£80 a year, 
and 28s. for each boy. All three I'eceive boarders in their houses. There 
are several assistant masters, as well as German, French and drawing 
masters. There are generally about 110 pupils at the Grammar School. 
Among the eminent men educated here are recorded the names of Archbi- 
shops Parker and Tennison, of Canterbury ; Bishops Cosin and Maltby, of 
Durham ; Bishop Green, of Norwich ; Dr. Caius, Sir Edwd. Coke, Erasmus 
Earle, a celebrated lawyer; Wild, the orientalist; Rajah Sir Jas. Brooke, 
Stilhngfleet, the naturalist; Admiral Lord Nelson, Archdeacon Goddard, 
Headley, the poet ; Dr. Samuel Clarke, Dr. Edward Browne, and many 



NORWICH SCHOOLS. 225 

other worthies. A statue of Lord Nelson stands in the Upper close, in 
front of the Grammar School. 

The CoMMEEciAL School is on the west side of the cloister attached 
to St. Andrew's Hall, and was built in 1861-':2, at a cost of more than 
i62000. It is of coloured brick, with stone columns to the windows, doors, 
&c., in the Venetian Gothic style, and contains a fine schookoom, 112 feet 
long, with three class rooms beneath, and a house for the head master. 
Three sides of the cloister of the Black Friars serves as a corridor for the 
boys, the central space being a playground. Mr. T. R. Pinder is the head 
master, and there are three assistant masters, besides French and drawing 
masters. There are about 130 scholars. 

The Norwich Charity Schools, established in 1708, and supported by 
benefactions, annual subscriptions, and the weekly payment of Id. or 2d. by 
each of the children, are nine in number, and afford instruction on the Na- 
tional system to more than 700 boys and 400 girls. The Central or Model 
School for Boys, is in Piinces street, St. Peter Himgate ; and that for (^irZ^, 
in St. Andrew's Broad street. The other seven are the Mancroft School, 
attended by about 150 boys, and two in each of the parishes of St. Paid, St. 
Martin-at-Oah, and St. Julian, for boys and girls. Aimual subscribers of 
^1, and benefactors of ^10 and upwards, are trustees for the management 
of these schools, the expenditure of which in 1862 amounted to ^834, of 
which ^400 were derived from the payments of the scholars, and .£100 from 
the rent of an estate of 57a. 3e. 24p., at Walpole St. Peter, left by John 
Risehrow, in 1721, towards the endowment of Mancroft School, where most 
of the boys are provided with coats yearly by the trustees, and where the 
master receives ^615 a yeai*, left by John and Eliz. Addey, in 1729, for the 
instruction of four boys of Catton, and two of St. Peter Mancroft. Six or 
eight girls are instructed and clothed at one of tlie charity schools, at the 
cost of it'll a year from Revans Charity to the parish of St. Martin-at-Oak. 
In 1721, Susanna CooTte bequeathed to these schools one-third part of the 
dividends of £'375 four per cent, stock. In 1701, James Elmy left £400 
three per cent, stock, and du'ected the yearly dividends to be applied in ap- 
prenticing poor children from these schools. For the same purpose. John 
Moy left £1000 in 1770. In 1838, Edivard Manning left for the same pur- 
pose £4000 three per cent, stock. From the proceeds of these three charities, 
about 20 boys and 4 girls are apprenticed yearly with premiums of about 
£10 each. The Ptev. Canon Heaviside is treasurer to the trustees of the 
nine Charity Schools, wliich are in connection, as to discipline, with the 
following District Schools. 

The District School of St. Stephen's, established about 40 years ago, 
for the associated parishes of St. Stephen, St. John Timberhill, St. Michael- 
at- Thorn, and All Saints, now occupies a large and handsome building at 
the top of Surrey street, erected in 1840, and having three school-rooms for 
boys, girls, and young children, to the number of about 300. In St. Bene 
diet's street is a large District School for the parishes of St. Peter Man- 
croft, St. John Maddermarket, St. Giles, St. Gregory, St. Lawrence, and 
St. Margaret, attended by 150 boys and 120 giiis. The District SchooLS 
situated without St. Augustine's gates, were erected by Wni. Geary, Esq., 
and opened in January, 1838, chiefly for the benefit of the poor of the popu- 
lous neighbomiioods of St. Martin-at-Oak, New Catton, and St. Augustine. 
They form a neat brick biulding, in the later style of pointed architecture, 
comprising tkree rooms for boys, girls, and infants. There are also National 
Schools for St. John de Sepulchre, St. Giles, Pockthorpe, Trowse, St. Mar- 
tin's-at-Palace, St. Matthew's, St. Mai-k's, and Heigham. All these schools 
are supported by subscription, and small weekly payments from the scholars. 

The Norwich Diocesan National School Society, established in 1812, 
contributes about £250 per annum towards the support of schools in Nor- 
folk and Norwich, and supports an institution for training mistresses for the 

p 



226 HISTORY OF NORWICH. 

charge of scliools, at St. George's plain, of which the Rev. Wm. Cufaude 
Davie, M.A., is chajMin and secretary, Miss Bunbury, superintendent, and 
Miss Schofield, head governess. There are Infant Schools in many of the 
city parishes, supported by subscriptions and small weekly payments. Four 
poor boj^s of St. Stephen's iDarish are instructed and provided with bibles, 
for a yearly rent-charge of <i'3. 2s. 6d., left by John Mann, in 1693, out of a 
house in London. 

The Lancasterian School, in College court. Palace street, was esta- 
blished in 1811, and is supported chiefly by Dissenters, for the education of 
about 100 boys, who each pay 2d. per week. In Mariners' lane, King street, 
is another Lancasterian school, commenced in 1840, and having about 100 
scholars. In connection with the British and Foreign School Society, there 
are schools in St. Paul's alley, Heigham causeway, Coslany street, Pock- 
thoi*pe, Trowse, and New Lakenham ; and at Union jolace, is an Infant 
School, attended by about 130 children of both sexes. The Sunday Schools 
attached to the various Dissenting places of worship are attended by about 
6000 children, including those who attend also the day schools. 

Balderstone's School, in Old Meeting-house alley, Colegate street, was 
founded by Bartw. Balderstone, who, in 1761, left ^1000 to be appUed in 
the schoohng of 20 children of poor x^arents belonging to the congregation 
of Independents attending the Old Meeting-house, or', for want of such, the 
children of any other denomination. The master now teaches 22 free scho- 
lars, with otliers who pay small weeldy charges, in a large building erected 
by subscription as a Day and Sunday-school in 1842, and having two rooms 
for boys and ghls. 

The Presbyterian Charity Schools, in Calvert street, are connected 
with the congregation (now Unitarian) attending the Octagon Chapel. They 
comprise school-rooms for boys, ghis, and infants, built respectively in 
1861, 1844, and 1857, and are attended by about 300 children, who pay 2s. 
each per quarter. In 1709, Joanna Scott left .£600 (including i'200 given 
by Dorothy Mann), to seven trustees, to be laid out in land, and the 
rents thereof ai^phed in teaching 30 poor children to read, in supplying them 
with Bibles, &c., and instructing them in the Protestant religion. Nine 
other donors left ,£720 for the purpose of education, and their bequests seem 
to have merged in the same trustees, all members of the Presbyterian con- 
gregation, though the £100 left by Robert Cooke in 1703 should be employed 
in teaching children " agreeable to the doctrinal articles of the Church of 
England." The property now held in trust for the school produces a yearly 
income of £170, arising as follows, viz, : — £136 from about seven acres of 
land in Lakenham, purchased of the guardians of the poor for £1050 in 
1806 ; £25 from 5a. 1r. IOp. of land, in Lakenham, left by John Mackerell 
in 1724 ; £3. 15s. fi'om stock left by Susanna Cooke in 1720 ; and £5. 12s. lOd. 
from one moiety of £376. 9s. 5d. new three per cents., purchased with £400 
left by Mary Ann Yallop in 1823, one-half for the school, and the rest for 
the poor of the congregation. 

The Roman Catholic Schools are in St. John's Maddermarket and in 
Ten Bell lane. The former is a mixed school ; and the latter comprises 
rooms for boys, ghis, and infants, and is attended by about 120 children. It 
is a neat early English building, erected in 1852 atfa cost of £1300. 

The Independent School in Colegate street is attended by about 220 
boys, girls, and infants; and the Baptist School, in New Catton, has about 
94 scholars. 

The Boys' and Girls' Hospital Schools owe theu' origin to Thomas 
Anguish, who was mayor in 1611, and by his will, in 1617, bequeathed a 
house and estate in Fishgate street, St. Edmund's, to the corporation, for 
the use and endowment of a hospital, or convenient place for keeping, 
bringing up, and teaching young and very poor children born in the city. In 
1618, the house was fitted up for the intended purpose, some valuable dona- 



boys' and girls' hospitals. 227 

tions being received in that and the folbwing year. In 1621 it was refounded 
by a charter of the fourth of Charles I., under the title of " The Children's 
Hospital, of the foundation of King Charles, with power for the corporation 
to add, increase, or diminish the number of officers and children at their 
pleasure." In 1649, Robert Baron left ^'250 for the establishment of a Girls' 
Hospital ; and the corj)oration afterwards fitted up a house for that purpose 
in Golden Dog lane ; but this school was removed to part of the building 
used as the Boys' Hospital, in 1802. Both had previously been governed by 
the same statutes, and received numerous benefactions. They were vested ia 
trust with the Corporation of Norwich, till 1836, when they were transferred 
to the Charity Trustees, appointed pursuant to a provision of the Municipal 
Reform Act. The funds for the Boys' and Girls' departments are separate, 
and have arisen, the former from 22, and the latter from 14 benefactions, 
besides a numerous Hst of small gifts and legacies. The property belonging 
to the Boys' Hospital consists of .£5000 three percent, consols; and lands, 
buildings, &c., yielding a yearly rental of about ,£1000, and situated at Nor- 
wich, Bixley, Ciingleford, Barton, Alburgh, S wanton- Morley, East Dere- 
ham, Hellesden, Swardeston, Little Melton, Hethersett, Shipdham, and 
Bamham Broom. That belonging to the Gtrls' Hospital consists of about 
^£3500 invested in the funds ; also in lands, buildings, &c., let at rents amount- 
ing to about ,£600 per annum, and situated mostly in the city, and partly at 
Shottesham, Fomcett, Little Melton, Hethersett, and Bamham Broom. 
Part of its city property is the Or eat Garden, now built upon, and anciently 
forming the precincts of the Black Friary. The Octagon Chapel stands 
upon this land. None of the children have been boarded in the house 
during the last sixty yeai's, but the parents or friends of each boy receive 
£10, and those of each gui £8 per annum, in quarterly payments, out of 
which they have to pay the teachers (Mr. and Mrs. Gidney) about 8s. per 
quarter for the education of each scholar ; and also to pay the usueiI charges 
for books and stationery. The scholars are admitted between the ages of 
9 and 11, and the boys leave at 14 and the girls at 15. They are each pro- 
vided with a suit of blue clothing every Lady- day, at the expense of the 
charity. The boys wear red caps, and on leaving school they are apprenticed 
with fees of £10. Every girl who has been regularly at school is allowed 
£3 when she leaves, to be laid out in clothes to enable her to go into service. 
In 1623, John and Edmund Anguish and John Ward settled on the city the 
lazar house and grounds thereto belonging, at St. Stephen's gate, on con- 
dition that yearly, in the afternoon of Epiphany, a commemoration sermon 
should be preached in St. Edmund's church by a preacher to be chosen by 
the corporation, and that they should pay yearly 26s. 8d. ; viz., 6s. 8d. t-o 
the preacher, 3s. 4d. to the poor, and 16s. 8d. for division among the corpo- 
rate officers attending the sermon ; after which, a hst of the benefactors to 
the " Children's Hospital" is read. Important alterations are about to take 
place in these schools, a new building being now (1863) in course of erection 
at New Lakenham, in v/hich thu-ty girls will be boarded, lodged, and edu- 
cated, so as to be fitted for domestic service, or to become the wives of 
working men. The building is of brick, and comprises residences for the 
matron and schoolmisti'ess, dormitories, school-room, dining-hall, play-room, 
board-room, &c. It will cost about £2000, and that portion of the Old Hos- 
X>ital School in Fishgate sti'eet now used by the guis wiU be taken down, a 
more commodious school for 100 boys will be erected in its stead, and other 
improvements effected at a cost of about £700. The present number of boys 
is sixty-six. 

Nop.man's Charity School, formerly taught in a house hired by the 
master, but now in a neat Gothic building erected by the trustees in 1839, 
with a dwelling for the master, in Cowgate street, St. Paul's parish, arose 
firom the bequest of John Norman, Esq., of Catton, who, in 1720, left all 
his real estates to trustees for the education, maintenance, and apprenticing 

p 2 



228 HISTORY OP NORWICH. 

of the sons of tlie poor relations of himself and first wife, Ann Mace ; or, 
for want of such, the sons of any poor inhabitants of Ber street Ward, 
Conisford Ward, or Catton. For the first GO years after his decease he 
limited the number of scholars, so that by saving of income the endowment 
might be so augmented at the end of that period as to admit of the erection 
of a Hospital at Catton for the education and maintenance of 120 scholars. 
Until 1733, the trustees did not begin to accumulate ; and owing to mis- 
management during the succeeding fifty years, and the loss of £890 by one 
of the treasurers in 1777;, the funds of the charity have never been sufficient 
for the erection of a hospital at Catton. The real property bequeathed by 
the founder now produces a rental of ^6750, and consists of the Eaven 
public-house, and other houses, &c., in Norwich, and three farms at Little 
Witchingham, Catton, and Spixworth. The charity also derives ^681 per 
annum from the dividends of £1500 Old South Sea Annuities, and £1200 
three per cent. Consols, purchased with the savings of income. There are 
now 70 boys instructed as free scholars. About half of them are on the 
foundation, and £10 a year is paid to the parents of each for their main- 
tenance, deducting only for books and stationery. They are admitted 
between the ages of seven and ten years, and are required to prove their 
relationship to the founder or his first or second wife. All cliildren thus 
qualified are admitted on application to the trustees. The master is allowed 
a salary of £80 per annum. Each of the foundation scholars who continues 
in the school up to the age of 14, is bound out apprentice with a premium 
of £15. If he serves his apprenticeship out and there is no complaint 
against hun, he receives £10 on attaining the age of 21. Pursuant to the 
founder's will, £1. 2s. 6d. per annum is paid to the rector of St. Paul's for 
a commemoration sermon ; and a yearly sum of 10s. is paid by the trustees 
for distribution among the poor of Catton. The Bishop, Dean, Rev. Canon 
Heaviside, Sir Wm. Foster, Bart., Sir Samuel Bignold, Knt., and Charles 
Evans, J.H. Gurney, M.P., R. H. Harvey, and H. S. Patteson, Esqrs., are 
the trustees, and Joseph Benj. Brown is the schoolmaster. 

The Hospital and School tor the Indigent Blind, in Magdalen 
street, was founded in 1805 by Thomas Tawell, a bHnd gentleman, who 
presented the house and garden occupied by the institution, and which he 
had previously purchased for £150. Since its foundation, this excellent 
charity has been supported by benefactions, legacies, and annual contribu- 
tions, and has fuUy answered the most sanguine expectations of its pro- 
moters, both as an asylum for the aged and as a school for the young ; 
having enabled many of the latter, who would otherwise have passed their 
days in idleness and dependence, to rise superior to their forlorn and abject 
condition. Though it was at first restricted to the county of Norfolk, it is 
now open to the kingdom at large, under the management of a president, three 
vice-presidents, and a committee of subscribers. Here are generally about 
15 aged bhnd and 30 pupils. The former are admitted at the age of 55, and 
the latter at the age of 12 or upwards. The females are employed in 
knitting, netting, &c., and the males in the manufacture of baskets, rope- 
mats, sacks, rope, twine, &c. The pupils remain only tluree years, or may 
leave as soon as they have gained a sufficient knowledge of their trade. In 
1862, the receipts of the charity arising from benefactions, subscriptions, the 
sale of articles, &c., amounted to £834, of which upwards of £300 were 
derived from funded property. The Bishop is president ; Rev. J. Bailey, 
treasurer; Mr. John Gibson, secretary and superintendent ; Mrs. Gibson, 
matron; James Sadler and Wm. Mills, trade instructors ; Mr. Geo. Hastings^ 
musi&xteacher, and Miss Williams, schoolmistress. 

Charities. — The stream which flows from the Norwich fountain of 
charity for the religious and moral instruction of poor children, is not more 
ample than that which issues for the solace of age, poverty, and sickness^ 
There are, in various parts of the city, Almshouses founded for the residence 



NORWICH CHARITIES. 229 

of about 200 aged poor, most of whom have weekly stipends from the endow- 
ments. Here are also a large County Hospital for the relief of the sick 
and lame; an endowed Lunatic Asylum ; a Dispensary; an Eye Infirmary ; 
a Female Penitentiary ; a spacious Workhouse, with an Infirmary and 
Lunatic Asylum attached ; a Lying-in- Charity, and a variety of Benevolent 
Societies, supported chiefly by donations and annual contributions, and 
partly by posthumous charity, in which latter few places are richer than 
Norwich, as its yearly income from that source alone amounts to upwards 
of ^620, 000, about half of which was in trust with the Corporation, but is 
now vested with the Charity Trustees, appointed by the Lord Chancellor in 
1836. The total amount of charity dispensed in the city and its suburbs, 
amounts to upwards of ^£30,000 per annum, exclusive of the ^9oor's rates. The 
Corporation having been for so many ages trustees of hospitals and other 
charities in Norwich, some difficulty was experienced by the Parliamentary 
Commissioners, in their endeavours to distinguish the charity from the Cor- 
poration property. Then- enquiry into the city charities was finished in 1833, 
and from their voluminous reports our notices of them are chiefly abridged. 

The Charity Trustees, appointed for the management of the charities 
formerly in trust with the Corporation, are divided into two Hsts, viz., the 
Church List, which has the management of the Great Hospital, Cooke's 
Hospital, and the Free Grammar School; and the Oeneral List, which 
manages Doughty's Hospital, the Boys' and Ghls' Hospital Schools, &c. 
The Church List comprises Sir Wm. Foster, Bart., Sir Saml. Bignold, Kt., 
the Dean, the Rev. S. O. Attlay, and C. Evans, J. Barwell, E. Freestone, 
G. Seppings, J. Norgate, H. Bkkbeck, D. Dahymple, and J. H. Gur- 
ney, M.P., Esqrs. The General List comprises H. Bohngbroke, J. Kitson, 
E. Freestone, W. Stark, J. Barwell, J. Norgate, E. AViUett, R. Bullard, 
O. Springfield, Wm. WMe, H. S. Patteson, Hy. Browne, and R. J. H. 
Harvey, Esqrs. Thos. Brightwell, Jun., Esq., is Clerh to the Trustees. 

The Norfolk and Norwich Hospital, for the rehef of sick and lame 
poor, occupies an extensive brick building on the London road, a little 
without St. Stephen's gate, erected in 1771, at a cost of more than 5921,000, 
including about ^8000 expended in subsequent additions and improvements. 
The building is in the form of the letter H. and was considerably enlarged 
in 1802. It is fitted up in the most improved manner, and has spacious and 
well ventilated galleries extending through all the wai-ds. This institution, 
which ranks as one of the largest and most useful charities in the county, 
was commenced by the voluntary contributions of the benevolent, and has 
since received many valuable donations and legacies ; the liberal assistance 
of a numerous Kst of annual subscribers of two guineas and upwards ; and 
the profits (till 1823) of a yearly musical performance at the Cathedral, 
during the assize week. Since 1824, it has received more than ^68000 fi-om 
the profits of the triennial musical festival at St. Andrew's Hall. The 
expenditure of the hospital for the year 1862 amounted to ^4292, and its 
receipts to ^63200 ; but in some years it receives large amounts from legacies 
and benefactions, from which source it received ^61169 less in 1862 than in 
the previous year. The annual subscriptions amount to about ^61800, and 
the dividends of stock to ^730 per annum. The funded propertij now pos- 
sessed by the hospital consists of ^24,700, mostly three per cent, stock. 
The nimiber of patients admitted since the opening of the institution, 
amounted in 1802 to 52,219 in and 44,249 out. The nimiber remaining on 
the books in December, 1802, was 114 in and 1172 out patients ; and the 
total number admitted during the year was 2226, of whom 936 had been 
iw-patients. From its frequent occurrence, the operation for the stone is per- 
formed here in the greatest perfection ; the whole number cut for tliis dread- 
ful disease since the opening of the hospital, is about 950, of whom not more 
than 150 died. Three physicians and three surgeons and an assistant- 
surgeon of the city attend the hospital gratuitously, and its afi'airs are under 



230 HISTORY OF NORWICH. 

the control of a board of ma,nagement selected annually from tlie governors, 
who consist of persons who have contributed 30 guineas or upwards, at one 
time. The lAysicians and surgeons attend every Saturday, at 11 o'clock, 
to take in patients, and every Wednesday, at the same hour, to prescribe to 
the out-patients ; but sufferers by accidents (admitting of no delay) are re- 
ceived at all times. Formerly, the hospital contained only about eighty 
beds, but now it has 148 for the reception of patients. The prmcipal officers 
of the charity are the Earl of Leicester, jn-esident; the Bishop, vice-president; 
J. H. Gurney, Esq., M.P., treasurer; Drs. Banking, Copeman, and Eade, 
physicians; Messrs. Nichols, Firth, and Cadge, surgeons; Mr, Crosse, 
assistant-surgeon ; Mr. Charles Williams, Iwuse surgeon ; Mrs. Partridge, 
matron , Mr. R. W. Scraggs, house steward and secretary ; and Mr. W. L. 
Smith, dispenser. In 1843, Mr. John Dahyn^le presented to the hospital 
the valuable Museum collected by his father, who was one of the surgeons 
of this institution for nearly 15 years. A new building was erected in 1844 
for its reception, and since then it has by frequent presents become an ex- 
tensive and highly interesting pathological collection, which was greatly 
enhanced in 1854 by a gift from Mr. D. Dalrymple of the beautiful collec- 
tion of preparations of the eye made by his lamented brother John Dal- 
rymple, whose early death cut short a career which promised great bril- 
liancy, and in which he had afready gained the highest position as an 
oculist in England. 

The Dispensary, commenced in 1804, occupies a house in St. John's 
Madder market, purchased in 1856 for about ^600, and is supported by 
donations and yearly contributions, for the purpose of rendering medical and 
surgical aid to the sick and lame poor of the city and its hamlets, as out- 
patients, of whom about 1500 are relieved yearl}^, at a cost of about ,£260. 
Two physicians (Drs. Johnson and Eade) lend their assistance gratuitously. 
The surgeon and apothecary resides at the Dispensary, and such patients 
as are not able to attend, and live within the city boundary, are visited at 
their homes. 

The HoM(EOPATHic Hospital, on Orford hill, was established in 1849, 
and is supported by voluntary contributions. Its average weekly number 
of patients is 84. Dr. Hartman is the physician; Mr. S. Harvard, treasurer; 
Mr. 0. T. Ray, secretary ; and Messrs. Slade & Rapier, chemists. 

The Eye Infir^niary, or " the Norfolk and Norwich Infirmary for the 
cure of Diseases of the Eye" occupies a building in Pottergate street, pur- 
chased and altered in 1857 at a cost of .£1141. It was instituted in 1822, 
chiefly through the exertions of three medical gentlemen, vA\o submitted a 
report of the necessity for such an estabhshment in Norwich. Notwith- 
standing the great importance of this charity, its funds at present only allow 
accommodation for 14 in-patients, though it relieves annually about 500 out- 
j)atients at a cost of nearly £300. The Earl of Leicester is president, 
Dr. Copeman and Messrs. G. W. W. Firth and C. Goodwin are the medical 
officers ; John Goodwin, Esq., sec. ; and Mrs. Sarah Bennett, matron. 

The Jenny Lind Infirmary for Sick Children, in Pottergate street, 
was established May 30th, 1863, chiefly with the sum of £345. 15s. 5d,, part 
of the proceeds of two concerts given in 1849, by that queen of song, Jenny 
Lind (now Madame Goldschmidt) , who visited this institution in 1850, and 
was so much pleased with its management that she added another £50 to 
her former gifts, and her husband gave a similar sum. Many other dona- 
tions have been made to the funds, and there is a long list of annual sub- 
scribers. About 2000 out and 400 in patients have been admitted since the 
establishment of the Infirmary. The Bishop is patron ; the Mayor, presi- 
dent; J. G. Johnson, Esq., treasurer; H. Hansell, Esq., secretary; Dr. 
Copeman, phT/sician ; Dr. DalrymxDle, and Messrs. T. W. Crosse and W. H. 
Day, surgeons; and Miss Johnson, matron. 

The Dental Infirmary, in Rigby's Court, St. Giles' street, is supported 



CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS. 231 

by voluntary contributions, and was established about six years ago for the 
purpose of affording gratuitous aid to the poor of the city and county. 
J. B. and F. Gr. Bridgman, Esqrs., are the surgeon dentists; and W. K. 
Bridgman, Esq., lion, secretary. 

Bethel Hospital, -which occupies a commodious building in Bethel 
street, was erected in 1713, by LIrs. Mary Chapman, agreeably to the 
request of her deceased husband, (the Rev. S. Chapman, rector of Thorpe- 
next-Norwich,) for the habitation of poor lunatics, and not for natural born 
fools or idiots. For its endowment she settled by will, dated 1717, all her 
personal estate on seven trustees, giving to them the sole power and man- 
agement of this asylum for as many distressed lunatics as the revenues wall 
afford, the city of Norwich always to have the preference. Considerable 
additions having been made to the hospital in 1807 and subsequent years, 
it has now accommodation for 80 patients, of whom about 33 oiefree, and 
small weekly sums, varying from 3s. to 14s., are paid for each of the others 
by then- friends. The seven trustees or governors are Sir Wm. Foster, Bart., 
Dr. Dahymple, and C. Weston, J. H. Gurney, M.P., H. Bii'kbeck, T. 
Brightwen, and F. G. Foster, Esqrs. W. P. Nichols, Esq., is the surgeon; 
G. M. Gibson, Esq., and F. Bateman, Esq., M.D., resident medical officers ; 
Charles MiUard, Esq., steward; J. N. V. Cooper, Esq., clerk; Mr. E. J. 
D odd, fuaster ; and Mrs. Dodd, matron. The foundress appears to have 
been no admirer of the corporate body, for one clause in her will prohibits 
them from being " in. any way concerned in the execution of this trust." 
The seven original trustees and their successors, v/ere incorporated by 
Letters Patent of the 5th of George III., by the name of " The Governors 
and Guardians of the hospital called Bethel," of the foundation of Maiy 
Chapman. The sum derived from the endowment under the will of the 
foundress, amounted to ^63513, which has been augmented by subsequent 
benefactions amounting to nearly £'16,000, of which £1000 each were left 
by Sarah Scott, in 1750 ; Bartholomew Balderstone, in 1766 ; Thos. Vere, 
in 1766 ; and Rolert Denn, in 1829. Mary Bouchery left £600 in 1788; 
and the remainder was bequeathed in sums from £100 to upwards of £200, 
A considerable portion of the money received from legacies and gifts has 
been laid out in the purchase of real estates at Pulham, Kirstead, Bushall, 
Potter-Heigham, Mendham, and Albui'gh, now let for £1443 per annum, 
and comprising about 1138 acres of land. The personal property belonging 
to the hospital amounts to £17,770 in. the funds, yielding dividends to the 
amount of £608, which swells the total yearly income of the charity to 
£2051. In consideration of the £1000 given by B. Balderstone, the min- 
ister of the Independent chapel, of which Dr. Wood was pastor in 1766, has 
the privilege of sending two free patients to the hospital. Above £5000 
have been expended in improvements during the last ten years. The 
Norfolk Lunatic Asylum is about two miles fi'om Noi-wich, in the parish of 
Thorpe, (which see). The Infirmary Asylum, St. Augustine's, is for pauper 
lunatics;; and at Heigham Hall is a private lunatic asylum belonging to 
Messrs. Nichols, Ranking, and Watson. 

The Orphan's Home, in Pottergate street, has accommodation for about 
thirty oi-phan girls, who are trained for domestic service and other suitable 
occupations by a resident matron and governess, under the superintendence 
of a ladies' committee. It was estabhshed in 1849, and removed to the 
present premises in 1862, and is chiefly supported by voluntary subscrip- 
tions ; but the fiiends or parish are required to pay Is. 6d. per week for 
each child under ten years of age, and Is. per week if above that age. 

The Stanley Home, in Peacock street, was originally established by the 
daughter of the late Bishop Stanley, as an institution in which friendless 
orphan guis could be taught lace making as a means of subsistence ; but 
since 1854 it has been used as a training school for domestic servants. It 
has room for 20 inmates, who are boarded, clothed, and instnicted, at a 



232 HISTORY OF NORWICH* 

charge of 2s. 6d. each per week, the remainder of the cost being defrayed 
hy subscriptions. More than 80 girls have aheady been trained here, of 
whom the greater number have creditably filled the situations provided for 
them, and several have married respectably. Mrs. Eliz. Churchman is 
matron and Miss Hannah Critten, schoolmistress. In connection with the 
Home is a Servants Lodging House and Registry, in Upper I^ng street, of 
which Miss Balls is superintendent. 

The NoKFOLK AND Norwich Magdalen, or Female Home, is at York 
Villa, Chapel-field road, and was estabhshed in 1826. Its object is to 
afford an asylum for females who, having deviated from the path of virtue, 
may be desirous of being restored to their station in society, by religious 
instruction and the formation of moral and religious habits. The house 
has room for 14 inmates, but has rarely so many. In its charitable work 
of plucldng brands from the burning, this institution has been very suc- 
cessful, a large number of those who have been admitted having been 
restored to their friends, or placed in respectable situations. Its annual 
exiDcnditure is about ^6400, The Earl of Leicester and the Marquis Chol- 
mondeley are ^3ai?'o?is, the Bishop ^jrm^Ze/z^, Charles Evans, Esq., treasurer y 
and Mrs. Surville, matron. 

The Society foe the Relief of the Sick Poor was instituted in 
1816, and is managed by a committee of ladies, who search out the abodes 
of those famihes who are labouring under the complicated afilictions of 
disease and penury, in reheving whom the society disiDenses about ^850 per 
annum, a large portion of which is derived from the sale of fancy articles 
contributed by the ladies. J. H. Gurney, Esq., M.P., is the treasurer. 

The Lying-in-Charity, for delivering poor married women at their own 
habitations, was established in 1832. It provides its objects with midwives, 
medical and pecuniary assistance, bed linen, &c., and also portable beds, 
when required. The depositary is in Pottergate street. Since the establish- 
ment of this valuable institution more than 7000 poor women have been 
admitted to its benefits. Henry Hansell, Esq.. is lionorary secretary and 
treasurer; Dr. Copeman and Messrs. Cross, Day, & Muriel, medical officers; 
Miss Johnson, inatron, and Mr. Arnold, dispenser. 

The Benevolent Association for the Belief of decayed Tradesmen, 
their Widows, and Orphans, was instituted in 1790, and in 1863 had dis- 
pensed o£10,267, and then possessed a standing capital of ^5000 three and 
a half per cent, stock, and three canal shares. The subscribers may recom- 
mend one object for every guinea they contribute annually. H. S. Patte- 
son, Esq., is j^>rmf?^??t; Henry Browne, Esq., secretary; and Mr. Henry 
Bassett, clerTi. A Benevolent Society, supported chiefly by the Wesleyan 
Methodists, was established in 1785, for the reHef of poor famihes. The 
Wesleyans have also a Dorcas Society. 

The Soup Charity, which was established in 1840, has offices in Fishgate 
street and Cobui-gh street, and supplies many of the poor with nutritious 
soup at a very low price, during the winter months. A similar charity was 
commenced in 1785 by the Friar's Society, now extinct. Here is also a 
Provident Coal Society for supplying the poor with coal at reduced prices ; 
and at 105, Pottergate street, isn District Visiting Society. The Protestant 
Dissenters' Benevolent Society of Norfolk, was formed in 1800 for the 
rehef of decayed Ministers, or their Widows and Orphans, and has distri- 
J^uted among its objects upwards of ^14,000. Mr. J. W. Dowson is the sec. 

The Charity for Clergymen's Widows and Children in Norfolk and 
Norwich, had its origin in 1685 ; but the charter by which it is incorporated 
was not obtained till 1741. It distributes upwards of ^2000 per annum, of 
which about .£-700 arises from three farms at Swafield, Potter-Heigham, and 
Reepham ; .^920 from ^10,600 bank stock, and about i:400 from annual 
subscriptions. The Bishop is the president, and the Dean and Chapter the 



BEINEVOLENT SOCIETIES. 238 

vice-presidents. The Rev. George King is treasurer ; W. C. Millard, Esq., 
steward of the estates, and Edward Steward, Esq., registrar. 

The United Norwich and Norfolk Attorneys' and Solicitors' Ami- 
cable Society was established in 1784, and having been dormant for some 
years, was re-established in 1848 under the dkection of the Court of Chan- 
chery. Its object is to afford relief to distressed attorneys and solicitors 
practising in Norfolk and Norwich, or to their \vidows and children. The 
society possesses a permanent fund of ^'6000 consols, and about i'300 stock, 
besides the annual subscriptions of its members, so that its annual income 
is above ^200. During the year 1862 more than ^0200 were distributed by 
the society to distressed persons. Subscriptions of one guinea a year con- 
stitutes membership, or a payment of ten guineas at one tune, membership 
for life. T. M. Keith, Esq., is president; J. H. Gumey, Esq., M.P., trea- 
surer; and F. Fox, Esq., hon. secretary. The Benevolent Medical Society 
of Norfolk and Norwich was established in 1786, for the purpose of pro- 
viding funds for the relief of the widows and childi-en, and of indigent mem- 
bers of the profession. The Rev. Lord Bayning is patron ; P. Harrison, Esq., 
president, and J. G. Johnson, Esq., 7ion. secretary and treasurer. 

Great Hospital, &c. — St. Giles Hos])ital,in.'Bis\io^gQ.iQ street St. Helen's 
parish, now commonly called the Great Hospital, was foimded by Bishop 
Suffield about a.d. 1250 ; but being of a monastic character, it was dissolved 
by Henry VIII., and afterwards refounded by a charter or letters patent of 
Edward VI., in the first year of his reign, as an almshouse for aged poor ; 
and its ample revenues were vested in trust with the corporation for that 
purpose and the supx^ort of the master and usher of the Grammar School 
and two priests, one to serve as chaplain to the hospital and minister of the 
parish of St. Helen, and the other as chaplain to the City Gaol. (See p. 202.) 
The lands, tithes, buildings, &c., granted for these purposes by the charter 
of Edward VI., were then of the yearly value of ^'142. 19s. 2|d. The ori- 
ginal endowment has been augmented by 23 gifts and benefactions, of which 
the. folio wing are the donors and dates: — Alderman Thomas Codd, 1558; 
Queen EUzabeth, 1572 ; Robert Jannys, 1554; John Hart, 1706; Thomas 
Cory, 1619; Thomas Tesmond, 1620; Bernard Church, 1685; Augustine 
Blomefield, 1645 ; John Spiirrell, 1702; Michael Smyth, 1086; Fras. Rugge, 
1608 ; Roger Coxon, about 1570 ; Edmund Woods, about 1550 ; Rev. SamL 
Chapman, 1700 ; John Drake, 1712 ; Mary Drake, 1713 ; Richd. Suckling; 
Lawrence Goodwin, 1722; Wm. Pagan, 1769; Chas. Maltby, 1789; Henry 
Jay, 1733 ; Henry Fawcett, 1619 ; and Robert Partiidge, 1816. Some of 
these were donations of money, which have from time to time been laid out, 
with the savings of income, in the purchase of estates and government stock. 
Queen Elizabeth's grant bestowed upon the hospital the lands, &c. of Geo. 
Redman, grocer, who had been attainted for high treason. In 1862 the yearly 
income of this charity was between ^£0000 and ^67000, ^£600 of which were 
from the dividends of about 5620,000 in the three per cent, consols, and the 
remainder from rents and tithes of the charity estates. Of the latter, about 
^1500 were derived from rent of land and buildings in the city ; ^£705 from 
estates in Bixley and Trowse ; ^6110 from property at Ciingleford, exclusive 
of the tithes; ^6 5 7 from land at Catton and Sprowston ; i;407 from lands 
and tithes at Costessey ; ^6100 from marshland at Haddiscoe; 56350 from the 
tithes of Hardley ; i'280 from a farm atHethel; ^6 10 5 from land at Great 
Melton; ^6500 the tithe-rent of Mundham St. Peter and Seething; ^£145 
from land in Salhouse ; ^£520 from land in Shropham ; 56300 from the great 
tithes of Walsham St. Mary: ^18 from a rent charge in East Winch; and 
56IIO from one marsh farm at Vange, m Essex. In addition to the 
above, the charity possesses the manors of Mundham, St. Ethelbert-with- 
Seething, Bradcar Hall, in Shropham ; Pakenhams, in Shropham ; Crin- 
gleford, East Carlton- with-Hethel, Choselies, in Wymoudham, and Trowse- 



284 HISTORY OF NORWICH. 

Rockells. Tlie annual amount of the quit rents and other receipts from 
these manors is about ^GO ; but the fines being certain, there is but little 
profit after paying the expenses of holding the courts. The trustees have 
also \hQ patronage of the following churches, viz. : — St. Helen and St. Ethel-- 
dred, in Norwich ; Cringleford, Costessey, Hardley, Repps-with-Bastwick, 
Mundham, and South Walsham. These advowsons (except St. Etheldred) 
were acquired by the grant of Edward VI., together with the rectorial tithes 
of the said parishes. 

The Oreat Hospital is an extensive range of buildings, comprising the 
antique remains of the dissolved Hospital of St. Giles and several modern 
additions, which have been erected at various periods, for the accommoda- 
tion of the alms-people, who have been increased in number progressively 
with the augmentation of the income. In 1800, the number was 98 ; in 
1819, it was increased to 109 ; in 1823, to 129 ; in 1826, to 150; in 1830, to 
166 ; in 1841, to 176 ; in 1843, to 181 ; and in 1850, to 184, viz., 92 men and 82 
women, all of whom are lodged, clothed, and fed at the expense of the charity, 
which also supports a master and ten nurses. The almspeople must be 
of the age of 65 years or upwards, before their admission. They are clothed 
in dark blue, and allowed sixpence per week each for pocket-money. The 
ten nurses, who attend to such of the almspeople as are sick and infirm, 
have each a yearly wage of £^. The ancient hospital of St. Giles is already 
noticed at page 201. The choir of the hospital church was rebuilt in 1383, 
by the benefactions of Bishop Spencer and others, and is now divided into 
apartments for the women. The cloister,the master's lodgings, the nave, and 
the tower were rebuilt in 1541 by Bishop Lyhart, Prior Molet, and others. 
The old refectory and part of the nave and aisles of the hospital church 
were partitioned off and divided into apartments for the men at an early 
period, and the remainder forms the parish church of St. Helen, as noticed 
at page 207. In 1826, a new ward was built, containing twenty separate 
cottages in the Gothic style, each of which is sufficient for the accommoda- 
tion of two persons. These cottages are mostly occupied by old married 
couples. Another ward was built in 1831, at a cost of about ^GllOO. On 
the east side of the quadrangle is a good house for the residence of the master 
(Mr. Geo. Sim^Dson), who has the free use of the hospital meadow (about 4a.), 
and is allowed a salary of ^6250 per annum, out of which he has to provide 
two men and three maid servants. Here is also a house for the residence 
of the minister of St. Helen's. The annual disbursements amount to about 
^65600 ; of which „:£4000 are on account of the almspeople and hosx)ital ; ^200 
the yearly stipend of the incumbent of St. Helen's ; <£325 the amount of 
the stipends of the incumbents of Costessey and Hardley ; ^30 the stipend 
allowed to the curate of St. Etheldred's, &c. &c. 

Doughty's Hospital, in Calvert street, in the parishes of St. Saviour and 
St. George Colegate, was founded by Wm. Doughty, gentleman, who, in 1687, 
bequeathed £6000, to be laid out in building and endowing it for the recep- 
tion of a master, 24 poor aged men, and 8 women. By letters patent of the 
10th of William III., license was granted to the mayor, sheriffs, &c., to take 
to them and their successors, lands and tenements, not exceeding the yearly 
value of £1000, for enabling the citizens and inhabitants of Norwich the 
better to support their burthens, and for the better performance of the will 
of Wm. Doughty. Of his bequest, £600 were expended in purchasing the 
site and building the hospital, and the remainder was laid out in the pur- 
chase of estates at Burston, Hillmgton, and Calthorpe ; but that in the latter 
parish was exchanged with the Earl of Orford for a farm at Gissing. A 
legacy of £200, left to this hospital by Samuel Chapman, in 1700, was laid 
out in 1733, together with £600 belonging to the Great Hospital, in the pur- 
chase of Stonehouse farm in Cringleford. One-third of the rent of this farm 
is paid to Doughty's Hospital, which has also the dividends of £6600 three 
per cent. Consols, bequeathed in 1810, by Thomas Coohe, of Pentonville, 



doughty's hospital. ^3^ 

for the purpose of augmenting the stipends of the almspeople. It has also a 
large sum invested in government secimties, which has arisen from saAdngs 
of income and the bequests of Thomas Vere, Wm. Pagan, Wm. Lindoe, 
Gary Hayward, Charles Maltby, Jehosaphat Postle, the Earl of Bucking- 
hamshire, Thomas Harvey, and other donors. Owing to the augmented 
value of the endowment, which now produces about ^€1000 a year, the num- 
ber of almspeople has been increased to 27 men and 17 women, of the age 
of 65 and upwards, besides the master and a nurse. The master has lis., 
the nurse 16s., and each of the almspeople 5s. 6d. per week ; and they have 
each a chaldron of coals, a pair of shoes, blue clothing, and linen for shirts 
and shifts, once a year. The master has a double allowance of shoes and 
linen. The hospital consists of a square containing 45 tenements of one 
room each, and one tenement of two rooms appropriated to the use of the 
master, who has also a small garden. Another garden is di^-ided amongst 
the almspeople. 

Cooke's Hospital consists of a court, with ten tenements roimd it, in 
Rose lane, built in 1692 by Robert and Thomas Cooke, two brotliers, and 
aldermen of the city, for the reception of ten poor women, either maids or 
widows, of the age of 60 years or upwards, who have previously resided ten 
years in the city, and been of good report. In 1703-'4, the above-named 
Robert Cooke, and Thomas, his son, charged an adjoining estate with the 
yearly payment of £S1 for the support of the almspeople and the reparation 
of the hospital. The owner of this estate pays the rent charge and appoints 
the almswomen, who have each an allowance of coals and about £14 per 
annum, arising from the above-named rent-charge, and the yeai'ly proceeds 
of the following bequests, viz., £'1000, left by Benjamin Trapjiett, in 1765'; 
£1750 three percent. Consols, lefthj TJiomas CooJcc, of Pentonville, in 1810 ; 
and £1600, left by Tliomas Clahhiirn, in 1815. 

Pye's Al:jshouses, near St. Gregory's Church, were given by Thomas 
Pye, in 1614, for the residence of six poor people of the age of 50 or up- 
wards, married or unmarried; but in 1827, they were given by the Corpo- 
ration to Josej)h Bexfield, in exchange for six new-built dwelling-houses in 
West Pottergate street, hi Heigham hamlet, and the sum of £200, which 
was invested in the purchase of £227. 18s. 5d. three per cent. Consols, the 
dividends of which are applied in keeping the almshouses in repair. The 
six almspeople are chosen, two from each of the parishes of St. Michael 
Coslany, St. Giles, and St. Peter Mancroft. In Muspole street are other 
unendoived Almshouses, consistiug of tr^^elve tenements for the residence of 
as many poor widows of the parish of St. George -Colegate. They were re- 
built in 1854, at a cost of £500, given by the parish, on the site of seven 
tenements which are said to have been given in 1516 by Alice Crome. 

Baenham-Broom Estate, now consisting of a farm of 94 acres (let for 
£155 a year) and the manor of Barnham-Hawkins, was conveyed to the 
Corporation in tlie 23rd of Henry VIII., pui'suant to the will of John 
Tyrrey, to pay yearly the sum of £3, to keep an obit for the souls of the 
donor and others, and to apply the remainder of the yearly rent (then £11) 
towards the easement of the poor citizens in the payment of taxes, or tall- 
ages. A water-mill and four acres of land, which formed ]3art of the estate, 
were sold by tlie Corporation in 1718, they having always considered the 
estate as theu' ovrn property. By indenture, in 1714, they settled eight- 
tenths of the yearly income of the remaining part of the estate, in satisfac- 
tion of the bequests of £400 left by Richard Ireland, in 1690, to the Boys' 
and GMs' Hospitals ; and £400 left by Thomas Blofield, in 1703 : £200 
thereof for the benefit of the said Hospitals ; £100 to provide for a yearly 
distribution among the poor citizens ; and £100 to be invested in land, and 
the rent applied in binding out apjorentice one poor child of Colegate Ward. 

Charities for Appenticing. — In 1688, Sir Joseph Payne left £200 to 
be invested for the payment of £70 every seventh year to the Corporation, 



236 HISTOKY OF NORWICH. 

to be applied, Mb thereof in apprenticing twelve poor boys, and £6 for a 
sermon, &c., on the 29tli of August. This charity is charged on an estate 
at Deopham. In 1669, Nicholas Salter bequeathed ^glOO to the Corporation 
in trust, to pay every seventh year £SQ for apprenticing six poor boys. 
With the income of these two charities 18 boys are bound out every seventh 
year. In 1684, Augustine Briggs left ^6200 to be invested in land, the rents 
and profits thereof to be applied yearly in apprenticing two poor boys of 
South Conisford Ward. The property belonging to this charity is in King 
street, and now produces ^34 a year. Nicholas BicJcerdike, in 1701, be- 
queathed a tenement for apprenticing poor boys of Mancroft Ward and the 
parish of St. Giles. This tenement being in a dilapidated state, was sold 
by the Corporation about the year 1804, and the produce invested in the 
purchase of ^6420 new three per cents. In 1715, Sir Peter Seaman be- 
queathed the Hampshire Hog pubHc-house, a baker's shop, and other 
premises, in trust to the Corporation for apprenticing two poor boys of the 
parish of St. Gregory and East Wymer Ward. The property is let on lease 
for ,£25 a year. In 1757, Thos. Vere bequeathed to the Corporation £100, 
on condition that they should lay out <£7 every two years in apprenticing 
a poor boy of South Conisford Ward. As already noticed, a poor boy of 
Colegate Ward is apprenticed yearly out of the rent of the Barnham Broom 
Estate, in consideration of £100 left by Thomas Blojield. There are also 
appUcable to apprentice fees, £60 a year from Abraham Rohersons Charity, 
£50 a year from the Walloon Charities, and considerable portions of the 
funds of the Boys' Hospital and Norman's Charity School. 

Loan Charities. — Sir Thomas White Kt., alderman of London, in 1566, 
gave £2000 to the Corporation of Bristol, on condition that they should 
purchase an estate, and out of the rents and profits thereof pay yearly the 
sum of £104, in succession, to one of the twenty-four cities and touns 
named in the deed, one of which is Norwich. Of each annual payment, the 
donor directed £100 to be lent in sums of £25, to four young men of honest 
fame, free of interest, for ten years, and the remaining £4 to be divided 
among the trustees for their trouble. The Corporation of Norwich received 
the first payment of £104 in 1586, and since then they have received the 
same amount every twenty-fourth year, so that the loan fund, arising from 
this source, amounted on the last payment in 1863, to £1200. Various 
other sums, amounting in the whole to £1640, were bequeathed in trust to 
the Corporation, to be lent free of interest in sums of from £20 to £30, to 
poor citizens for terms of seven years. Tliis £1640 was acqmred by the 
following bequests: — £600 left by Wm. Doughty, in 1687; £300 hj John 
Vaughan, in 1666 ; £200 by John Mann, in 1693 ; £100 each left by Thos. 
Pettus, Thos. Doughty, Natl. Cocke, Roger Crow, and Joseph Loveland ; 
^£50 each left by Edward Nutting and Augustine Scottow ; and £40 left by 
Ann Craske. Other Loans, which were under the management of the Court 
of Mayoralty, amounted in 1832 to £1411. 2s., lent in sums of from £20 to 
£25, for seven years, free of interest, and arose from the benefactions of 
eighteen donors, the largest of whom were Wm. Rogers and Hy. Fawcett, 
who each left £300 ; John Terry, who left £200 ; and Catherine Rogers 
and Sir John Pettus, who each bequeathed £100. All the above-mentioned 
sums are now placed in one fund, under the management of the city charity 
trustees, and sums of £50 are lent on security of bonds, free of interest, for 
seven years ; but a considerable sum has been lost, so that the whole fund 
does not at present amount to more than £3000. 

The Rev. Benj. Penning, in 1696, left £500 to be lent out in sums of 
£25 to twenty young tradesmen of the parishes of St. Clement, St. George 
Colegate, St. Benedict, St. Paul, and St. James, for seven years, free of 
interest. Towards paying the expenses of this trust, Thos. Harrison left 
the interest of £10 in 1703. Wm. Stark, Esq., and others are the trustees. 
lu 1708, Mordecai Hewitt left to seven trustees £500, to be lent in sums of 



LOAN CHARITIES. 237 

£25 for seven years, free of interest, to young master weavers of the city, 
especially of the parishes of St. Peter Hungate and St. Andrew. This and 
the following are managed by the trustees of Penning's loans, and both are 
now lent in sums of £-10 each. In 1709, Thomas Andrews left ^£120 to be 
lent without interest for seven years, to six young men setting up the trade 
of worsted weaving, four to be chosen from the parishes of St. Michael 
Coslany and St. Clements, and two by the Llinister and Deacons of the 
Presbyterian Congregation. His mdow left the interest of ^610 towards 
the expenses of the trust. In 1669, Nichls. Salter left ^GlOO to be lent free 
of interest for seven years to four poor tradesmen. The trustees are all 
members of the Independent Congregation attending the Old Meeting house. 

Abraham Roberson, in 1777, left £'1507 for apprenticing poor children 
of the city, (not more than one to be a girl ;) £1015 for the relief of poor 
widows of West Wymer Ward ; and £507, to be lent free of interest to 
young men who have served apprenticeships in the city. In 1794, these sums 
were increased by the division of £500, which fell to the charity, as the re- 
maining part of the residuary estate of the testator. The loa?i fund now 
amounts to £654, which is lent in sums of £50 each. The other two 
branches of the charity now consist of £5543 new 3 per cent, stock, and 
about £100 in the bank. Apprentice fees of £10 each are given yearly 
with seven poor boys ; and £35 is distributed yearly among poor widows 
who ought to be such as do not receive parochial relief. SirW. Foster, Bart., 
and J. H. Gumey, M.P., Hy. Birkbeck, J. M. Robberds, John Youngs, 
F. G. Foster, and 0. Springfield, Esqrs., are the trustees. 

Henry Fawcett, in 1619, bequeathed to his heirs three tenements, on 
condition that they should pa2/ yearly, amongst other things (see Preachers' 
Money,) to each of ten poor worsted zceavers of Fybridge Ward, a coat of 
frieze or cloth, and 12d. in money ; and £1. 3s. 4d. for a sermon at the 
church of St. JNIichael Coslany. These rent-charges are paid by the owner 
of the Buck public-house, in St. Martin-at-Oak. A yearly rent-charge of 
£20, left in 1703 by Thomas Blofield, out of his estate at Hoveton St. 
John, for the poor of Fybridge Ward, has not been paid since 1777. Ben- 
jamin Trappett, in 1765, bequeathed for various uses £2200, which was 
vested in the purchase of £2514. 5s. 9d. three per cent. Consols. The yearly 
dividends, £75. 8s. 6d., are appropriated in the following proportions, agree- 
able to the donor's will: — £34. 5s. 8d. to tlie ten widows in Cooke's Hospi- 
tal; £20 for a sermon every Thursday or Friday at St. Andrew's Church ; 
£1 to the clerk and sexton for cleaning the donor's tomb ; about £13. 10s. 
for distribution among the poor of St. Andrew's ; and £6. 17s. to tlie six 
trustees for their trouble. The ministers of St. Andrew's and five other 
parishes are the trustees. 

Thomas Clabburn, in 1815, left £1000 to be invested in the purchase of 
stock, (now £1100 new 8 per cents.,) and the dividends thereof to be paid 
to Mary Atkinson during her life, and afterwards to the ministers and 
churchwardens of the parishes af St. Simon andJude, St. JuHan, St. Ethel- 
dred, and St. Peter Southgate, in equal shares, for distribution among the 
poor parishioners. He also left £3600 to various charitable institutions in 
tlie city; and £2600 to the following parishes for the poor, viz., £200 each 
to Newton-Flotman, Florden, Tharston, St. John Timberhill, St. JNIichael 
at Thorn, St. Michael Coslany, and St. John Sepulchre ; and £400 each to 
Tasburgh, All Saints, and St. Paul- with- St. James. 

Charities for Distribution, vested uith the Charity Trustees : — In 1563, 
Richard Rudd by his will directed his executors to purchase land of the 
yeaily value of £4. 6s. 8d., of which he directed £4 should be distributed 
among the poor of the city on Ash Wednesday, and 6s. 8d. be given to the 
mayor and sherifi"s for their trouble in distributing the charity. This an- 
nuity, which is now given to the magistrates' poor-box, is paid out of several 
tenements at Heigham, iQt on lease by the Corporation, in 1751, for 20Q 



238 . HISIORY OF NORWICH. 

years, at the annual rent of ^8. In 1654, Wm. Small left, among other 
legacies to Swanton-Morley, &c., an annuity of £1 out of Eye Park, in Suf- 
foUi, for distribution among the poor of Norwich. In 1680, the Rev. Roger 
Flint gave 10|- acres of land at Antingham, for the benefit of the poor of 
the city. In 1860, this land was sold to Lord Suffield for i'500, which have 
been invested in the purchase of ^'529 three per cent. Consols, the dividends 
of which are distributed amongst the poor in blankets. In 1703, Thomas 
Blofield left i'lOO, to provide for a yearly distribution among the poor 
citizens (see page 235.) In 1676, the Corporation received ^80, left by 
Bishop Reynolds, to be invested in land for the relief of the poor. Nothing 
has been paid for manj'- j^ears in respect of this bequest. The sum of ^200, 
left by Mrs. Joan Smyth, for the relief of the poor of the city, was invested 
in 1603, in the purchase of five messauges in Smithfield, London. In 1786, 
these messuages were leased for 61 years, at the annual rent of £14., in con- 
sideration of i;200, for which the Corporation pay four per cent, interest. 
In 1813, the messuages in Smithfield w-ere sold to the commissioners for 
improving the street from Tower Hill. The purchase money, ^£'500, was in- 
vested in the new 3 per cent. Consols, and the yearly dividends, about 
^622. 18s. lOd., are distributed among the poor, together with the interest of 
the ^200 in the hands of the Corporation. In 1638, Robert Craske be- 
queathed a messuage in Ber street, (now a public-house,) in trust, to pay 
18s. yearly for three sermons, and to divide the remainder of the rent into 
three parts, for distribution among the poor of the parishes of St. Julian, 
St. Peter Southgate, and St. Etheldred. The hamlet of Trowse Millgate 
participates with the latter parish. The house belonging to this charity is 
let for ii22 per annum. In 1650, Matthew Linsey gave to the Corporation 
a house in Lady lane, in trust, to distribute £i yearly in coals among the 
poor of Ber street and Mancroft Wards. This house is now leased for 
£Q. 6s. a year. In 1676, Eliz. Pendleton bequeathed for certain charit- 
able uses, her messuages and tenements in the parishes of St. Stephen and 
St. Saviour, then of the yearly value of £-12, but now worth more than i'60 
per annum. The rents are expended in distributions of clothing among poor 
men and w^omen of the city, no part having been applied in loans and ap- 
prentice fees, agreeable to the will of the donor. In 1685, Barnard 
Church left to the Corporation =£400, in trust, to pay ^620 a year for various 
charitable uses, among which are the sums of £-2. 10s. each to the Boys', 
Girls', and the Great Hospitals; 20s. to poor prisoners; 20s. each to the 
parishes of St. George Colegate, St. Augustine, St. John Sepulchre, St. 
Lawrence, Garveston, and Whinborough, for the poor ; 10s. for the poor of 
St. Lawrence parish ; and I6s. 8d. for a sermon on the I7th of May. The 
Rev. Edw. Warnes, in 1694, left a farm in Scottow and Hautboys, and di- 
rected the yearly produce thereof to be distributed in coals, clothing, &c., 
among the most deserving poor of St. Peter per Mountergate parish. The 
farm comprises 161a. 1r. 4p., let for ^205 per annum, out of which ^L I2s. 
is paid for a sermon and reading the donor's will on the 1st of January. 
John Cory left a yearly rent-charge of £2 out of a house in St. Edmund's 
parish, for distribution in Bibles amongst the poor children of Fybridge, 
Coslany , and Colegate Wards. The poor of several parishes have small sums 
yearly from the funds called the ''Preachers Money," as noticed at page 202. 
Thomas Maltby, in 1558, left .£100, to free the citizens and others from 
tolls at the Common Staithe, on the river Wensum. This legacy, with other 
money, was laid out by the Corporation in the purchase of the premises 
called the Oreij Friars, part of which they sold in 1688 for the site of Cooke's 
Hospital, and the remainder is let for £76 a year. Pursuant to Maltby's 
will, the Corporation pay 20s. a year for an obit in the church of St. Mary 
Coslany, but it is now expended in bread for the poor. In 1568, Sir Peter 
Beade gave eleven tenements in St. Giles' parish for tJie great bell of 
St Peter Mancroft to be rung every morning and evening, for the- ** help of 



l^^ORWICH CHAEITIES. 239 

tliem who should travel early and late." The site of these tenements is let 
for ^15 a year, and £-i. 4s. is paid for ringing the bell. 

John Carter, by vnll, in 1696, gave, after the death of his brother with-' 
out issue, his estate at Caister, &c., for the benefit and towards the main- 
tenance of his ijoor kindred for ever. His brother died without issue, in 
1722, and by his will appointed ti'ustees, and devised the estate to them 
upon the trusts above stated. The estate consists of a farm of 140 acres, let 
for i'250 per annum, which, after the payments for repairs and other inci- 
dental expenses, is divided among the relatives of the testator, in sums 
varying from i'2 to ^'10. The same recipients continue on the list for life, 
unless any alteration in their circumstances takes place. No distinction is 
made as to their place of residence. Messrs. E. U. Dowson, H. Bolingbroke, 
J. N. Mottram, and Jas. Freeman, jun., are the trustees. 

Samuel Chapman, who died in 1823, left 15 acres of land in HeUesden, 
anddh'ected the rents thereof to be divided into five parts, for distribution in 
money, coals, &c., among the poor of the parish of St. Augiistine, the occu- 
pants of the six almshouses erected by him at Worstead, and the poor of the 
congregations of the Particular Baptist Cliapel, in Southgate ; the Inde- 
pendent Chapel, in Colegate ; and the V/esleyan Chapel, in Calvert street. 
This land is now let for ^'40 a yeai\ The ministers of the two first named 
chapels, and others, are trastees, and hold ^£71, left by the same donor for 
tlie poor of Hellesden. The congregation of the Particular Baptist Chapel 
above-named have ^£432. 10s. new o\ per cent, stock, left by Joseph Wilkin, 
Amy Norton, Morris Colman, and John Aldis, who directed the yearly divi- 
dends to be divided among the poor members of the congregation. In 1781, 
Wm. Chamberlain left all the money wliich should arise from the sale of his 
real and personal estates, to be divided into three parts, to be vested sepa- 
rately for the benefit of the congTegations of the Particular BajAist Chapel, 
in Southgate ; the Independent Chapel, in Colegate ; and the Presbyterian 
(now Unitarian) Chapel. The three congregations each received agl600, 
three per cent. Consols, and, pursuant to the donor's will, they each appro- 
priate one-third of the yearly dividends towards the support of then' mini- 
sters, and distribute three-fourths of the remainder among the poor mem- 
bers, and apply the remaining fourth towards the payment of siug'ers. The 
Independent Congregation, besides its shares in Chapman's and Cham- 
berlain's charities noticed above, and Balderstone's School, noticed at page 
226, has ^60 a year for distribution among its poor members, arising from 
the interest of money left by various donors, among whom, Bartholomew 
Balderstone, left ^'400 in 1762. The Presbyterian Congregation, 
besides its endowed school, noticed at page 226, and ^1400 three-and-a- 
half per cent, stock, derived from the bequest of Wm. Chamberlain, as above 
stated, for the minister and poor, has several other charities. The yearly 
dividends of ^400 Old South Sea Annuities, purchased with seven bene- 
factions in 1758, are distiibuted among the poor of the congregation. In 
the same year, ^'600 of the same stock was purchased for the use of the 
minister. In 1747, Mary Lougher left two sums of ^'1525, Old South Sea 
Annuities, and directed the dividends of one to be employed in apprenticing 
poor boys, and the dividends of the other to be applied for the better support 
oi Protestant Dissenting Ministers in Norfolk and Suffolk. She also left to 
the same trustees, ^£450 of the same stock, to pay the dividends of ^£'300 to 
the minister of the Presbyterian chapel in NorTvdch, and to divide the divi- 
dends of ^£150 among the poor of the congregation. The fund for Protestant 
dissenting ministers has been augmented with ^£54, left by John Taylor, 
and is dispensed in sums of fi-om .i'5 to £1^ amongst dissenting ministers. 
The yearly dividends of £1848, new three per cent, stock, derived from the 
bequest of Sarah Elden, in 1763, are distributed in money, coals, &e., among 
the poor of the Presbyterian congregation ; but in some instances a portion 
of tlus fund has been apphed for the purposes of education. 



240 HISTORY OF NORWICH, 

The Poor Prisoners in tlie City and County Gaols ought to have 20s. 
yearly out of Heydon Hall estate, pursuant to the bequest of Frances Kemjpe. 
who, in 1632, likewise charged the same estate with the yearly payments of 
20s. for the poor, and 10s. for the minister of each of the parishes of Hey- 
don, St. John Sepulchre, and St. Stephen. The prisoners in the city gaol 
have 25s. yearly, left by B. Church, J. Blackhead, and G. Mingay. Those 
in the county gaol have the dividends of .£300, three per cent, consols, 
purchased with the bequest oiJohnNorris, who directed part of the income 
to be distributed in Testaments and rehgious books among such of the 
felons as could read. The Dean and Chapter are trustees. The same pri- 
soners are entitled to 15s. a year from Mingay's and Church's charities. 

Parochial Charities. — Besides their participation in the numerous 
charities already noticed, the parishes of the city of Norwich have many 
benefactions belonging exclusively to their resjpective Umits, and of which 
the following is a brief notice, showing the dates of the bequests, the names of 
the donors, and the yearly income. They are mostly in trust with the minis- 
ters and churchwardens, and except when otherwise expressed, are for dis- 
tributions of money, coals, clothing, or bread, among the poor parishioners : 
— St. Andrew's Parish: 1574, Roger Mundes, £19. I9s., from two houses; 
1608, Nowell Southerton, £5, out of Barnham-Broom ; 1626, Sir John 
Suckling, £2 to poor, £1. 10s. to minister, and 10s. to clerk ; Suckling Jay, 
£8 out of the tithes of Elvedon. St. Augustine : 1759, Edward King, £6 
from £200 three per cents., for apprentice fees. St. Benedict : property 
now worth £150 a year, but let on long leases for only £24, applied wholly 
to the church, but belonging chiefly to the poor, by gift of unknown donors ; 
1660, Edward Heyward, £3 rent-charge ; 1696, Benj. Penning, 13s. 4d. ; 
1700, Thomas Seaman, £3. I5s. for apprentice fee. St. Clement : dividends 
of £450 three per cents., purchased with the gifts of Henry Fawcett, J. 
Harvey, S. Hipkins, and others. Eaton : dividends of £190. 18s. tluree 
cents., purchased with £200 left by Mary Ann Yallop in 1824. St. Edmund : 
dividends of £530 three j)er cents., arising from the bequests of W. Dixon, 
Benj. Trappett, John Boycott, and others. St. Etheldred : a cottage and 
piece of ground adjoining the churchyard, left by Ann Johnson in 1611 ; 
20s. yearly out of a house and garden left to the minister by John Hall in 
1686 ; and the dividends of £131. 6s. three per cents., left by Robert and 
James Wegg. St. Qeorge Colegate : several tenements left by Thos. Layer 
in 1613, and let on lease for 31 years from 1846, for £47 a year; a good 
house and garden, left by an unknown donor, let on lease for 21 years, 
from 1845, at a rental of £18 ; 10s. to the minister and 5s. to the poor, 
from a cottage, left by John Ringall in 1661; £3. 13s. 6d. from £105 new 
three per cents., purchased with the gift of Edward King, for apprentice 
fees; twelve almshouses, which were re-built in 1854, at a cost of £459, and 
are occupied rent-free by poor widows ; a house, left by an unknown donor, 
and let on a 21 years' lease, from 1857, at a rent of ^7 ; and 35s. from Sir 
John Suckling's charity, left in 1626. St. Qeorge Tomhland : £20 from a 
house and shop, left by John Symonds in 1603, for a weekly distribution of 
bread ; and the dividends of £105 new 2>\- per cents., purchased with the 
bequest of Edward Squire. >S'^. Oiles : £2, from three houses, left by John 
Balliston in 1585 ; a rent-charge of 30s., purchased with £20 left by Mary 
Goodwin in 1650 ; the dividends of £350 three per cent, consols, left by 
James Elmy m 1761 ; £312 bank stock, mostly left by John Moy in 1770 ; 
£1000 three per cent, stock, left by Stephen Martm in 1798, for distribu- 
tion of coals; interest of £45, left by Mrs. Parr and J. C. Hamp; a rent- 
charge of £6, purchased with £120 left by Adiian Payne in 1686; £7. 7s., 
from £210 new o\ per cents., purchased with £200 left by Reuben Deaves 
in 1781. St. Gregory : £2 from an acre of osier ground, left by John 
Weaver in 1625 ; £1, left by Margaret Stephenson, out of a house in 
St. Giles street ; £1. 10s. from a house and Ia. 8^p. of land, left by Thos. 



I PAROCHIAL CHARITIES. 241 

Weavers in 1598, and ^5 from houses in the churchyard, for sermons and 
church expenses, ^613 from two cottages and nearly three acres of land at 
Poringland. HeigTiam : £^. I5s. fi-om Thomas Seaman's charity, left in 
1700, for apprentice fees; 5^40. 12s. 4d., from i;1353. 18s. 9d. reduced an- 
nuities, left by Ann Parr in 1823, for six aged men and six aged women. 
;S'^. James-ivith-FocIcthorpe : 13s. 4d. left by Benj. Penning in 1696 ; ^£5 
by Robert Mallett in 1696; ^£5. 4s. from Clabbum's chai-ity. St. John 
MaddermarTiet : ^80 fi-om money derived from the sale of a tavern and 
seven cottages, left by Fras. GiUians, for sermons, the poor, &c. ; the interest 
of ^100 left by the same donor, for binding a poor boy^yearly, in rotation, 
from tliis parish and those of St. Helen, St. Martin- at-Palace, St. Simon 
and Jude, and St. Stephen; ^6 from ^6175 derived from the sale of 1^ 
acre at Thorpe, and invested in the funds ; the interest of ^6250, derived 
from the sale of the old almshouses, and of ^200 left by Benj. Trappett; 
^64. 2s. yearly, fi'om a house in Bethel st., left by Jno. Wilson, in 1729 ; and 
20s. out of premises in St. John's church alley, left by Alice Powell in 1678. 
St. John Sepulchre : 20s. left by Fras. Kempe in 1632, out of Heydon HaU 
estate ; ^100 from a farm of 92a. at Ehne, in the Isle of Ely, left by Luke 
Fisher; £4.0 fi-om 37a. of land at Horstead, purchased with ^130 left by 
Nathl. Cocke ; ^13. 5s. 4d. fi-om the charities of Clabbum, Smyth, SpurreU, 
and Church, already noticed, for weekly doles of bread ; three chaldrons of 
coals, out of property in Ber street, left by Wm. Johnson in 1704 ; ^£3. 18s. 6d. 
from stock left by Samuel Cooper and Eliz. Lindsey in 1779; ^'11. 9s. from 
^6381 three per cent, consols, left by Mary Anne Yallop in 1823, half for 
poor butchers, and the remainder for poor widows. St. John Timherhill : 
£4: out of a house in London street, left by Benj. Trappett in 1763 ; £6. Is. 4d. 
from stock purchased with Thos. Clabbum's bequest. ;S'^. Julian : £S. 13s. 6d. 
from stock purchased with Edward Squire's bequest in 1818. LaJcenham : 
three chaldrons of coals for the poor, and 13s. 4d. for a sermon, left by John 
Norman in 1657, out of Burnt yard meadow. St. Lawrence : £4t. Os, 8d. for 
distributions of bread, left by E. Heyi^'ard, B. Church, E. Topchflfe, and T. 
Warren ; i;10 left by Eliz. Wicks, out of houses in St. Giles's street and 
Fisher's lane, for clothing. St. Margaret : £8. 7s. 6d. for distributions of 
bread from the gifts of Ann Matthews (^100), Charles Turner, and Edmund 
Topcliffe ; £2. 10s., left by Thos. Seaman in 1700. St. Martin at Oak : £8 
from a house, &c., left by the Rev. Jeremiah Reva,ns in 1712, chiefly for 
schoohng 12 guis ; 10s. left by John Warner in 1648 ; ^3 left by John 
Damee in 1706 ; £6 out of Wood-DaUing, left by James Damee in 1717 ; 
£S out of meadow laud near the Wensum, given by an unknown donor. 
St. Martin's at Palace: £lo from a house and 5a. 26p. of land, left by 
Richard More in 1690 ; £6 from £'125, left by the Rev. Robert Gray in 
1736, and vested with the Corporation, £2 for the minister and £S for the 
poor ; ^6. 16s. 2d. from three per cent, stock, left by Benjamin Trai)pett in 
1767; the dividends of ^£119. 18s. 9d. three per cent, consols, left by Mrs. 
Kiddle in 1832 ; ^5 every fifth year for apprentice fees, fi'om Gillian's charity. 
St. Mary Coslany: £8. 10s. 5d. from ^£100 stock and 10a. of land, left by 
Ceciha Wingfield about 1558 ; £2 left by Jane Manfield m 1585 ; £10 (half 
for the church), left by Clement Hyme in 1596. St. Michael Coslany : 
£Q. Is. 4d. from stock left^by Thos. Clabburnin 1815. St. Michael at Plea: 
10s. left by John Warner m 1648; £^. 2s. 8d. from stock purchased with 
^50 given by EHz. Gibbs, and other benefactions ; ^4 from a house left by 
Benj. Trappett in 1763 ; £4.. 4s. from a house left by Cuthbert Brereton in 
1723. St. Michael at Thorn : i£6, left by Benjamin Trappett in 1763 
^6. Is. 4d. from stock left by Thomas Clabburn in 1815. St. Paul 
13s. 4d. from Penning's charity; ^10 left by Robert Mallett in 1696 
£2. 6s. 8d. in five rent-charges, left by persons named Howard, Giles, Tilney, 
PoUard, and Leech ; ^£1. 6s. from the Salter's Company, London, left by 
Thos. Salter in 1558 ; ^'o. 4s. from stock left by Thomas Clabbiu-n in 1815. 

Q 



242 HISTOBY OF NORWICH. 

St. Peter Mancroft: £1(5 out of an estate at Scottow, left by John and 
Eliz. Addey in 1732, for schooling six boys, &c. ; ^£3. I6s. 2d. from stock 
left by Richard Brownsmith ; M out of the Waggon and Horses public- 
house, left by Henry Davy in 1658; ^25, the rent of ^a. of garden ground, 
left by John Blackhead in 1701 ; i;87 lent, free of interest, pursuant to the 
bequests of Thomas Gobart and others. St. Pete)' Mountergate : MO from 
a house, (fee, in St. Faith's lane, left by Peter Peterson, chiefly for distribu- 
tions of coals; ^11 from a house, &c., left by John Seaman and John Gii'- 
ling in 1691 and 1727 ; .^22 from a farm of 18a. at Worstead, left by Ptobt. . 
Mallett in 1696; £d. 18s. 8d. from stock arising from the sale of a house 
left by Ehz. Berney ; ^'3. 13s. 6d. from stock left by Edw. Squire in 1818 ; 
^1. 16s. 9d. from stock purchased with benefaction money ; yearly rent- 
charges, ^12. OS. 6d. to the minister and lOs. for the poor, left by Thomas 
Codd in 1558 ; £1 out of a house at Catton, for aiDprentice fee, left by Edw. 
Munday ; ^5. 8s. for the poor, from money in the consols ; £1. lis. 6d. for 
the poor, from Lindley's charity ; and i:35 from an estate in St. Lawrence's 
parish, ^62 7 from the rent of Pdseburgh school-house, and £4: from a house 
in the parish, for parochial purposes ; <£220 a year, from Warnes' charity, 
noticed at page 238, belongs mostly to this parish. St. Saviour : £2 from 
three houses, left by Prudence Bloss in 1633 ; £4,. lis. from stock purchased 
with the bequests of Mary Bullock, John Browmfield, and others; and 
^4. 18s. 4d. left by Edw. Nutting, partly for the minister. St. Simon and 
Jude : £2. I2s. 6d. from I^-a. of land, left by Wm. Tracey in 1703 ; £5 every 
fifth year, from Gillian's charity ; interest of ^90, left by Richard Egling- 
ton in 1827 ; £'28, lent free of interest, left by J. Fellowe and T. Wyatt. 
St. Stephens : £o every fifth year from Gillians' charity ; ^3. 2s. left by Geo. 
and Henry Mingay in 1593 and 1631 ; ^£1. 10s. from Kempe's charit}^; ,£6 
from 3a. 1r. left by James Aldred in 1658 ; £1. 10s. from Blackhead's 
charity. St. Swithin : five tenements, left by Augustine Briggs in 1570, 
but long claimed as private proj^erty ; £Q. 15s. left by Thomas Seaman in 
1700; ^'2. 5s. from a house left by Isabel Dix in 1523 ; ^74 from land, &c., 
left by Edward Temple, for w^eekly doles of bread and yearly distributions 
of clothing; £6. lis. 6d. from ^6159. 9s. lOd., new 3| per cents., left by 
Thomas Mottram Rodwell in 1804 ; £S from Heyward's charity ; £o from 
£100 left by Abraham Roberson in 1777, to provide shirts and shifts for the 
poor. Troivse Millyate : three chaldrons of coals, left by William Johnson 
in 1704, out of the King's Arms ; £S. 9s. 4d. from Craske's charity ; and a 
share of other charities previously noticed. 

HAMLETS IN THE COUNTY OF THE CITY. 

For their Popidation, see j^Jrt^e 141 ; and Churches, iiage 216. 
Directories of Earlham, Eaton, & Hellesden will be found at the endof iVbr- 
ivich Directory, with which the inhabitants of the other hamlets are included. 
Earlham is a small hamlet on the banks of the Yare, 2 miles W. of Nor- 
wich. The greater part of the soil belongs to the Rev. Wm. Ripley, the 
Gurney family, and Mr. Frank, the former of whom occupies the Hall, 
which was the residence of the late J. J. Gurney, Esq. The bridge was 
built in 1502, and rebuilt in 1579 and 1744.— Eaton, 2 miles S.W., is also 
in the vale of the Yare. The manor is about 1300 acres, and belongs to the 
Dean and Chapter, but the soil is let t-o a number of lessees, many of whom 
have handsome houses here. — Heigham, which has increased its population 
since 1801, from 544 to nearly 15,000 souls, comprises a large and hand- 
some north-western suburb of Norwich, and a small viUage on the Wensum, 
1 mile W.N.W. of the city. Mrs. Steward, and C. W. Unthank, R. B. Hum- 
frey, Chas. Winter, and Jas. Winter, Esqrs., are the principal landowners. 
The schoolliouse on Dereham road was built in 1840, at a cost of £1000, 
and is attended by about 270 children. The house in which Bishop Hall 
resided at the time of the rebclHon, is in Heigham. It is now the Dolphin 



SUBURBAN HAMLETS. 



243 



Inn, and is a XDictiu'esque building of Elizabethan arcliitecture, containing 
mucb to interest the antiquary. In 1861, an ancient lead coffin, containing 
the remains of a female skeleton, was discovered about four feet below the 
surface in a chalk pit at Stoneliills, in Heighani. It was perfectly plain, 
and appeared to have been formerly enclosed in an outer case of wood, and 
was probably of the Roman period. Near it were found two fine bronze 
torque rings of a twisted pattern, encrusted with a fine green patina, and 
evidently of early Saxon workmanship. — Hellesden is a small and pretty 
village on an eminence, 2 miles N.W. of the city, but its parish is partly 
in Taverham Hundred. It adjoins the river, which is here crossed by a 
cast-u'on bridge, erected by the Corporation of Norwich in 1819. The 
common was enclosed in 1811. The Bishop is lord of the manor, and 
owner of a great part of the soil. — Lakenham includes a populous modem 
suburb of the city, and extends from St. Stephen's and Ber street gates, 
nearly two miles southward to Harford Bridges, on the river Yare, so 
called from the family who built them in the reign of King John. The 
road leading to these bridges was formerly very steep, but the descent 
was much reduced by cutting through the hiU in 1804. — Pocethokpe 
hamlet is in St. James's parish, and adjoins the north-east side of the 
city wall, including several streets of humble dwellings and the Horse 
Barracks. The Dean and Chapter are lords of the manor. — Thorpe 
hamlet lies on the south-east side of the city, opposite Bisho]) bridge and 
Foundry bridge, and contains many handsome villas, the Rosary Cemetery, 
&c. It extends to Mousehold Heath, and was formerly a part of the adja- 
cent parish of Thorpe. — Trowse-Millgate, CarPvOw, and Bracondale ex- 
tend southward from King street gate to the river Yare, opposite Trowse- 
Neivton (see Henstead Hundred.) They form one township or hamlet, 
though each division had anciently parochial chapels, and there was a 
Nunnery at Carrow. The inhabitants use the Churches of St. Mark Laken- 
ham and St. John Sepulchre, though they belong ecclesiastically to Trowse- 
Newton parish. A great part of the soil belongs to ISIiss Martineau, of 
Bracondale Lodge, a handsome mansion, with deKghtful pleasure grounds, 
which owe most of their beauties to the late Phihp Meadows Martineau, Esq., 
who collected here many remnants of Gothic architecture, in 1804 and '5, 
and used them in the erection of a lofty arch, and an edifice representing a 
small ^nory, with windows of stained glass. At Trowse-Millgate is a large 
water mill and an Independent chapel. 



LIST OF STREETS, &c., IN NORWICH, 

WITH EEFEEENCES TO THEIR RESPECTIVE SITUATIONS. 



Adelaide st. Dereham rd. 
Albemarle st. Union st. 
Albert pi. St. Stephen's sq. 
Albion place, Dereham rd. 
Alderson's buildings, St. 

Catherine's plain 
Alexander rd. Earlham rd. 
All Saints' Church yard 

and green, Wastlegt. st. 
All Samts' st. All Saints' gn 
Alma square, Vauxhall st. 
Alma street, Dereham rd. 
Alma terrace, Bishopgt. st 
Almshouse lane, Middle 

street, St. George's 

Arundel pi. Dereham rd. 

Asjlum rd. Hingham rd. 



Back Cross st. Cross st. 
Back Inns, White Lion st. 
Back of Walls, St. Augus- 

tines's gate 
Badding's lane, Palace st. 
Baker's rd. St. Augus.'s gt. 
Baker's row. World's end In 
Baldwin's bdgs.Derem. rd 
Bank plain, London st. 
Bank street, Bank plain 
Barn rd., St. Benedict's gt 
Barrack loke, Barrack st. 
Barrack st. St. James' st. 
Bartholomew st. Thorn In. 
Baxter's gdns, Lr. King st 
Bedford st. Post office st. 
Bedford st. Unthanka rd. 



Belvoir street, Earlham rd. 
Ber street, Timber hill 
Ber street gate, Ber street 
Bethel st. St. Peter's sfc. 
Bethel st. open, Bethel st. 
Bett's bldgs. Distillery st. 
Bishop bridge,Bisbopgt. st 
Bishopgate st.Taberncle rd 
Blackfriars bridge. Bridge 

street, St. Andrew 
Blazeby's bdgs. Prospect sq 
Blod's court, Broad street, 

St. Andrew 
Bloomsbuiy pi. Rose lane 
Bloomsbury pl.Dereham rd 
Boarded entry, Ber street 
Botolph st. Magdalen st. 
q2 



244 



STREETS IN NORWICH. 



Bracondale, beyond Ber 

street gate 
Bracondale ter.Braconaale 
Brazen doors, Eodney st. 
Brazen doors rd. Brazen dr 
Brewery lane, Brazen drs. 
Brickwood's bnildings, 

World's end lane 
Bridewell alley, Bedford st 
Bridge street, St. Andrew's 

Broad street 
Bridge street, St. George 

Blackfriars 
Bridge st. St. Lawrence 
Bridge street, St. Miles' 
Briggs' In. Lr. King st. 
Briggs st. Old Haymarket 
Broad street St. Andrew's, 

Post Office street 
Broad street Saint Giles, 

Market place 
Brompton pi. Heigham rd 
Brownfield's court, Mag- 
dalen street 
Brown's bgs. St. Faith's In 
Brunswick rd. Newmkt. rd 
Buffcoat In. Golden Ball st 
Bull Close, Cowgate street 
Bull lane, St. Stephen's st 
Burfield pi. Heigham road 
Butter Hills, Carrow bdg. 
Cadogan place, Bedford 

street, Unthank's road ?; 
Caledonian ter. Derehm rd 
Calvert st. Colegate street 
Cambrian pi. Heigham rd. 
Carlisle terrace, Rupert st. 
Carrow hill, Richmnd. hill 
Carrow, King street gate 
Castle ditches. Cattle mkt. 
Castle meadow, Cattle mkt 
Castle street, London st. 
Cattermoul's In. London st 
Cattle market. Castle hill 
Catton rd. St. Augustine gt 
Chalk farm, Aylsbam road 
Chalk hill, Hellesden road 
Chantry, Theatre street 
Chapelfield, Theatre street 
Chapelfield grove, Cbplfid. 
Chapelfield rd. St. Stph. gt 
Chapel lane and loke, Ber st 
Chapel street, Lakenham 
Chapel street, Crook's pi. 
Charing cross. Broad st., 

St. Andrew's 
Charles street, Dereham rd 
Chatham pi. Chapelfield rd 
Chequers' passage. Saint 
George's Middle street 
Cherry lane, Middle street 
Cherry st. Lknm. Hall rd. 
Church path, Southwell rd 



Church street, New Catton 
Church street, St. Miles 
Church street, St. Julian's 
Church walk, St. Michael's 
City road, Dereham road 
City road, Ber street gate 
Clifton cottages, Suffolk st 
Close, Tombland 
Coach and Horses road, 

Union street 
Coboorg st. Stephen's gt. 
Cockey lane, Lr. Kingst. 
Coldstream ter. Bedford st 
Coleby pi. Lr. Westwick st 
Colegate street, Bridge 

street, St. George's 
Compass st. Mariners' In. 
Cooke's In. Upr. King st. 
Coram plain, Church st. 

New Catton 
Coslanv street. Bridge st. 

St. Miles' 
Cove terrace, Rupert street 
Cow hill, St. Giles' street 
Cowgate St. Magdalen st. 
Cremorne bigs. Vauxhallst 
Cremorne pi. Vauxhall st. 
Crescent, Chapelfield road 
Crick's bldgs. Fishgate st. 
Crook's pi. Chapelfield rd. 
Cross lane, Middle street 
Cross street, Unthank's rd 
Curtis's buildings. West 

Pottergate street 
Daplyn's buildings, West 

Pottergate street 
Davey pi. Gentleman's wk 
Dajle's lane. Charing cross 
Denmark st. Kimberley st 
Dereham rd.St.Beneds. gt 
Devonshire pi. Holt's In. 
Distillery st. Dereham rd. 
Dix's buildings, Coslany st 
Douro ter. Heigham grove 
Dove street, Market place 
Duck lane, Pottergate st. 
Duke's palace, Charing cr. 
Duke st. Duka's pal. bdgs. 
Duko terrace, Kimberley st 
Eagle lane, Newmarket rd. 
Eagle ter. Newmarket rd. 
Earlham road, Heigham 
Eldon row, Chapelfield rd. 
Elm hill, St. Andrew's pin. 
Elm ter. New Catton road 
Essex street. Union place 
Eva cottages. New Catton r 
Exchange st. Marketplace 
Field sq. St. Stephen's gate 
Finket st. St. Cath.'s plain 
Fish market. Market place 
Fishgate st. Magdalen st. 
Fisher's Id. St. Giles's st. 



Foundry bridge. Rose lane 
Fountain square. Union pl 
Friar's In. Upper King st. 
Fuller's hole, Coslany st. 
Fye bridge, Wensum st. 
Fyebrdg. quay,Wensum st 
Gaol hill, Market place 
Garden street. Union lane 
Gas house hill, Bishop's 

bridge 

Gentleman's walk, Market 

place & Old Haymarket 

Gildencroft In. & row, St. 

Augustine's Church row 

Gildengate st. St. George's 

Bridge street 
Globe lane, Rising Sun In. 
Globe street, Vauxhall st. 
Globe street, Heigham rd. 
Gloucester pl.St.Cath's pin 
Goat lane, Pottergate street 
Golden Ball st. Cattle mkt 
Golden Dog In. Calvert st. 
Golding St. Dereham road 
Green hl.St.Augustine's gt 
Green lane, Middle street 
Greyfriars' priory. Upper 

King street 
Grove pl. Brazen doors rd. 
Grove place, St. Giles' rd. 
Grove place, Grove road 
Grove rd. St. Stephen's rd. 
Grove ter. Unthank's road 
Gun lane. Old Haymarket 
Half-mile lane, Eaton road 
Hall road, New Lakenham 
Hampden pl. Dereham rd. 
Hamlet place, St. Giles' hi. 
Hanover place, Earlham rd 
Harford hill, Ipswich road 
Haw's place. Hall road 
Hawthorn rw. West end st. 
Haymarket, Cattle market 
Haymarket (Old), Mktpl. 
Heigham street and gate. 
Lower Westwick street 
Heigham causeway, H. st. 
Heigham hill & grove, St. 

Giles' gate 
Heigham rd. St. Giles' rd. 
Heigham terrace & place, 

Dereham road 
Herring's row. West Pot- 
tergate street 
High street. Union street 
Hole-in-the-Wall In. Bed- 
ford street, St Andrew's 
Holkbam st. Castle ditches 
Holl's lane, Dereham road 
Holly ter. Unthank's road 
Horn's lane, Ber street 
Horse fair, St. Faith's In. 
Horseman sq. Timberhill 



i 



STREETS IN NORWICH. 



245 



Hc^vard st. Brazen doors rd j 
Imperial Arms yd. King st. 
Infirmary road , St. Angus- ' 
tine's gate I 

Inkerman ter. Bisliopgt. st j 
Ipswich rd. St. Stephen's gt j 
Ivory square, Scoles green 
Jay's sq. & ter. Rose lane 
Jenkin's lane, Oak street 
John street, Rose lane 
John street, Dereham road 
John street, Union place 
John Bull street, Union st. 
Jubilee place, Heigham rd 
Jubilee st. Chapelfieldroad 
Julian pi. Chapelfield rd. 
Julian st. Chapelfield rd. 
Kensington place, Saint 

Catherine's plain 
Kensington build gs. Ken- 
sington place 
Kent place,'Vanxhall street 
Keyzor's place, Holl's lane 
Keyzor's ter. Unthank's rd 
Kimberley st Unthank's rd 
King street, Tombland 
King'sHeadln.Gildengt.st 
King St. Crook's pi. N.C. 
King street gates. King st. 
Lady's lane, Bethel street 
Lady's row,St. Stephen's gt 
Lakenham hall road and 
place, Catherine's plain 
Lakenham (New) Ber st. gt 
Lakenham terrace. City rd 
Lame Dog rd.Brazen doors 
Langham pi. Dereham rd. 
Laurence st. W. Pottergt.st 
Leicester pi. Vauxhall st. 
Leyton'srow, Trafalgar st. 
Life's green, East end of 

Cathedral 
Limekiln hill, St. Giles' rd 
Lit. London st. London st. 
Little Orford st. Briggs st. 
Lobster lane. Exchange st. 
London rd.St.Stephen's gt 
London street. Market pi. 
London ter. St. Stephen's r 
Long lane, Charing cross 
LoHg walk, Bethel street 
Lothian street, Barn road 
Lower square. Thorn lane 
Maddermarket, Pottergt. st 
Madon's bdgs. Dereham rd 
Magdalen gt. Magdalen st. 
Magdalen pi. Cowgate st. 
Magdalen st. Fye bridge 
Magpie road, St. Augus- 
tine's gates 
Malthouse lane, St. Ste- 
phen's street 
Manchester bdgs. Union ^1 



Mariner's lane, Ber street 
Market lane, Scoles green 
Market place, Guildhall 
Mason's bdgs. Dereham rd 
Middle row, Chapelfield rd 
Miles bridge, Bridge street 

St. Lawrence 
Mill lane, Newmarket road 
Mill hill & St. New Catton 
Mill st. Lakenham halllrd. 
Mission pi. Lower King st. 
Mt. Pleasant, Unthank's r. 
Moushold hill , Bishop brdg 
Muspole st. St. George's pin 
Nailor's in. Charing cross 
Napier's buildings, Somer- 

leyton street 
Neal's sq. Pottergate st. 
Nelson street, Dereham rd. 
Nelson terrace, Grove road 
N. Catton rd. Magdalen gts 
Newmarket road, Saint 

Stephen's gate 
Newmkt. st. Bi'unswick st. 
Newmarket ter, Newmkt. r 
New Mills, Lr. West wick st 
New Mills lane, Coslany st 
Norfolk street, Rupert st. 
Northumberlnd. pi. King st 
Northumberland st. Dere- 
ham road 
Oak street, Coslany street 
Onepost pas. St. Stephen's 
Opie street, London street 
Orford hill, White Lion st 
Orford st. (Gt.) Orford hill 
Orford st. (Little), Briggs st 
Orchard street. Rose lane 
Oxford st. Unthank's road 
Oxford st. St. Cath's. plain 
Paddock, Silver road 
Palace plain. Palace street 
Palace street, Tombland 
Paradise pi. Scole's green 
Paradise pi. Magdalen st 
Paradise row, Hall road 
Paragon bdgs. Castle mdw. 
Paragon st. St. Giles' road 
Park road, Unthank's road 
Peacock street, Fishgate st 
Peafield, Lakenham 
Philadelxjhia, Aylsham rd. 
Pigg lane. Palace street 
Pigg's buildings. Water In. 
Pitt St. St. Mary's church 
Pockthorpe, St. James' st. 
Portland place, Dereham 
road & Heigham terrace 
Portland pi . Vauxhall et. 
Portland place & Portland 

square. Church path 
Post Office st. Exchange st 
Pottergate st. Exchange st. 



Priest's bgs. St. Stephn's rd 
Princes street. Elm hill 
Prince of Wales rd. Castle 
mdw. to Foundry brdg. 
Prince ef Wales terrace, 

Dereham road 
Prospect place, Horn's In. 
Prospect place, Hall road 
Prospect place, Heigham rd 
Prospect pi. King st. gates 
Prospect sq. Scole's green 
Providence pi. New Catton 
Providence pi. Dereham rd 
Providence ter. Heigham r 
Padding lane. Market pi. 
Pump street. King street 
Quaker's In. St. Martin's In 
Quay side, Fye bridge 
Queen street, Bank plain 
Queen street. Crook's place 
Raglan st. Dereham road 
Rampant Horse street, 

Briggs street 
Raven's row, Trafalgar st. 
Red Lion st. Orford hill 
Redwoll st. Bank plain 
Regent street, Earlham rd. 
Regent street, Union pi. 
Richmond pi. Ber st. gate 
Richmond hill, Ber st. gt. 
Rising Sun lane, Golden 

Ball street 
Rising Sun row. Chapel 

Field road 
Rochester Buildings, Nor- 
folk street. Union place 
Rosary, Thorpe hamlet 
Rose lane, King street 
Rose Valley, Unthank's rd. 
Rosemary In. St. Mary's eh. 
Royal Hotel st. Castle st, 
Rupert street, Vauxhall st. 
Russell street, Ber street 
St. Andrew's hill,London st 
St. Andrew'splain, Broad at 
St. Andrew's st.Post offices 
St. Anne's lane, King st. 
St. Anne's staithe, Lower 

King street 
St.Augustine street, gates, 
and Church row, Pitt st. 
St. Benedict's Churchyard 
and gates, St. Benedict's 
St. Benedict's, Pottergt. st 
St. Catherine's hill, ter- 
race, & plain, Surrey rd, 
and Brazendoors road 
St. Clement's Church al- 
ley, Magdalen street 
St. Clement's hill & plain, 

New Catton 
St.Edmund's Churchyard, 
Fishgate 



246 



STEEETS IN NORWICH, 



St. Faith's lane, King st. 

and Tombland 
St. Geo.'s plain, Colegt. st 
St. George's Church yard 

and alley, Princes st. 
St. Giles' hill, St. Giles' gt 
St. Giles' st.cfc gate. Mktpl 
St. Giles' rd. St. Giles' gt. 
St. Giles' ter. Bethel st. 
St. Gregory's Church al- 
ley, Pottergate street 
St.Helen's sq. Bishopgt. st 
St. James' pal. St. Jas'. st 
St. James' st. Cowgate st. 
St. John's bldgs. Ber st. 
St. John's Maddermarket, 

Pottergate street 
St. Julian's alley, King st. 
St. Julian's st. Thorn In. 
St.Julian's ter. St Julians' s 
St. Lawrence's Church al- 
ley, St. Benedict's st. 
St. Lawrence In. Pottrgt. st 
St. Margaret's plain, St. 

Benedict's street 
St. Margaret's street, St. 

Benedict's street 
St. Margaret's Wharf, Lr. 

Westwick street 
St. Martin's lane, Pitt st. 
St. Martin's-at-Palace, 

Palace street 
St. Martin's- at-Oak, Cos- 

lany street 
St. Mary's plain, & Church 

alley, Coslany street 
St.Michael's Coslany, Cos- 
lany street 
St. Michael-at-PIea, Red- 
well street 
St. Miles' bridge, Lower 

Westwick street 
St. Paul's Back street, Pea- 
cock street 
St. Paul's street, plain, and 
Church alley. Peacock st 
St. Peter's Church yard, 

Lower King street 
St. Peter's st. Gaol hill 
St. Peter's Southgate lane, 

Lower King street 

St. Saviour's Church yard 

and alley, Magdalen st. 

St.Saviour's la.Magdln.et 

St. Simon's Church street, 

Elm hill 
St. Stephen's Church al- 
ley, Rampant Horse st. 
St. Stephen's sij. Chapel 

field road 
St. Stephen's street, gate, 
road, and plain, Ram- 
pant Horse street 



St. Swithin's Church alley 
and In. St. Benedict's st. 
Sandling's ferry, Lr. close 
Sayer's bldgs. Lr.Heigham 
Scoles green, RisingSun In 
Seymour place, St. Ste- 
phen's square 
Sherborne pi. Mariners' In 
Shrubland ter. Heigham 
Silver road, Barrack street 
Sixteen row. Church j)ath 
Somerley ton street and ter- 
race, Unthank's road 
Somerset bldgs. Union pi. 
Somerset place, Holl's In. 
Somerton st. Unthank rd. 
Sotheron's bldgs. Lady's In 
Southwell rd. Brazen doors 
Southgate street, Duke st. 
Southgate lane, King st. 
Spittlefields, Thorpe hmlt. 
Stafford terrace. Church 

street, New Catton 
Stafford st. Heigham road 
Starling place, Coboarg st. 
Stepping lane, Scoles gn. 
Stone hills, Dereham rd. 
Stump cross, Magdalen st. 
Saffolk street, Rupert st. 
Surrey grove, Surrey road 
Surrey pi. Brazen doors rd 
Surrey mews,Up. Sarrey st 
Surrey road, Surrey street 
Surrey st. St. Stephen's 
Sarrey terrace, Grove rd. 
Sussex st. St. Augustine st 
Swan lane, London street 
Tabernacle row,SaiutMar- 

tiu's-at-Palaoe 
Tamworth terUnthanks rd 
Ten-bell la. St. Benedict st 
Theatre street. Rampant 

Horse street 
Theatre square, Theatre st. 
Thirteen row, Trafalgar st 
Thorn lane, Ber street 
Thorold's bldgs. Rose In. 
Thorpe Ham. Bishop bdg. 
Thurso place, Dereham rd. 
Timberhill, Orford hill 
Tinkler's In. Dereham rd. 
Tombland, Queen street 
Tooley street, Pitt street 
Town close, Ipswich road 
Trafalgar street. Hall rd. 
Trafalgar pi. Dereham rd. 
Trory st. Brazen doors rd 
Trowse Millgt. Bracondale 
Twenty- one row, Ch. path 
Union pi. Chapelfield rd. 
Union square. Union bt. 
Union st. Chapelfield rd. 
Union terrace, Union st. 



Unthank's rd. St.Giles' gt. 
Upper market. Market pi. 
Upper Queen st. New City 
Upper Sarrey st. Sarrey rd 
Upper walk, Market place 
Valentine st. Dereham rd. 
Vauxhall st. St. Julian's pi 
Vauxhall ter. Vauxhall st. 
Victoria place. Union st. 
Victoria st. St. Stephen's rd 
Waddington st.West end st 
Waddington ter. Church 

street, St. Julian's 
Wagon & Horses In.Elm hi 
Wales' buildings. Saint 

Augustine gate 
Walnut tree pl.Heighamrd 
Wastlegate st. St. Stephen's 
Water lane, Fishgate st 
Water lane, St. George's 

bridge street 
Water lane, St. James', 
St. Martin's, & King st. 
Waterloo, New Catton rd 
Watsoa's bldgs. Distily. st 
Wayland ter. Prospect sq. 
Weaver's lane, Market pi. 
Wellington In. Pottergate 
Wellington pl.Wellngtn. st 
Wellington ter. Grove rd. 
Wellington ter. Vauxhall st 
Wensum street, Tombland 
West end pi. Brazen doors 
West end pi. Chapelfield rd 
West end place, Grove rd 
West end street, Hollis In. 
West end ter. Grapes' hill 
West Parade, Earlham rd. 
West Wymer st.Distillery s 
West Pottergate street, St. 

Giles' hill 
Westbourne ter. Unthk's. r 
Westwick street (Lower), 

Charing cross 
Whitefriars' bridge and st. 

St. Martin's-at-Palace 
White Lion In. St.Martm's 

at -Palace 
White Lionst.Gent's. walk 
Wigg's bldgs. Distillery st 
Wilde's bl(i!gs. Scoles' gn. 
Willow lane, St. Giles' 
William street, Grapes hill 
William street, John's st. 

Rose lane 
Windsor place, Hall road 
Windsor terrace. Grove rd. 
World's end lane, Saint 

Martin's-at-Palace 
Wright's buildings. West 

Pottergate street 
York place, Chapelfield rd 
Youell's bldgs. Hall road 



The following ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY of the Cityaxd Couktt of the 
City of Nortvich contains the Addresses of all the Inhabitants, except Journey- 
men and Labourers, arranged in the order of Surnajies; and is followed by an- 
other arrangement. Classified under the Heads of Trades and Professions; after 
which will be found the Post Office Regulations, the Public Conveyances, &c. 

The CONTRACTIONS used are such as it is hoped will be readily understood : 
those most frequently used are the usual abbreviations of Christian names ; and 
bdg. for bridge ; bldgs. buildings'; ct. court ; gt. gate ; h. or hs. house ; In. lane; 
rd. road ; st. street ; sq. square ; H. Heigham ; N. L. New Lakenham ; and 
C. pl. for Crook's place. 

The FIRMS to which Partners belong, are shewn in parentheses, with the residence 
of each Partner. Where no occupation is stated, the parties are generally in the 
employ of others, as clerks, salesmen, d'c. 



Abbott William, gardener, Albert place 
Abbs John, vict. Cross Keys, Magdalen st 
Abel Cain, saddler. Golden Ball street 
Abel Daniel, cabinet maker and uphol- 
sterer, Bedford street ; h Oxford street 
Abel Fanny, school. Paragon street 
Abel Fredk. brnshmaker, Unthank's rd 
Abel George, broker, Fountain place 
Abel John, horse dealer and victualler. 

Rising Sun, Chapelfield road 
Abel John, horse dealer, Eariham road 
Abigail John, baker, Muspole street 
Abigail Wm., Workhouse schoolmaster 
Abraham Benj. watchmaker, Bethel st 
Absolon Ed. Manby, grocer, Wensum st 
Adams Miss E., Seymour place 
Adams John, beerhouse, St. Geo.'s plain 
Adams Mrs Sarah, Eariham road 
Adams Wm. beerhouse, Cowgate street 
Adcock James Clarke, agent. Bethel st 
Adcock Robert, Eariham road 
Adcock Tabitha, pork dlr. St. Benedc. st 
Addison Benj. wheelwright, Magdalen st 
Adkin William, plasterer, Trory street 
Aggass Capt. James, St. Benedict's st 
Aikin Francis, tea dealer. Distillery st 
Alcock Mr Trivett, Chapelfield road 
Alden Edward, baker. Oak street 
Alden Hy. Wm. lay-clerk, Gashouse hill 
Alden James, last maker, Ber street 
Alden Robt., tinner, St. Stephen's plain 
Alden Wm. Marshall, school, Lothian st 
Alderman Hy. polisher. Swan yd. Ber st 
Alderson Wm. Henry, bricklayer, St, 

Andrew's hill 
Alderton Wm. trimming mfr. Swan lane 
Aldis Jane, stay maker, Princes street 
Aldis John, clerk, Newmarket road 
Aldous Charles, Trowse station master 
Aldous James, grocer, &:c., Trafalgar st 
Aldous John, shoemaker, Church path 
Aldous John Fuller, builder and timber 

merchant, St. Stephen's street 
Aldous John Tungate, baker and vict., 

Windham Arms, Grove place, N. L, 
Aldred Mrs Sarah, Lawrence street 



Aldred P., postman. Church street 
Aldrich John, grocer. West Pottergate st 
Aldrich, Rev Pelham Stanhope, B.C.L., 
curate of St. Peter's, Southgate, Bra- 
zen doors road 
Aldridge Sus. shopkeeper. Church path 
Aldus Susan, shoemaker, St. Benedict st 
Alexander Mr Frederick, Heigham road 
Alexander Henry, baker, Heigham st 
Alexander Rev John {Indpt.) Gildengt. st 
Alexander Thos. stay mfr. 68 St. Stph. st 
Alger John Goldsworth, Trory street 
Allcock George, shoemaker, Adelaide st 
Allen Bryant, dyer, Scoles green 
Allen Bryant, jun., Nelson street 
Allen Francis, gardener, Dereham road 
Allen George, elastic web and cloth]manu- 

facturer, St. Stephen's street 
Allen & Goffin, shoemakers, 14 Briggs st 
Allen John & Son (WiUiam), gardeners, 

Newmarket road 
Allen John Boufield, jeweller, silver- 
smith, &3., 45 London street 
Allen Joseph, surgeon, Tombland 
Allen Joseph H., manufacturer, (Fowler 

and Co.) ; h Sprowston Lodge 
Allen Marianne, shoemr. ; h 14 Briggs st 
Allen Mr Park, Cross street 
Alien Robert, gardener, &c., Surrey rd 
Allen Thomas, clerk, Duke street 
Allen Wm. mason, St. Stephen's Back st 
Allen Wm. hairdresser, Magdalen street 
Allen Mr Wm. Parke, 4 Bedford Cross st 
Allison Sophia, cutler and truss maker, 

Upper walk ; house Bethel street 
AUman Geo. shoemaker, Lr. King street 
AUthorpe Enoch, gardener, Ipswich rd 
Allured Robert, tailor, Chapel st C. P. 
AUwood Thos. sub-sacrist, Lower close 
Ames Edw. felt hat mfr. Distilleiy st H. 
Ames Francis, tobacconist, Dereham rd 
Ames Mrs Mary, Hall road 
Ames Robt. victualler. Bear, Market pl 
Ames Thos. Kempis, watchmaker. West 

Wymcr street 
Amies John, vict. Hoop, St. Stephen's rd 



248 



NORWICH DIRECTORY. 



Amies John, carpenter, Hall road 
Amies John, yict. Old Lobster, Lobster In 
Amiss Robert, sliopkeeper, Cowgate st 
Amiss Stephen, hair dresser, Oak street 
Ampleford Joseph, last maker, Church 

alley, St. Benedict 
Anderson Chas. artist, St. Benedict road 
Anderson Clement, victualler, Rose, St. 

Stephen's street 
Anderson Jph. baker, Howard st N. L. 
Andrew Mr Samuel, Nelson street 
Andrews Mrs Ann, Lame dog road 
Andrews Mr Bernard, Upper King street 
Andrews Brothers (Thos. Wm. & Geo.), 
chemists and druggists, Colegate st 
Andrews George ; h Golden dog lane 
Andrews Chas. fishmngr. St. Bendct. st 
Andrews and Gardiner, upholsterers &c., 

Chapelfield road 
Andrews James, victualler, Swan-with- 

Two-Necks, Upper walk 
Andrews John, corn miller. New Catton 
Andrews Richd. wire worker, Coslany st 
Andrews Thog. shopkeeper, St. Faith's In 
Andrews Wm. horsebreaker, Wastlegt. st 
Andrews Wm. soap maker and tal. chand- 
ler, Fishgate street ; h Magdalen st 
Andrews Wm. (Andrews & Gardiner) '■> 

house Bethel street 
Angell Mark, farmer, LakenJiam 
Annison Robert, shopkeeper. Globe st 
AnnisonWm. fishmonger, St. Benedct. In 
Answorth Wm. Squires (Middleton & A.); 

house London 
Anthony Wm. spirit merchant and vict. 

Bee Hive, 12 St. Peter's street 
Applegate James, timber dealer. Potter- 
gate street ; h Lower Westwick street 
Appleton Cphr. beerhouse, St. James st 
Appleton John & William, fish cnrers, 

Gildengate street 
Archer Mrs Elizabeth, Charles street, H. 
Archer Henry, broker, Ber street 
Archer James, butcher, Pitt street 
Armes Daniel, brickmaker, Earlham ; h 

Dereham road 
Armes John Jas. hair dsr. 4 St. Giles' st 
Armes Robert, currier (Sidney and A.) ; 

h West Pottergate street 
Armes Sar. vict. Cow & Hare, Heigham st 
Armes Timothy, farmer. Up. Hellesden 
Armstrong Henry, draper, &c., St. An- 
drew's street ; h 3 St. Clement's ter 
Armstrong Mary, tea dealer, Chas. st H. 
Arnes Mrs Mary Ann, Hall road 
Arnold Mr Alfred Robt. ; h St. Giles' rd 
Arnold Edward, chemist, Orford hill 
Arnold Geo. brewer ; h St. Margts. plain 
Arnold & Wyatt, brewers and wine and 
spirit merchants, St. Margaret's plain 
Arnold Miss Maria, Cow hill 
Artherton Thos. shopkeeper, Magdalen st 
Arthur W. vict. Engineer's Tav. Julian st 



Artis Francis, baker, Distillery street, H. 
Ashby Mr Joseph, Southwell road, N.L. 
Ashen Robt. brazier, St. Stephen's street 
Ashley John, shopkeeper, Thorn lane 
Asker Anne, vict. Swan Hotel, St. Ptr. st 
Asker Geo. Henry, glove mfr. hosier, 

perfumer, &c., 20 The Walk 
Asker Samuel Hurry, solicitor, St. Giles' 

street; h The Grove, Chapelfield 
Athow Edw. wine & spirit mer. Castle st 
Atkins Eliz. clothes dlr. Lr. Westwick st 
Atkins Henry, tailor and vict. Free Trade 

Tavern, St. Augustine's street 
Atkins Matthew, baker, St. Benedict st 
Atkins Richd. builder and mfr. of school 

fittings, Chapelfield ; h Bethel street 
Atkins Thos. beerhouse, Heigham street 
Atkin William Townshend, Heigham st 
Atkinson Joseph Goldsmith, solicitor 

and insurance agent, Post 0£&ce st 
Atkinson Mr Robert, 11 Surrey terrace 
Atthill Henry, deputy chief constable of 

Norfolk, Castle meadow 
Augood Hy. fishmonger. Rising Sun In 
Austin Peter, shopkeeper, Ber street 
Austrin Ann, draper, Orford hill 
Avey Thomas, grocer, Ber street 
Aylmer John, victualler. Black Horse, 

Wensum street 
Ayris John, C.E. manager of the Water- 
works, 6 London terrace 
Ay ton John, baker, St. Augustine st 
Ayton Wm. piano tuner, Botolph st 
Back Alfred, agent, Earlham road 
Back Miss Ellen, Earlham road 
Back George, hosier ; h Dereham road 
Back John Alfred, Esq., Thorpe hamlet 
Back Philip & Co. wine & spirit merts. 

tea & coffee dlrs. &c. 3 Haymarket 
Bacon Mrs Jessie, 6 York place 
Bacon Josiah Newbegin, rope, twine, 
net, sacking, &c., manufacturer, 3 
Davey place ; h Heigham road 
Bacon Nathaniel, turnkey. City Gaol 
Bacon Richard Noverre, printer, book- 
seller, and pubr. of the Norwich Mer- 
cury, 12 London st ; h Newmarket rd 
Bacon Mr Robert, Gildengate street 
Bacon Robert, baker, Brunswick road 
Bacon Thomas, Rampant Horse street 
Bagley Wm. Mayes, William street, H. 
Bagshaw George, rag merchant, poul- 
terer, &c., Coslany st ; h Pockthorpe 
Bagshaw Jph. fishmgr. St Stephen's st 
Bailey Anthony, cashier, Brunswick rd 
Bailey Elijah Crosier, solicitor, and clerk 
to guardians, magistrates, and tax 
commissrs. Surrey st ; h Stephen's rd 
Bailey John, shoe manufr. Oxford street 
Bailey Mansfield John, Oxford street 
Bailey Miss Rachel Mary, Lit. Orford st 
Bailey Robert, vict. Lamb, Haymarket 
Bailey Thos. builder, West Pottergate st 



NORWICH DIRECTORY. 



249 



Bailey Wm. St. Faith's lane 

Bailey Wm. Edw. carpenter, Lawrence st 

Bailey Wm. builder, (Browne & B.) ; h 

Distillery street, Heigham 
Bain Mr. Wm. Southwell road, N. L. 
Baker George, nail manufacturer & iron 

merchant, Cow hill 
Baker Jas. vict. Bess of Bedlam, Oak st 
Baker James, postman, William st. H. 
Baker Mr John, 16 Victoria street 
Baker Mr John, Brazen doors road 
Baker John, supervisor, Essex street 
Baker John Durrani, boatbuildr. King st 
Baker Mrs Maria, Newmarket road 
Baker Martha, school. West Pottergt. st 
Baker Sarah Ann, fancy depot, Bank st 
Baker Wm. china dealer, Dereham road 
Baldry C. postman, St. Catherine's plain 
Baldry Jas. postman, St. Swithin's alley 
Baldry John, fruiterer, St. Stephen's st 
Baldry William, land surveyor, Saint 

Stephen's road 
Baldwin Rev. Chs. vicar of St.Stephen'p, 

Unthank's road 
Baldwin Henry, baker. Oak street 
Baldwin Robert, vict. William IV., King 

street, Crook's place 
Baldwin Wm. clerk, Valentine street 
Bale George, butcher, St. Benedict st 
Bales George, vict. Dove, St. James' st 
Bales John, shoemaker, Hall road 
Bales Rebecca, matron of Girls' Home, 

Upper Heigham 
Ballord Edmund, pawnbroker, & Thos. 

clerk. All Saint's green 
Balls Daniel, builder (Curtis & B.) ; h 

Unthank's road 
Balls Mrs Elizabeth, Colegate street 
Balls Edward Jph. clerk, Castle meadow 
Balls Fredk. beerhouse, Chapelfield rd 
Balls Mrs Hannah, Pitt street 
Balls James, tailor and victualler. Lord 

Raglan, Spitalfields 
Balls Mary Eliz. servants' lodgings and 

register office, Upper King street 
Balls Robert, tailor, Coslany street 
Balls Wm. vict. Norwich Port, King &t 
Balls Wm. umbrella maker, Bull close 
Banbridge Mr John, Valentine street 
BancalariDomenico, victualler, Fox and 

Hounds, Ber street 
Bane Wm. clerk, 1 St. Faith's terrace 
Banham Fras. Jas. gi'ocer, &c. Haymkt. 
Banham George, wine cooper, King st 
Banham Henry, blacksmith, Hell's lane 
Banks Wm. & Co., tailors. Bank plain ; 

house West parade 
Banning Rev. Chas. Hy. B.A. Essex st 
Barber Charles Ives, artist, Dereham rd 
Barber Mr Chas. Jas. St. Stephen's rd 
Barber Mr George, Upper Hellesden rd 
Barber George, tailor, Timberhill 
Barber Mr George, Thorpe hamlet 



Barber Henry Holt & Co. ship brokers, 

and wharfingers, Lower Westwiek 

street ; house Yarmouth 
Barber Mr John, Heigham road 
Barbur John Lee & Co. cotton winders, 

St. Martin s lane 
Barber John & Son (John Lee), corn 

marts, millers, cake manfacturers, &c. 

Lower Westwiek street and Lowestoft 
Barber Joseph, victualler, Oddfellows' 

Arms, Ber street 
Barber Mary Ann, baker, Valentine st 
Barber Misses Mary, Ann, and Rebecca, 

Sussex street 
Barber Sarah, dyer, 9 Timberhill 
Barber Wm. bricklayer. Palace plain 
Barcham Mrs Cath. Mount pleasant 
Barclay Arthur Kett, maltster. Hall road 
Bard well Miss Adeline, St. Stephen's sq 
Bard well Ann, baker, Trafalgar" street 
Bardwell Everett, solicitor, Lr. Close 
Bardwell George, clerk, Fishgate street 
Bardwell George Syder, accountant, and 

estate, loan, insurance, and shipping 

agent, St. Stephen's road 
Barker Benj. shoe manfr. (B. & Gost- 

ling) ; house Wensum street 
Barker Eliza, school, Surrey road 
Barker George, baker, Golden street 
Barker George, hosier, (Browne & B.) ; 

house Thorpe road 
Barker & Gostling. shoe mfrs.Wensum st 
Barker James, shopkeeper, Muspole st 
Barker John, victualler. Crystal Palace, 

Dereham road 
Barker Mrs Mary, 9 Chapel field 
Barker Robert, plumber, 2 Timber hill 
Barker Samuel, baker, Somerleyton st 
Barker Mrs Sarah, Magdalen street 
Barker Thomas, hotpresser, Rosemary 

lane ; h Distillery street 
Barker Wm. beerhouse, Pitt street 
Barker Wm. shoemaker, Hall road 
Barley Mrs Mary, Unthank's road 
Barlow Rd. Jeremh. gent. St. Margt. st 
Barnard Alfred Geo. commission agent 

and vict. Red Cow, Cow hill 
Barnard, Bishop, and Barnards, iron- 
mongers, 3 The Walk ; and ironfound- 

ers, engineers, &c. Coslany street 
Barnard Mrs Caroline, Upper Surrey st 
Barnard Charles, ironmonger; house 

Stoke Holy Cross 
Barnard Charles, jun. ; h Unthank's rd 
Barnard Godfrey, ironmonger ; house 

Gildengate street 
Barnard John, hay and corn dealer, and 

livery stables, Golden Ball street 
Barnard John, traveller, Dereham road 
Barnard Mrs Maria, Eaton 
Barnard Sarah, game dealer, Wensum st 
Barnard Sarah, victualler, Champion, 

Chapelfield road 



250 



NORWICH DIRECTOEY. 



Barnard Wm. police snpt. Kimberley st 
Barnard Mr William, Essex street 
Barnes Charles, printer, binder, and 

stationer, Bedford street 
Barnes Ed.Ramsbottom, baker, Tiiorn In 
Barnes Wm. shopkeeper, Trowse Millgt. 
BarnesJacob,bricklayer,We£it Pottergt. et 
Barnes James, cabinet mkr. Surrey grove 
Barnes John,ironfonnder, Church street, 

St. Miles ; h Dereham road 
Barnes John, shopkeeper. Union street 
Barnes My. vict.Woolpack, St.Geo.'s pin 
Barnes Richard, baker, Cowgate street 
Barnes Robert, shopkpr. Phoenix bldgs 
Barnes Saml. carpenter,St.Stpns.ch.alley 
Barnes Wm. carpenter, Mnspole street 
Barnes Wm. cabinet maker, Bridge st 
Barnham Miss Eliz. Newmarket road 
Barnham James Calthrop, solicitor, St. 

Stephen's road 
Barrett Abraham, victualler, King of 

Prussia, Ipswich road 
Barratt Barnabas, sculptor, 5 Redwell st 
Barrett George, guard. Paragon street 
Barrett Jas. vict. Fleckered Bull, Ber st 
Barrow Henry, grocer, 23 White Lion st 
Barrow Lieut. Jas. R.N., Brunswick rd 
Barry Thos. Denville, architect and city 
surveyor, Castle mdw ; h Thorpe Ham. 
Barwell Car. regisr. office, AlLSaint's gn 
Barwell & Sons, wine, spirit, and porter 

merchants, London street 
Barwell John & Hy. Geo. ; h Surrey st 
Barwell John. jun. ; h St. Helen's place 
Barwell & Son {see Wiseman & Co.) 
Bary-de-Mennecy Madame, Lwr. Close 
Base Samuel, postmaster, Post Office ; 

house Bixley Lodge 
Base William, bootmaker, London road 
Bassett Mr Henry, Stonehills 
Bassingthwaighte Wm. shoemkr. &Miss, 

school, St. Peter's street 
Batch Jacob, road contractor and lime 

burner, Barrack street 
Batchelder Thomas John, green grocer, 

Ber street and Princes street 
Batchelor Mr Horatio, St. Giles' terrace 
Batchelor Miss Ellen, Bracondale 
Bateman Benjamin tobacconist, 1 St. 

Stephen's street ; h 3 Douro terrace 
Bateman Fredc. M.D. Upper St. Giles' st 
Bateman Jas. Geo. Jph. & Son, wool, silk, 
& cotton &c. merchants, Gildengate st 
Bateman Miss Marianne, Gildengate st 
Bates Joshua, fishmonger, Magdalen st 
Bates Rebecca, matron, Girls' Home 
Batley Chas. timber valuer, 4 Alma ter 
Batley Hy. cbairmaker, Lr. Westwick st 
Batley Ricbd. shopr. St. Catherine's pin 
Batson Edw. corn chandler, Magdglen st 
Batson John, shopkeeper. Barrack st 
Batson Rd. vict. Sportsman, Barrack st 
Battrum Henry, farmer, LaUenham 



Battrum Sarah, vict. Cock, LaJcenham 
Baxter James, wine merchant (Boswell 

and B.) ; h Magdalen street 
Baxter John, cattle dealer, Ber street 
Baxter Maria, baker^ Brazen doors road 
Baxter Neville Plummer, firework maker, 

Brazen doors road 
Baxter Robert, livery stables, Chapel 

field; h St. Giles' road 
Bayes Robt. Kempton, tailor, Orford hill 
Bayes Wm. Ambrose, hat and cap mfr. 

Market place and Red Lion street 
Bayfield Ann & Son (Thomas Gabriel), 

ironmongers. Stump cross 
Bayfield Hy.King, baker, Northumbld. st 
Bayfield Joseph Freeman, watchmaker, 

St. Benedict street 
Bayfield Mrs My. H. regr. office, Bank st 
Bayfield Wm. Hy. agent, Gildengate st 
Bayne Alexander Dugnid, Heigham road 
Bealby Mr Robt., John st. Dereham rd 
Beales Mary, basket mfr. Wensum st 
Bean James, Somerleyton street 
Bean Mr Wm. Southwell road 
Beard Rev. Wm. Day, B.A. Newmkt. rd 
Beare Mrs Mary, Town close 
Beare Samuel Prater, tanner. Lower 

Westwick street ; h Ipswich road 
Beart Robert Hayward, Bethel street 
Beatley & Son, hatters, &c. 11 London st 
Beatley John Parker & Mrs Mary Ann ; 

h 11 London street 
Beaty Clement, painter, Tabernacle st 
Beckbam Benjamin, vict. Shoulder of 

Mutton, St. Stephen's street 
Beckham Mr Jas. Wm. Somerleyton st 
Beckbam William Edward, baker & flour 

dealer. Upper Heigham 
Bedford Mrs Charlotte, Unthank's road 
Bedford Mr Philip, Thorpe hamlet 
Beecheno Frederick Richard grocer, &c. 

38, London street 
Beeton John, vict. Wild Man, Bedford 

st ; and blacksmith. King street 
Beha, Lickert, & Beha, watchmakers & 

jewellers, St. Stephen's plain 
Beha Jacob&Matthias ; h St. Steph's. pin 
Belding Wm. wholesale grocer, cheese- 
factor, fee. Fye bridge ; h Magdalen rd 
Bell George John, vict. Lord Howe, St. 

Benedict street 
Bell John, seedsman, 10 Exchange st ; 

house Bracondale 
Bell John, blacksmith, St. Augustine st 
Bell John Crawford, surgeon. Princes st 
Bell Matthew, vict. Lock & Key, Ber st 
Bell Robert, watchmaker, 11 Davey pi 
Bellamy Wm. model schoolr. Lower close 
Bellin Benjamin, gent. Windsor terrace 
Bellman Mrs Fanny, Lower close 
Bellord Thomas, clerk, Bracondale 
Beloe Henry, silk finisher, Coslany st ; 
house Dereham road 



NOEWICH DIRECTOEY. 



251 



Belson Robert, plumber, &c. Rose lane 
Benefather Thomas, beerhouse, Oak st 
Benest Jas. Smyth, archt. & surveyor to 

Court of Guardians, Baak chambers ; 

house 8 St. Clement's terrace 
Benn Wm. traveller, Goiding street 
Bennett Mr Edwd. 5 Newmarket roai 
Bennett Henry, baker, Oiford hill 
Bennett Jabez, gardener. Infirmary road 
Bennett James, tailor, Back of the Inns ; 

house Mount Pleasant 
Bennett John, shoemaker & shopkeeper, 

Church street, St. Miles 
Bennett Mrs Maria, Paragon street 
Bennett Robert, baker, City road 
Bennett Robert, baker. West Pottergt, st 
Bennett Samuel, baker, Cowgate street 
Bennett Walter, grocer (Bream & B.) ; 

house 10 Surrey terrace, N. L. 
Bennett Wm. grocer, 6 Timberhill 
Bennett Wm. baker, Ber street 
Bensley John, Thorpe Hamlet 
Bensley Wm, shopkeeper. Union street 
Bensiy Wm. Thomas, solicitor, Upper 

close ; house Eaton 
Bensiy Mrs Harriet, Eaton 
Berbeck Mrs Mary, Mount Pleasant 
Bernasconi Paul, hardware & jewellery 

dealer. White Lion street 
Berry George John, baker, Ber street 
Berry Josiah Bush, crier, Pottergate st 
Berry Richard, elastic glove cloth mfr. 

St. Paul's Back lane 
Berry Swithin, smith, St. Andrew's st 
Berry Mr Wm. Mills, Cowgate street 
Bertram John, warder, Castle 
Betts Charles Abednego, vict. Lord John 

Russell, Dereham road 
Betts David, clerk, Unthank's road 
Betts Henry, grocer, 10 Timberhill 
Betts James, wheelwright, Vauxhall st 
Betts James George, vict. Swan-with- 

two-Necks, St. Stephen's street 
Betts John, Esq. Mile-end lane 
Betts Mr John, West Pottergate street 
Betts John, fishmonger, Magdalen st 
Betts John Saml. baker & vict. Bakers' 

Arms, Coslany street 
Betts Osborn, pill box maker, Waterloo 
Betts Thomas, victualler, French Horn, 

Bedford street, St. Andrew 
Betts Thomas, vict. Anchor, Surrey st 
Bexfield James, cabinet maker 8c shop- 
keeper. Rising Sun lane 
Bexfield, Richard